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Acanthaceae

Including Avicenniaceae

Acanthus L.

Photos 
  1. Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl, Symb. 2 (1791) 75; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 479. Andaman Isls to Indochina, Malesia and Palau Isls. LUZON: Quezon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, MINDANAO. Along tidal streams, inland borders of mangroves within the influence of salt or brackish water. Photos
  2. Acanthus ilicifolius L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 639; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 441; EPFP 3 (1923) 480. Photos
  3. Acanthus doloarius Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 487; --Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 636 (US, illustrative specimen), Luzon: Manila, Oct-1913. Tropical Africa and Asia to Polynesia. LUZON: La Union, Pampanga, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal. Brackish swamps and tidal streams.
  4. Acanthus volubilis Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 2 (1831) 56; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 480. India through Malesia to tropical Australia. MINDORO, SIBUYAN, PANAY, BASILAN. Brackish swamps and tidal streams.

Andrographis Wall. ex Nees

Photos 
  1. Andrographis paniculata Nees in Wall. Pl. As. Rar. 3 (1832) 116. Photos

Asystasia Blume

Photos 
  1. Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson in Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (1860) 235; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 480. Tropical Africa, Asia, Peninsular Malaysia. Photos
  2. Asystasia intrusa Blume. Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 14 (1826) 796. Malaya. Photos

Avicennia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser 5 September 2017

Photos
  1. Avicennia alba Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 821; --Kochummen, Tree Fl. Malaya 3 (1978) 299; --Avicennia marina var. alba (Blume) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 3 (1921) 103; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 407; --Aragones et al., Bot. Identif. Handbook Philip. Mangroves (1998) 104; --Primavera et al. (2004) 22. India to SE Asia, across Malesia to Polynesia. MINDANAO: Misamis, Lanao, Cotabato, Surigao del Norte. Fairly common along muddy seashores and embankments of river deltas. Photos
  2. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh., Denkschr. Akad. Wissensch. Wien 71 (1907) 435; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 407; --Kochummen, Tree Fl. Malaya 3 (1978) 300; --Aragones et al., Bot. Identif. Handbook Philip. Mangroves (1998) 107; --Primavera et al. (2004) 24; --Sceura marina Forrsk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. (1775) 37. --Avicennia mindanaense Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2868; --Type: Elmer 11990 in part (G, CAL, E, L, W, US, holo), Mindanao. --Avicennia eucalyptifolia (Valeton) Zipp. ex Moldenke, Phytologia 7 (1960) 162; Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1858-59) 912; --Aragones et al., Bot. Identif. Handbook Philip. Mangroves (1998) 107; --Fernando & Pancho, Sylvatrop Philip. For. Res. J. 5(3) (1980) xxx; --Avicennia var. eucalyptifolia (Valeton) J.Everett, Telopea 5 (1994) 629; --Avicennia officinalis var. eucalyptifolia Valeton, Bull. Dép. Agric. Indes Néerl. 10 (1907) 53. --Avicennia marina (Forrsk.) Vierh. var. resinifera (G.Forst.) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 3 (1921) 104; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 407; --Avicennia resinifera G.Forst., Pl. Esculent. (1786) 72. Africa, Madagascar to India, across Malesia to tropical Australia and Polynesia. Throughout the Philippines. Along muddy seashores and tidal streams. Rather common. Photos
  3. Avicennia officinalis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 110; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 408; --Kochummen, Tree Fl. Malaya 3 (1978) 300; --Aragones et al., Bot. Identif. Handbook Philip. Mangroves (1998) 110; --Primavera et al. (2004) 26. Iran, India to S China, Taiwan, across Malesia to New Guinea. Throughout the Philippines. In the more inland part of mangroves along riverbanks on firm mud. Becoming rarer on the seaward side. Photos
  4. Avicennia rumphiana Hallier f., Meded. Rijks-Herb. 37 (1918) 89; --Primavera et al. (2004) 28; --Avicennia rumphiana var. rumphiana (Hallier f.) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 3 (1921) 104; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 407; --Fernando & Pancho, Sylvatrop Philip. For. Res. J. 5(3) (1980) 43; --Aragones et al., Bot. Identif. Handbook Philip. Mangroves (1998) 110. --Avicennia nitida auct. non Jacq.; --Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 504. --Avicennia officinalis Schauer in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 700; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 122; Fl. Manila (1912) 397. --Avicennia tomentosa auct. non Jacq.; --Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 353; Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1878) 289. --Avicennia lanata Ridl., J. Fed. Malay States Mus. 10 (1920 151; --Type: from Singapore and Malay Peninsula. Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo, Philippines, Moluccas Lesser Sunda Isls, Borneo, Philippines, Talaud, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Ternate; Ambon), New Guinea. Throughout the Philippines. Common along muddy seashores and mangrove tidal streams. Photos

Barleria L. [Not native]

Photos 
  1. Barleria cristata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 636; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 437; EPFP 3 (1923) 479. India, China (native), and Peninsular Malaysia (introduced and cultivated). Rather widely cultivated in the Philippines for ornamental purposes but not known to produce seeds. Photos.
  2. Barleria prionitis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 636; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 437; EPFP 3 (1923) 479. Tropical Africa, Asia and Malasia. An introduced plant in the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna), MINDORO, CUYO. Thickets and waste places in and about towns at low elevation. Photos

Beloperone auct. mal. non Nees = Justicia
 [= Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f..) Lindau???]

Blechum P.Browne [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 October 2017

Photos 
  1. Blechum pyramidatum (Lam.) Urb., Fedde Repert. 15 (1918) 323; --Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 651; --Barleria pyramidata Lam., Encycl. 1 (1785) 380. --Blechum brownei Juss., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 9 (1807) 270; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 444; EPFP 3 (1923) 471. Native of the neotropics, now naturalized in S Taiwan, the Philippines, Marianas and Carolines. BATANES, LUZON (Cagayan to Sorsogon), POLILLO, MINDORO, NEGROS, CEBU, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Misamis, Lanao. Waste places, open thickets, on and about old walls, etc., in and about towns at low elevation. Usually common. Photos

Calophanoides Ridl.

[Also considered a synonym of Justicia L.]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 June 2012

No Photos
  1. Calophanoides loheri (C.B.Clarke) Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 45 (1948) 58; --Justicia loheri C.B.Clarke, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 91; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 489. LUZON: Benguet, Pangasinan, Cagayan, Bulacan, Rizal, Quezon, Camarines, PANAY, SAMAR. Damp shaded ravines along small streams at low and medium elevation, also in mossy forests up to 2000m.
  2. Calophanoides pubescens Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 19. LUZON.

Crossandra Salisb. [Not native]

Photos

Dicliptera Juss.

Photos
  1. Dicliptera clarkei Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1689; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 486; --Type: Elmer 21585 (BISH, F, GH, MO, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, Feb-1911. --Peristrophe orbiculata Merr., ined.; --Voucher: Merrill Phil. Pl. 1377 (NY), Palawan. PALAWAN. Forested ridges and along trails through primary forests up to 800m.
  2. Dicliptera contorta (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 355; EPFP 3 (1923) 486; --Ruellia contorta Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 496; --Type: None extant; Merrill Species Blancoanae 802 (US, illustrative specimen may be designated as neotype), Luzon: Batangas prov., Bauan, Feb-1915. LUZON: Pangasinan, Zambales, Bulacan, Batangas, GUIMARAS, SIQUIJOR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Lowland thickets.
  3. Dicliptera leonotis Dalz. ex C.B.Clarke in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4 (1885) 553; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 435; EPFP 3 (1923) 486. India, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Rizal. Lowland thickets, ascending to 1200m in Mountain Province.

Dipteracanthus Nees = Ruellia

Elytraria Michx. [Not native]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 July 2017

Photos 
  1. Elytraria imbricata (Vahl) Pers., Syn. 1 (1805) 23; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 468; --Justicia imbricata Vahl, Eclog. Amer. 1 (1797) 1. --Elytraria amara Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 8; --Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 362 (US, illustrative specimen), Luzon: Manila, Dec-1915. --Elytraria tridentata Vahl, Enum. 1 (1804) 107; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 435. Native of tropical America. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Pampanga, Rizal, Cavite, Batangas, Camarines. In and about towns at low elevation, in open waste places, dry thickets, etc. Photos

Fittonia Coem. [Not native]

Photos

Gendarussa Nees = Justicia

Goldfussia Nees = Strobilanthes

Graptophyllum Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 October 2017

Photos
  1. Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff., Notul. 4 (1854) 139; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 439; EPFP 3 (1923) 481; --Justicia picta L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 21. Old World tropics, introduced in the neotropics. Note by L.L.Co: Apparently introduced in the Philippines where two forms occur, one with dark purple leaves, and one with green leaves blotched with white. Neither is known to produce seeds. Photos

Gymnostachyum Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos 
  1. Gymnostachyum affine Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 94; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 480; --Type: Cuming 1719, Samar.
  2. Gymnostachyum cumingianum Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 94; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 481; --Type: Cuming 589. LUZON: Laguna. Lowland forests up to 300m. Note by L.L.Co: apparently very rare and local.
  3. Gymnostachyum longispicatum Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 314; EPFP 3 (1923) 481; --Type: BS 34999 Ramos & Pascasio (US, iso), Siargao, Jun-1918. SIARGAO. Lowland thickets or forests.
  4. Gymnostachyum palawanense Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1701; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 481; --Type: Elmer 12741 (BISH, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (=Thumb Peak), Mar-1911. PALAWAN. Lowlands, deforested areas. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  5. Gymnostachyum pictum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1700; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 481; --Type: Elmer 13182 (F, NY, iso), Palawan: PALAWAN. Forested ravines along streams, c. 750m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  6. Gymnostachyum spiciforme (Elmer) Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 314; EPFP 3 (1923) 481; --Justicia spiciformis Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 349; --Type: Elmer 7347 (NY, iso), Leyte: Palo, Jan-1906. LEYTE: Leyte (Palo). Lowland forests.
  7. Gymnostachyum subcordatum Elmer. LPB 5 (1913) 1703. PALAWAN. Photos
  8. Gymnostachyum trichosepalum Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 54; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; --Type: Loher 13484, Luzon: Rizal prov., Paningtingan, Mar-1915. LUZON: Rizal. Note by L.L.Co: Known only from the type collection.

Hallieracantha Stapf = Ptyssiglottis

Hemigraphis Nees

Moylan et al. 2004 suggests that Hemigraphis needs to be synonymized with Strobilanthes. New combinations have, however, not been made to date (13 October 2012).

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 October 2012 following Moylan et al. 2002

Photos
 
  1. Hemigraphis alternata (Burm.f.) T.Anderson, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 7 (1864) 114; --Ruellia alternata Burm.f.., Fl. Indica (1768) 135; --Type: sine collector 1757 (G-BU, syn). --Hemigraphis colorata (Blume) Hallier f., Nov Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 70 (1897) 199; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 443; EPFP 3 (1923) 471; --Ruellia colorata Blume, Bijdr 3 (1826) 795; --Type: from Java: Zollinger 544 (B, G-BOIS, G-DC, syn). Widely cultivated as an ornamental. Country of origin unknown. Naturalized?
  2. Hemigraphis bakeri Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot 348; EPFP 3 (1923) 471; --Type: Baker 3272, Luzon: Quezon prov., hills near Malimao, 7-May-1914. --Hemigraphis mindorensis Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 113; --Type: Merrill 1785 (B, holo; US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Baco River, Apr-1903. --Hemigraphis panayensis (Merr.) Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 112; --Ruellia panayensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 347; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 476; --Type: BS 21236 Escritor (K, lecto; US, iso), Panay: Capiz prov., Jun-1913, according to Merrill (1915), the Panay origin of the type is uncertain and may have been collected in the adjacent island of Romblon; Romblon at that time was under the administrative jurisdiction of the province of Capiz. --Hemigraphis tenuispica Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 114; --Type: 75387 Ramos & Edaño (U, holo; UC, NY, iso), Catanduanes. Jul/Sep-1928. LUZON: Isabela, Quezon, CATANDUANES, MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Baco River), ROMBLON, PANAY: Capiz, SAMAR, BOHOL. Lowland streamside forests and possibly thickets.
  3. Hemigraphis baracatanensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2543; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 471; --Type: Elmer 11070 (NY, lecto; A, BM, E, L, MO, BISH, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, forested ravines, c. 450m, Jul-1909. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Note by L.L.Co: Known only from the type collection.
  4. Hemigraphis blumeana (Nees) Boerl., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1858) 658; --Ruellia blumeana Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 149; --Type: from Indonesia: Zollinger 343 (G-DC, lecto; K, isolecto). --Hemigraphis hirsuta var. crenata Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1693; --Type: Elmer 12678 (PNH, lecto; BISH BM, E, F, GH, K, MO 2 sheets, NY, U, US, isolecto), Palawan: Palawan prov., Brookes Point, Addison Peak, Feb-1911. --Hemigraphis culionensis Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 102; --Type: Merrill 536 (B, holo; K, NY, iso), Culion. --Hemigraphis palawanensis Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 15; --Type: PNH 167 Edaño (U, holo; PNH, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Bacungan, 26-Mar-1947. --Hemigraphis palawanensis var. hirsuta Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 15; --Type: PNH 298 Edaño (PNH, holo; A, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Babuyan, low elevation forest, Mar-1947. Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, PANAY: Capiz, CULION, PALAWAN. Forests at low and medium elevation.
  5. Hemigraphis ciliata S.Moore, J. Bot. 58 (1920) 191; --Type: from Papua New Guinea: White 796 (BM, lecto). --Hemigraphis oblongibractea Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 108; --Type: BS 11188 McGregor (L, holo; US, iso), Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya prov., Dupax, Mar/Apr-1912.--Hemigraphis lanceolata Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 451; EPFP 3 (1923) 472; --Type: BS 5413 Merrill (NY, lecto; L, US, isolecto), Balut Island, Oct-1906. --Hemigraphis halconensis Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 105; --Type: BS 10687 Ramos & Edaño (L, holo; K, US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Mt Halcon, Mar-1922. --Hemigraphis linearifolia Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 105; --Type: BS 8237 Merrill (L, holo), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Nov/Dec-1911. --Hemigraphis simulans Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 106; --Type: BS 22084 Ramos (L, holo), Luzon: Camarines Sur prov., Mt Isarog, Nov-Dec 1913. --Hemigraphis rosmarinifolia Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 115; --Type: BS 13207 Foxworthy & Ramos (L, holo), Luzon: Quezon prov., Quinatacutan, Mar-1911. --Hemigraphis lancibractea Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 16; --Type: PNH 3329 Edaño (A holo; U, iso (according to L.L. Co); U, holo; A, PNH, iso (according to Moylan et al. 2002)), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Mt Halcon, along Catuiran River, on forested slope, 833m, 22-Feb-1948. Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Australia. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon), PANAY, GUIMARAS, SAMAR, AMBOINA, BALUT, MASBATE, POLILLO, BOHOL, MINDANAO: Zamboanga.
  6. Hemigraphis cumingiana (Nees) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 153; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 471; --Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 656; --Ruellia cumingiana Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 148; --Type: Cuming 1310 (K, lecto; BM, E, K, isolecto), Luzon. --Hemigraphis strigosa (Nees) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 153; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 474; --Ruellia strigosa Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 148; --Type: Cuming 588 (K, lecto; BM, K, isolecto), Luzon. Lanyu, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Batanes, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Apayao, Quezon, PANAY, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Lowland primary forests.
  7. Hemigraphis diversifolia Elmer ex Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 121; --Type: Elmer 15398 (NY, lecto; BM, GH, K, L, MO, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, loose soil of more or less shaded places, Dec-1915. --Hemigraphis proteus Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 104; --Type: BS 20480 Ramos (L, holo; US, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., San Antonio, Feb-1913. --Hemigraphis subtinctoria Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3674, nom. inval., no Latin descr., --Type: Elmer 15430 (U, holo (according to L.L. Co); NY, lecto (according to Moylan et al. 2002); BM, GH, L, MO, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Jul-1916. LUZON: Laguna (San Antonio), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan).
  8. Hemigraphis fruticulosa C.B.Clarke, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 247; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 472; --Type: Merrill 4465 (K, lecto, NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: District of Lepanto (= vicinity of present-day Mountain Province and Ilocos Sur provincial borders): Cervantes to Mankayan, Nov-1905. --Hemigraphis nummularifolia Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 455; EPFP 3 (1923) 472; --Type: BS 33031 Ramos (BM, lecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., between Bangui and Claveria, on dry open banks, 30-Aug-1918. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Bulacan, Camarines, Rizal, MINDANAO: Surigao. Low to medium elevation, on cliffs, ravines and steep banks and open dry places at low elevation.
  9. Hemigraphis hirsutissima Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot 60; EPFP 3 (1923) 472; --Type: BS 27258 Ramos (K, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Burgos, Feb/Mar-1917. --Hemigraphis benguetensis Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 107, --Type: Elmer 8469 (L, holo; E, K, NY, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, Mar-1907. --Hemigraphis pauciflora Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot 61; EPFP 3 (1923) 473, --Type: BS 27543 Ramos (NY, lecto; BM, US isolecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Bangui, along streams in forest at low elevation, 9-Mar-1917. LUZON: Benguet (Baguio), Ilocos Norte, Isabela, CATANDUANES, MINDORO: Puerta Galera, ROMBLON, PANAY: Capiz, Libacao, BOHOL: Batuan, Calingohan. Low elevation streams, on boulders.
  10. Hemigraphis klossii S.Moore, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 9 (1916) 133; --Type: from Indonesia, Kloss s.n. (BM, lecto). --Hemigraphis rivularis Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 488; --Type: BS 43268 Ramos (UC, lecto; BM, K, PNH, UC, US, isolecto), Bohol: Bohol prov., Batuan River, in the bed of small streams in forests, c. 300m, Sep-1923. Indonesia, Melanesia, Philippines. Endemic to BOHOL.
  11. Hemigraphis longipetiolata Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 488; --Type: BS 43111 Ramos (UC, lecto; BM, K, US, isolecto), Bohol: Kalingohan, open forest on rocky slopes, 1000ft, 17-Aug-1923. BOHOL. Open forest on rocky slopes (judging from the locality, possibly on limestone), c. 300m.
  12. Hemigraphis mediocris Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 107; --Type: BS 11351 McGregor (L, holo). Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya prov., Dupax, Mar-Apr 1912. LUZON: Kalinga, Nueva Vizcaya (Dupax).
  13. Hemigraphis pachyphylla Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 453; EPFP 3 (1923) 472; --Type: BS 33794 (or 33974?) Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte prov., Paracale, Dec-1918. LUZON: Camarines Norte, Albay (Mt Malinao, PNH 34442 Edano). --Strobilanthes bulusanensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3678, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; --Type: Elmer 16884 (PNH, lecto; BM, K, L, NY, U, UC, isolecto), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt. Bulusan, Apr-1916. --Hemigraphis samarensis Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 109; --Type: Jagor 962 (B, holo), Samar. LUZON: Albay, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), SAMAR. Thickets and recent clearings at low elevation. Photos
  14. Hemigraphis reptans (Forst.) T.Anderson ex Hemsley, Bot. Voy. Challenger 1 (1884) 173; --Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 658; --Ruellia reptans Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. Prodr. (1786) 44; --Type: from Vanuatu: Forster s.n. (BM, lecto; K, P, isolecto). --Hemigraphis parabolica (Nees) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 153; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 472; --Ruellia parabolica Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 144; --Type: Cuming 571 (K, lecto; BM, isolecto), Luzon: Laguna prov. --Hemigraphis primulaefolia (Nees) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 153; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 473; --Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 658; --Ruellia primulaefolia Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 144; --Hemigraphis reptans (Forst.) T.Anderson ex Hemsl. var. primulaefolia (Nees) Hallier f., Nov Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 17 (1897) 208; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 443; --Type: Haenke s.n. (PR, lecto), Sorsogon. --Hemigraphis oblongifolia Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot 204; EPFP 3 (1923) 472; --Type: BS 24240 Ramos (L, lecto; BM, GH, US, isolecto), Samar: Catubig River, Feb/Mar-1916. --Hemigraphis rapifera Hallier f. ex Koord. in Meded. Lands Plant. 19 (1898) 555; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 473; --Type: from Sulawesi (nom. nud. according to Moylan et al. 2002). --Hemigraphis cardiophylla Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 359, t. 24; --Type: BS 44041 Ramos & Edaño (UC, lecto; BM, isolecto). --Hemigraphis tayabensis Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 119; --Type: BS 13103 Foxworthy & Ramos (L, holo), Luzon: Quezon prov., Guinayangan, Feb-1911. --Hemigraphis lanaensis Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 122; --Type: Clemens s.n. (B, holo), Mindanao: Lanao, Camp Keithley. --Hemigraphis diffusa Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 14; --Type: Edano 272 (U, holo), Palawan: Puerto Princesa. --Hemigraphis parvifolia Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 18; --Type: PNH 10504 Mendoza & Convocar (A, holo (according to L.L. Co); L, lecto (according to Moylan et al. 2002); PNH, isolecto), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte prov., Mt Kabatuan, on rocks along forested slopes, 680m, 22-Mar-1949. --Hemigraphis polillensis Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 17; --Type: PNH 8953 RB Fox (PNH, holo, A, U, iso), Polillo: NE part, Karlagan, forest, 19-Nov-1948. S. Taiwan, S Ryukyus, Lanyu, Philippines, Sulawesi, Seram, Seram Laut, Kai Isls., Waigeo. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Bataan, Pampanga, Rizal, Cavite, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, Apayao, ALABAT, BALABAC, PANAY, GUIMARAS, NEGROS, CEBU, LEYTE, SAMAR, MASBATE, TAWI-TAWI, POLILLO, MINDANAO, SULU, PALAWAN. Lowland and medium elevation forests, shaded cliffs and small stream embankments, streams and gullies, old clearings, etc., etc. Common. Photos
  15. Hemigraphis rhytiphylla (Nees) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 153; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 473; --Ruellia rhytiphylla Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 150; --Type: Cuming 1076 (or 1016?) (K, lecto; BM, E-GL, K, L, WU, isolecto). LUZON: Camarines Norte, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Abra, Benguet, Pangasinan. Low and medium elevation, ascending to 1000m, in open places, steep banks, thickets, etc.
  16. Hemigraphis setosa Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 348; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 474; --Type: Elmer 7248 (NY, lecto; E, K, isolecto), Leyte: Palo. PANAY, LEYTE, SAMAR. Moylan et al. 2002: endemic to Leyte. Low elevation, in forests and along streams.
  17. Hemigraphis sublobata Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 591; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 474; --Type: Elmer 9665 (L, MO, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, Mar-1908. NEGROS: Negros Oriental, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley), Surigao. Forests along streams up to 900m. Synonym of Hemographis reptans? Photos
  18. Hemigraphis viridis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot 59; EPFP 3 (1923) 474; --Type: BS 27587 Ramos (NY, lecto; BM, K, L, US, isolecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Bangui, Feb/Mar-1917. Endemic to northern LUZON: Apayao, Ilocos Norte, Kalinga, Nueva Vizcaya. Low elevation forests. Photos.
  19. Hemigraphis zwickeyae Moylan, Kew Bull. 57 (2002) 805; --Type: AL Zwickey 353 (GH, holo; US, iso), Mindanao: Lanao prov., vicinity of Abaga, elevation below 400m, 13-Oct-1938. LUZON: Tayabas, MINDANAO: Lanao. Endemic to Philippines.
Insufficiently known:
  1. Hemigraphis apayaensis Bremek; --Type: PNH 19758 Edaño (L, holo), Luzon: Apayao prov., Mt Magnas, summit, 900m, Jun-1953. LUZON: Apayao. Possible ined. name (not listed in IPNI).
  2. Hemigraphis decipiens (Nees) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 153; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 471; --Ruellia decipiens Nees, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 3 (1832) 83. LUZON: Sorsogon.
  3. Hemigraphis luzona (Nees) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 153; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 472; --Ruellia luzona Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 151. Only known from description.

Hygrophila R.Br.

Photos 
  1. Hygrophila corymbosa Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 804; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 470. Malesia. LUZON: Pampanga, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Misamis. Open rather wet places, apparently rare and local in the Philippines.
  2. Hygrophila phlomoides Nees in Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 3 (1832) 80; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 442; EPFP 3 (1923) 469. India to Peninsular Malaysia and Java. LUZON: Pangasinan, Zambales, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna. Lowlands, in open grasslands, fallow rice paddies, etc.
  3. Hygrophila quadrivalvis Nees in Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 3 (1832) 80; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 469. India to Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan, Rizal. Low and medium elevation open grasslands, fallow rice paddies, etc. Note by L.L.Co: Apparently very close to Hygrophila phlomoides Nees.
  4. Hygrophila salicifolia (Vahl) Nees in Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 3 (1832) 81; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 470, as 'salifolia'; --Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 661. --Hygrophila ringens R.Br. ex Steudel, Nomen. Ed. 2, 1 (1840) 783; --Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 781 (US, illustrative specimen), Luzon: Batangas prov., Bauan, Feb-1915. --Hygrophila angustifolia R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 479; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 442. India to China, Taiwan, Japan, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. Open wet places, especially near the sea. Photos.
  5. Hygrophila (Nomaphila) stricta Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 84, excl. syn. PALAWAN (Quezon, sitio Bongalon).

Hypoestes R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 August 2017

Photos
  1. Hypoestes cinerea C.B.Clarke, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 89; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 486. LUZON: Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Bataan, Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal, MINDORO. Low and medium elevation primary forests, ascending to 1200m.
  2. Hypoestes confertiflora Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 451; EPFP 3 (1923) 487; --Type: BS 4756 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Zambales prov., Sta Maria, open places at low elevation, Dec-1907. LUZON: Zambales. Open places at low elevation.
  3. Hypoestes cumingiana Benth. & Hook., Gen. Pl. 2 (1873) 1122; --Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 157; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 487; --Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 661; --Type: Cuming 1015. --Hypoestes linearis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 517; --Type: Elmer 7830 (MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Lucban, May-1907. S China, S Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, La Union, Mountain Province, Benguet, Pangasinan, Rizal, Laguna. Low and medium elevation thickets and forests, often along streams.
  4. Hypoestes floribunda R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 474; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 487. Malaya and tropical Australia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Ifugao, Cagayan. Mostly in medium elevation thickets and forests, chiefly along streams.
  5. Hypoestes halconensis Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 490; EPFP 4 (1925) 251; --Type: BS 40715 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental prov., Paluan, Mar-1922. MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental. On forested slopes, 1000m.
  6. Hypoestes malaccensis Wight, Icon. 4 (1850) t. 1555. --Hypoestes laxiflora Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 508; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 487; --Type: Cuming 1019 (NY, iso). Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines, Moluccas, tropical Australia. LUZON: Abra, Mountain Province, La Union, Zambales, Rizal. Low and medium elevation forests and thickets.
  7. Hypoestes merrillii C.B.Clarke ex Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1697; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 487; --Type: Merrill 794, Palawan. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN, SIBUTU. Lowland forests. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11).
  8. Hypoestes mindorensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 448; EPFP 3 (1923) 487; --Type: BS 39702 Ramos (US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental prov., Paluan, dry forests at low elevation, Apr-1921. MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental. Lowland dry forests.
  9. Hypoestes palawanensis C.B.Clarke, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 246; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 488; --Type: BS 316 Bermejos (NY, US, iso), Palawan, Jan-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, PALAWAN. Low and medium elevation forested talus slopes, forested ridges, etc. ascending to 800m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11).
  10. Hypoestes psilochlamys Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 18; --Type: Celastino 4384 (A, U), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Pulog, 2000m., 3-Mar-1948. LUZON: Benguet.
  11. Hypoestes subcapitata C.B.Clarke, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 90; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 488. LUZON: Pangasinan, Zambales, Bataan. Low elevation forests near streams.
  12. Hypoestes tenuis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 450; EPFP 3 (1923) 488; --Type: FB 16693 Bacani (US, iso), Luzon: Cagayan prov., between Mision and San Vicente, near the seashore, Mar-1909. LUZON: Cagayan. Near seashore.
  13. Hypoestes vidalii C.B.Clarke, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 90; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 488. --Hypoestes acutior C.B.Clarke, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 90; --Type: BS 62 Foxworthy (NY, US, syn), Luzon: Rizal prov., Jan-1906. LUZON: Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, MINDORO, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao del Sur. Low and medium elevation primary forests. Photos
  14. Hypoestes nom. nov. --Hypoestes axillaris Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 449; EPFP 3 (1923) 486; --Type: Merrill 5473, Mindanao: Zamboanga, in shaded ravines at low elevation, Oct-1906, Mindanao: Zamboanga, in shaded ravines at low elevation. Note by L.L.Co: This needs a new name; antedated by Hypoestes axillaris Benoist in Lecomte, Notul. Syst. (Paris) 1 (1910) 224.

Jacobinia Nees ex Moric. = Justicia

Justicia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos 
  1. Justicia addisoniensis (Elmer) C.M.Gao & Y.F.Deng, Ann. Bot. Fennici 48 (2011) 92; --Polytrema addisoniensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 (1915) 341; --Calophanoides addisoniensis (Elmer) Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 20; --Hallieracantha addisoniensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 457; EPFP 3 (1923) 483; --Hypoestes addisoniensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1697; --Type: Elmer 12715 (PNH holo; BISH, GH, K, MO, US, iso), Palawan: Brookes Point, Addison’s Peak, Mar-1911. Endemic to Palawan. PALAWAN (Addison’s Peak; Ulugan Bay). Low elevation thickets and damp ravines along streams. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  2. Justicia coccinea. What is the correct authority? See IPNI. Also goes under Jacobinia coccinea, Pachystachys coccinea. Photos.
  3. Justicia dispar Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 62; EPFP 3 (1923) 489; --Type: BS 26499 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Nueva Ecija prov., Mt Umingan (= Mingan Mtns), Aug/Sep-1916. LUZON: Nueva Ecija (Mingan Mtns), PANAY. Low and medium elevation forests.
  4. Justicia gendarussa Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 10; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 436; EPFP 3 (1923) 489; --Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 665; --Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 263 (US, illustrative specimen), Palawan: Taytay, Apr-1913. --Gendarussa vulgaris Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 410. India to S China, Taiwan, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines, but in many regions planted only. N LUZON (Cagayan) to PALAWAN and MINDANAO, in most islands and provinces. Chiefly along streams at low and medium elevation in both secondary and primary forests, sometimes in thickets in and about towns, rarely planted. Photos
  5. Justicia glabra J.Koenig ex Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 132; --Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 4, nom. nud.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 489. India, Sri Lanka, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Quezon, PANAY, GUIMARAS. Low and medium elevation thickets and forests.
  6. Justicia luzonensis C.B.Clarke, Publ. Bur. Sci. Gov. Lab. 35 (1906) 91; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 489; --Rhaphidospora luzonensis (C.B.Clarke) Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 45 (1948) 49. LUZON: Cagayan (Penablanca), Isabela (San Mariano), Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDORO, CATANDUANES, PANAY: Capiz (Jamindan), BOHOL (BS 43198 Ramos), LEYTE, SAMAR. Low and medium elevation forests, often along streams. Photos.
  7. Justicia procumbens L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 15; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 436; EPFP 3 (1923) 490; --Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 665; --Rostellularia procumbens (L.) Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 371.
  8. Justicia quadrifaria Wall., Cat. (1828) 2479; --Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 669. India, China, Taiwan, Philippines. PALAWAN: Aborlan (Tarateon and Malasgao River). 
  9. Justicia tenuis Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 321; EPFP 3 (1923) 490; --Type: FB 15536 Merritt & Darling (NY, syn), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Nov-1908. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Open places at low elevation.
  10. Justicia vidalii C.B.Clarke ex Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 248; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 490; --Rhyticalymma vidalii (C.B.Clarke ex Merr.) Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 12; --Type: BS 288 J. Bermejos (GH, NY, iso), Palawan, Jan-1905. PALAWAN, BALABAC. Lowland forests.

Lepidagathis Willd.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
 
  1. Lepidagathis amaranthoides Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1695; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 476; --Type: Elmer 12615 (US, iso), Palawan: Brooks Point, Addison Peak, Feb-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. BUSUANGA, PALAWAN, LEYTE (Ormoc, Mt Janagdan), MINDANAO: Davao (Magdug River). Lowland forests. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11).
  2. Lepidagathis boholensis, Y.S.Liang, S.T.Geng, L.T.Evangelista & J.C.Wang, Phytotaxa 252 (2016) 131; --Lepidagathis stenophylla auct. non C.B.Clarke ex Hayata; --Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 486; --Type: BS 43317 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost; UC, lecto; BO, K, isolecto), Bohol: Sevilla River, on rocks along mountain streams, c. 300m, Sep-1923. Endemic to Philippines. BOHOL. Low elevation streams subject to periodic flash-flooding.
  3. Lepidagathis cinerea Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 387; EPFP 3 (1923) 476; --Type: FB 16078 Curran, Merritt & Zschokke (US, para), Luzon: Benguet prov., Jan-1909. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Open grassy slopes, 1000-2000m.
  4. Lepidagathis clarkei Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 344; EPFP 3 (1923) 476; --Type: R.S. Williams 37, Luzon: Bataan prov., Lamao River, damp shaded banks along stream, c. 150m, Oct-1903. LUZON: Bataan. Shaded places along mountain streams, 100-400m.
  5. Lepidagathis dispar C.B.Clarke ex Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 386; EPFP 3 (1923) 476; --Type: Elmer 6059 (NY, US, syn), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, Apr-1904. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Rizal. Low and medium elevation thickets, open sites and stream banks.
  6. Lepidagathis humilis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 346; EPFP 3 (1923) 477; --Type: R.S. Williams 2955 (NY), Mindanao: Davao del Sur prov., Sta. Cruz, 19-Jun-1905. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Davao. Lowland forests.
  7. Lepidagathis inaequalis C.B.Clarke ex Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1695; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 477; --Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 671; --Type: Cuming 497 (K), Luzon: Laguna prov. Ryukyu Isls, Lanyu, Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan, Laguna, Sorsogon. According to Merrill (1923), Elmer 13028 (US) from Mt Pulgar (= Thumb Peak), Palawan does not represent Clarke’s species. It is erroneously labeled as an isotype in US.
  8. Lepidagathis incurva D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 119; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 477. India to China, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Rizal, Laguna, PALAWAN, BALABAC. Low and medium elevation forests and thickets.
  9. Lepidagathis laxa Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 251; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 477; --Type: Cuming 1717, Samar. CATANDUANES, MINDORO, SAMAR. Lowland forests.
  10. Lepidagathis macgregorii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 346; EPFP 3 (1923) 477; --Type: R.C. McGregor 128, Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Baco River, 15-Mar-1905. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Baco River). Lowland forests.
  11. Lepidagathis microphylla Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 63; EPFP 3 (1923) 477; --Type: BS 27518 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Bangui, dry open hills at low elevation, 10-Mar-1917. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Dry open slopes at low elevation.
  12. Lepidagathis mindorensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 343; EPFP 3 (1923) 477; --Type: BS 6702 C.B. Robinson (US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Bulalacao, rocky soils along stream, 50m, Mar-1909. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Bulalacao). Along streams at low elevation.
  13. Lepidagathis palawanensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 342; EPFP 3 (1923) 477; --Type: Merrill 9760 (US, iso), Palawan: Taytay, dry thickets along trail at sea-level, Apr-1913. PALAWAN. Lowland thickets. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  14. Lepidagathis psilantha Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 251; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 478; --Type: Cuming 1013 (WU, iso), Luzon: Pangasinan prov. LUZON: Pangasinan. Low elevation. Probably in thickets or forests.
  15. Lepidagathis secunda (Blanco) Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 259; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 442; EPFP 3 (1923) 478; --Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 673; --Ruellia secunda Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 495; --Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 702 (US, illustrative specimen), Luzon: Bulacan prov., Ipo, Dec-1914. Taiwan (Xiaoliuqiu Is), Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Pangasinan, Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna. Low elevation, in dry thickets and open dry places, etc. Photos
  16. Lepidagathis spicifera Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2547; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 478; --Type: Elmer 13383 (NY, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Jul-1912. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Shaded places along streams, c. 350m.
  17. Lepidagathis subglabra Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 103; EPFP 3 (1923) 478; --Type: BS 507 Vanoverbergh (US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Malamey, in forest, c. 1600m, 10-May-1910.
  18. Lepidagathis subinterrupta Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 345; EPFP 3 (1923) 478; --Type: BS 8024 Ramos, Luzon: Isabela prov., San Luis, boulders along shaded streams, May-1909. LUZON: Isabela. Boulders along shaded streams at low and medium elevation.
  19. Lepidagathis tenuis C.B.Clarke, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 92; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 478. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao del Sur, Davao. Steep stream gullies at low and medium elevation. 

Megaskepasma Lindau [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 October 2017

Photos

  1. Megaskepasma erythrochlamys Lindau, Bull. Herb. Boissier 5 (1897) 666. Photos

Nomaphila Blume = Hygrophila pro parte

Odontonema Nees [Not native]

Photos

  1. Odontonema nitidum Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 437; EPFP 3 (1923) 483, auct. non Kuntze.

Oreothyrsus Lindau = Ptyssiglottis

Pachystachys Nees [Not native]

Photos

Peristrophe
Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 October 2017

Photos
  1. Peristrophe bivalvis (L.) Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 476; EPFP 3 (1923) 484; --Justicia bivalvis L., Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 2 (1759) 850. --Peristrophe roxburghiana (Roem. & Schult.) Bremek., Act. Bot. Neerl. 5 (1955) 656; --Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 674; --Justicia roxburghiana Roem. & Schult., Mant. 1 (1822) 140. E India, S and C China, Taiwan, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, CORON, PALAWAN, CABESA, BOHOL, LEYTE, SIASI, MINDANAO: Lanao, Surigao. Coconut groves and thickets at low and medium elevation, often cultivated or semi-cultivated in S Philippines, in Benguet ascending to 1600m.
  2. Peristrophe caudatifolia Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 54; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; --Type: Loher 12196, Luzon: Rizal prov., Montalban, Jul-1908. LUZON: Rizal. Note by L.l.Co: Known only from the type collection.
  3. Peristrophe cordatibractea Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 455; EPFP 3 (1923) 484; --Type: BS 39392 Ramos (US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental prov., Mt Calavite, along streams in primary forest, c. 700m, Apr-1921. MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental. Low to medium elevation forests along streams.
  4. Peristrophe lancifolia Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 229; EPFP 3 (1923) 484; --Type: FB 19258 Curran (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov., Balanga Mtns, Jan-1910. LUZON: Zambales, Bataan, Quezon. Low elevation forests.
  5. Peristrophe sibulanensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 485; --Hypoestes sibulanensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2546; --Type: Elmer 11152 (GH, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt. Apo, Jul-1909. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Ravine thickets along streams, c. 500m.

Pseuderanthemum Radlk.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos 
  1. Pseuderanthemum bicolor (Schrank) Radlk. ex Lindau, at. Pflanzenfam. 4(3B) (1895) 330; --Bailey, Gent. Herb. 1 (1923) 130; --Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 247; --Eranthemum bicolor Schrank, Pl. Rar. Hort. Monac. (1817) t. 8. --Pseuderanthemum pulchellum (Hort.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 248; Fl. Manila (1912) 438; EPFP 3 (1923) 482. Peninsular Malaysia. Introduced in other tropical countries. N LUZON (Cagayan) to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. In most or all islands and provinces. Lowland thickets, often common. Photos
  2. Pseuderanthemum confusum Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 427; --Type: BS 44296 Ramos & Edaño (NY, iso), Tawi-Tawi, damp forest along small streams at low elevation, Aug-1924. Borneo (Sabah), Banguey, Philippines. TAWI-TAWI. Lowland streamside forests.
  3. Pseuderanthemum curtatum (C.B.Clarke) Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 475; EPFP 3 (1923) 482; --Eranthemum curtatum C.B.Clarke, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 89. BATAN, BABUYAN ISLS to PALAWAN AND MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation primary forests.
  4. Pseuderanthemum depauperatum Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 315; EPFP 3 (1923) 482; --Type: Merrill 5346. Moluccas (Ambon). PALMAS. Low elevation cliffs. Note by L.L.Co: Palmas island is actually part of Indonesia, but as it is an islet of the SE coast of Mindanao (Cape San Agustin), the species is presumed to occur also in the Philippines proper.
  5. Pseuderanthemum diversifolium auct. non Radkl. Palawan records based on Elmer 12628 (F, GH) from Addison’s Peak, and Ebalo & Conklin 1379 (Aborlan, Mt Apis).
  6. Pseuderanthemum fruticosum (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 482; --Type: Elmer 9619 (A, NY, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns. NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Forested ravines, c. 750m.
  7. Pseuderanthemum minutiflorum (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 482; --Eranthemum minutiflorum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1687; --Type: Elmer 13084 (A, BISH, F, GH, MICH, MO, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (= Thumb Peak), Apr-1911. PALAWAN. Lowland secondary forests along streams. Possibly not a true Pseuderanthemum. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
Cultivated, not naturalized:
  1. Pseuderanthemum carruthersii (Seem.) Guillaumin, Ann. Mus. Colon. Marseille VI, 5-6 (1948) 48; --Eranthemum carruthersii Seem., Fl. Vit. (1866) 185. --Pseuderanthemum reticulatum Radlk., Sitzb. Math.-Phys. Cl. Akad. Wiss. Muench. 13 1833 (1884) 286. Native to S. Polynesia. Photos

Ptyssiglottis T.Anderson

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos 
  1. Ptyssiglottis aequifolia (C.B.Clarke) ined.; --Hallieracantha aequifolia (C.B.Clarke) Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 457; EPFP 3 (1923) 483; --Polytrema aequifolium C.B.Clarke ex Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 343; --Type BS 357 Bermejos (NY, US, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Jan-1906. PALAWAN. Lowland forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  2. Ptyssiglottis brevipetiolata (Merr.) ined.; --Hallieracantha brevipetiolata Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 457; EPFP 3 (1923) 483; --Type: BS 39761 Ramos (US, syn), Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental prov., Paluan, Apr-1921. LUZON: Laguna (Mt Makiling), MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental. Lowland dry forests.
  3. Ptyssiglottis dispar Hallier f., Nova Acta Nat. Cur. 70 (1898) 220. --Justicia pulgarensis (Elmer) C.M.Gao & Y.F.Deng, J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 18 (2010) 257; --Calophanoides pulgarensis (Elmer) Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 11; --Hypoestes pulgarensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1698; --Type: Elmer 12785 (BISH, F, GH, MO, NY, US, iso). --Hallieracantha pulgarensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1692; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 484; --Type: Elmer 13061 (BISH, F, L, NY, iso), Palawan: Mt Pulgar, forest c. 250 ft, Mar-1911. Borneo. PALAWAN (Mt Pulgar; Aborlan, Mt Apis). Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11 as Justicia pulgarensis (Elmer) C.M.Gao & Y.F.Deng).
  4. Ptyssiglottis elmeri (Merr.) ined.; --Hallieracantha elmeri Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 457; EPFP 3 (1923) 484; --Type: Elmer 12785, Palawan: Mt Pulgar, PALAWAN. Lowland forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  5. Ptyssiglottis philippinensis (Stapf) ined.; --Hallieracantha philippinensis Stapf, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 38 (1907) 14; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 484. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Shaded ravines and forests at low elevation, ascending to 600m.
  6. Ptyssiglottis ramosii (Quisumb. & Merr.) ined.; --Hallieracantha ramosii Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 199; --Type: BS 46352 Ramos (NY, US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Pinaligpigan near Puerto Galera, forested slopes, c. 1000m, 9-Dec-1925. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Puerto Galera). Forest, c. 1000m.
  7. Ptyssiglottis samarensis (Bremek.) ined.; --Oreothyrsus samarensis Bremek., Acta Bot. Neerl. 4 (1955) 651; --Type: PNH 15323 Edano (U, iso), Samar: Western Samar prov., Mt. Sarauag, along forest edge, 100m, 8-Dec-1951. SAMAR: Western Samar. Low elevation forest edge.
  8. Ptyssiglottis undulata (Merr.) B.Hansen, Opera Bot. 34 (1992) 34; --Hallieracantha undulata Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 486; --Type: BS 43326 Ramos (US, iso), Bohol: Sevilla, along streams in forests, c. 600m, Sep-1923. --Polytrema macgregorii Elmer, LPB 10 (1934) 3677, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; --Type: Elmer 15352 (L, NY, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Nov-1915. LUZON: Laguna (BS 22915 McGregor, cited by Elmer), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), BOHOL (Sevilla).
Invalid Name:
  1. Ptyssiglottis irosinensis ined.; --Polytrema irosinensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3676, nom. inval., no Latin descr; --Type: Elmer 15491 (NY, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, loose ground of open places, Nov-1915. LUZON: Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan).

Rhaphidospora Nees = Justicia

Rhinacanthus Nees [Not native]

No Photos
  1. Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, J. As. Soc. Beng. 392 (1870) 79; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 438; EPFP 3 (1923) 488; --Justicia nasuta L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 16. India to Malaya, probably a native of India. Certainly introduced in the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Cavite, Laguna. Thickets, hedges and waste places in and about towns.

Rhyticalymma Bremek. = Justicia pro parte

Rostellularia Rchb. = Justicia

Ruellia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos 
  1. Ruellia luzoniensis Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 426; --Type: BS 44627 Ramos & Edaño (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Zambales prov., Anuling, in forests along streams at low elevation, Nov-1924. LUZON: Zambales.
  2. Ruellia philippinensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1690; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 476; --Type: Elmer 12922. PALAWAN, BASILAN. Lowland thickets on stream banks. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  3. Ruellia repens (L.) Hassk. in Hoev. & de Vriese. Tijdr. 10 (1843) 127; --Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 656. --Ruellia repens L., Mant. 1 (1767) 89; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 443; EPFP 3 (1923) 476. India, Myanmar, Hongkong, S Taiwan, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. Throughout the archipelago in most provinces. Low and medium elevation grasslands, thickets, rice paddy embankments, etc. Photos
  4. Ruellia tuberosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 635; --Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 361. Native of tropical America. Occasional as an escape from gardens in Manila and neighboring areas. Naturalized in some parts of the Old World tropics. Photos.

Rungia Nees

Photos
  1. Rungia diversiformis Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 472; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 485. LUZON: Pangasinan, Zambales, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, PALAWAN. Thickets and along streams in ravines at low and medium elevation.
  2. Rungia lepida C.B.Clarke, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 248; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 485; --Type: Merrill 4450 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Sur prov. (in area formerly under the old District of Lepanto), Suyoc to Cervantes, Oct-1905. LUZON: Abra, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Pangasinan. On banks and open grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1300m.
  3. Rungia membranacea Merr., PJS 11c (1915) Bot. 205; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 485; --Type: BS 24515 Ramos (US, iso), Samar: Catubig River at Tagabiran, low elevation open forest, Feb-1916. SAMAR. Lowland forests.
  4. Rungia parviflora Nees in Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 3 (1832) 110; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 485. India to China, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Open grassy slopes, 1500-1900m.
  5. Rungia philippinensis C.B.Clarke, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 92; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 485; --Type: Cuming 1276. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Lanao. Forests and thickets, mostly at medium elevation.
  6. Rungia podostachya Bremek., PJS 81 (1952) 134; --Type: PNH 11542 Edaño (L, holo; U, iso), Mindanao: Davao Oriental prov., Mt. Kampalili, forested slopes, 700m, 22-Mar-1949. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental.

Sanchezia Ruiz & Pavon. [Not native]

Photos

Semnostachya Bremek.

No Photos
  1. Semnostachya antonii (Elmer) Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 206; --Strobilanthes antonii Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2550; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 475; --Type: Elmer 13610 (BISH, MICH, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Aug-1912. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Agusan del Norte. Primary forests, c. 1050m.
  2. Semnostachya halconensis (Merr.) Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 208; --Strobilanthes halconensis Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 302; --EPFP 3 (1923) 475; --Type: BS 5586 Merrill (US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Mt. Halcon, Nov-1906. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon). Primary forests, c. 900m.
  3. Semnostachya leytensis Bremek., PJS 81 (1952) 133; --Type: PNH 12154 Edaño (L, ?iso), Leyte: Leyte prov., Ormoc, Mt Mamban, 1163m, Apr-1950. LEYTE.
  4. Semnostachya merrillii (C.B.Clarke) Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 208; --Strobilanthes merrillii C.B.Clarke, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 92; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 475. LUZON: Bataan (Mt Mariveles). Ridges on mossy forests, 1000-1300m.
  5. Semnostachya pachys (C.B.Clarke ex Merr.) Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 208; --Strobilanthes pachys C.B.Clarke ex Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 456; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 475; --Type: Vidal 3012 (K, holo), Luzon: Caraballo Sur mtns, according to Merrill (1922) probably collected along trail between Dupax (in Nueva Vizcaya) and Carranglan (Nueva Ecija). LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon. Forests, c. 900m.

Staurogyne Wall.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 October 2017

Photos 
  1. Staurogyne athroantha Bremek., Reinwardtia 3 (1955) 238; --Type: Merrill 1215 (L, iso), Palawan: Taytay, May-1913. PALAWAN.
  2. Staurogyne capillipes Bremek., Reinwardtia 3 (1955) 243; --Type: Merrill 7238 (L, holo), Palawan. Sep-1910. PALAWAN.
  3. Staurogyne debilis (T.Anderson) C.B.Clarke ex Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 302; EPFP 3 (1923) 467; --Ebermaiera debilis T.Anderson, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 9 (1867) 452; --S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming., Philip. (1885) 132; --Type: Cuming 1373, Luzon: Albay prov. --Staurogyne debilis var. angustifolia Bremek., xxx; --Type: BS 46127 Reillo (L, holo), Basilan, Aug/Sep-1912. --Staurogyne debilis var. ciliata (Elmer) Bremek., xxx; --Staurogyne ciliata Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2548; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 467; --Type: PNH 11357 (U), Mindanao: Davao Oriental prov., Mt Mayo, 1700m, 4-Apr-1949. --Staurogyne debilis var. longifolia Bremek., xxxxx; --Type: PNH 3371 Edaño (U, holo), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Mt Halcon, 533m, 19-Jan-1948. --Staurogyne debilis var. pubifolia Bremek., xxxx; --Type: Elmer 8708 (L, holo), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, Mar-1907. LUZON: Apayao, Benguet, Cagayan, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, Quezon, Albay, Sorsogon, POLILLO, ALABAT, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, BASILAN, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao Oriental. Low and medium elevation, chiefly along streams in shaded ravines, ascending to 1700m.
  4. Staurogyne elmeri ined. --Staurogyne subcordata (Elmer) Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 113, nom. illeg., auct. non Benoist; --Gymnostachyum subcordatum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1703; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 481. PALAWAN. Lowland forests along streams. Bremekamp’s combination is antedated by S. subcordata Benoist, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Paris, ser. 2, 5 (1933) 173.
  5. Staurogyne merrillii Bremek., Reinwardtia 3 (1955) 242; --Type: Merrill 7225 (L, holo), Palawan. Sep-1910. PALAWAN.
  6. Staurogyne neesii (S.Vidal) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 468; --Ebermaiera neesii S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 34; --Type: Cuming 1083. LUZON: Zambales. Low elevation, along streams.
  7. Staurogyne nudispica (C.B.Clarke) Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 113; --Gymnostachyum nudispicum (C.B.Clarke) Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1700; --Ruellia nudispica C.B.Clarke, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 248; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 476; --Type: BS 351 Bermejos (US, iso), Palawan: forests near Puerto Princesa, Feb-1906. PALAWAN. Low elevation forests and thickets. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  8. Staurogyne ophiorrhizoides Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1488; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 468; --Type: Elmer 12364 (US, NY, iso; L, type status not certain), Sibuyan: Magallanes (= Magdiwang), Mt Giting-giting, Moist, rock-clayey soil of densely wooded gulches along trail to España at 1750ft, south of ridge summit, Apr-1910. SIBUYAN: Mt Giting-giting, forests, c. 530m.
  9. Staurogyne palawanensis (Elmer) Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 113; --Gymnostachyum palawanense Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1701; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 481; --Type: Elmer 12741 (NY, US, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt. Pulgar (= Thumb Peak), open places among woods at 250ft., Mar-1911. PALAWAN. Low elevation open deforested area.
  10. Staurogyne panayensis Bremek., Reinwardtia 3 (1955) 214.
  11. Staurogyne rivularis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 248; Fl. Manila (1912) 435; EPFP 3 (1923) 468; --Type: Merrill 7396 (L, US, iso), Luzon: Manila, Masambong, along small streams on ledges subject to overflow in high water, Dec-1910. LUZON: Rizal. Low elevation, on ledges along small streams.
  12. Staurogyne samarensis Bremek., Reinwardtia 3 (1955) 213; --Type: BS 17534 Ramos (L, holo), Samar, Mar/Apr-1914. SAMAR.
  13. Staurogyne setigera Kuntze, Rev. Gen. (1891) 497.
  14. Staurogyne subcapitata Bremek., Reinwardtia 3 (1955) 190. LUZON.

Strobilanthes Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos 
  1. Strobilanthes apoensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 475; --Hypoestes apoensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2544; --Type: Elmer 10722 (US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, May-1909. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Primary forests, c. 1100m.
  2. Strobilanthes boholensis Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 487; --Type: BS 43256 Ramos (US, iso), Bohol: Bilar, in damp forest, c. 600m, Oct-1923. BOHOL (Bilar).
  3. Strobilanthes cincinnalis C.B.Clarke, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 249; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 475; --Type: BS 4574 Merrill (US, iso; NY), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt. Data, 2250m, Nov-1905. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Mossy forests, 2000-2400m.
  4. Strobilanthes fusca J.R.I.Wood, Kew Bull. 64(1) (2009) 11; --Type: PPI 4164 Reynoso, Alvarez & Fernando (K, holo), Luzon: Zambales prov., Masinloc, Coto, 2-Feb-1992. LUZON: Zambales.
  5. Strobilanthes mearnsii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 322; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 475. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Wet thickets and forests, 1400-2000m.
  6. Strobilanthes palawanensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1686; --Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch., Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sec. 2, 41 (1944) 232; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 475; --Type: Elmer 13249, Palawan: Mt Pulgar (= Thumb Peak). PALAWAN: Puerto Princesa (Mt Pulgar; Babuyan). Primary forests, 200-500m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  7. Strobilanthes pluriformis C.B.Clarke, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 93; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 475. LUZON: Mountain Province, Ifugao, Benguet, Pampanga, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Batangas, MINDORO. Mossy forests, 1000-2000m. Photos

Thunbergia Retz.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 July 2017

Photos 
  1. Thunbergia alata Boj. ex Sims., Bot. Mag. t. 2591; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 440; EPFP 3 (1923) 468. Native of tropical Africa, now pantropic. LUZON: Bataan, Rizal. Thoroughly naturalized in waste places and thickets in the lowlands. Also cultivated. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Photos
  2. Thunbergia benguettensis Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Sect. 2 50(4) (1955) 76; --Type: R.S. Williams 935 (NY), Luzon: Benguet prov., Kias (present-day Baguio), Sep-1904. LUZON
  3. Thunbergia brachypoda Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Sect. 2 50(4) (1955) 59; --Type: Elmer 13076 (L, holo; NY, iso). PALAWAN.
  4. Thunbergia brachytyla Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Sect. 2 50(4) (1955) 72; --Type: BS 98 Piper (L), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Norte prov., (indicated as Province of Misamis in label), Dapitan, Apr-1911. MINDANAO
  5. Thunbergia fragrans Roxb., Fl. Coromandel. 1 (1795) 47; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 440; EPFP 3 (1923) 468. --Thunbergia subsagittata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 518; --Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 963 (US, illustrative specimen), Luzon: Bataan prov., Lamao, Dec-1915. --Thunbergia subdigitata var. hirsutifolia Bremek., xxxx; --Type: Warburg 11726 (NY), Luzon: Cagayan prov. India to Australia. Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces. Low and medium elevation thickets. Variable in vegetative characters. Photos
  6. Thunbergia ilocana Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Sect. 2 50(4) (1955) 77; --Type: BS 32756 Ramos (L, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Burgos, Jul-1918.
Cultivated, not naturalized:
  1. Thunbergia erecta (Benth.) T.Anderson, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 7 (1864) 18; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 440; EPFP 3 (1923) 468; --Meyenia erecta Benth., Niger Fl. (1849) 476. Native of tropical Africa, introduced in the Philippines around 1900, cultivated as an ornamental but nowhere spontaneous. Photos
  2. Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb., Fl. Ind. 3 (1832) 34; Hort. Beng. (1814) 45, nomen nud.; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 439; EPFP 3 (1923) 469. Native of India. Commonly planted in the Philippines for ornamental purposes. Not known to fruit here. Photos
  3. Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl., Gard. Chron. (1856) 260; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 469. Peninsular Malaysia. Occasionally planted in the Philippines for ornamental purposes.
Key to cultivated Acanthaceae genera

Doubtful taxa
:
  1. Adhatoda aspera Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 397; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 490. According to Merrill this was based on Cuming 1403, which in most herbaria is a Jasminum.

Literature

Ahmad, KJ. 1978. Epidermal hairs of Acanthaceae. Blumea 24: 101-117

Aragones, EG, JP Rojo & FC Pitargue, Jr. 1998. Botanical identification handbook on Philippine mangrove trees, p. 104-114 (under Verbenaceae).

Backer, CA & RC Bakhuizen van den Brink. 1965. Flora of Java 2: 544-593.

Barker, RM. 1986. A taxonomic revision of Australian Acanthaceae. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Garden 9: 1-286.

Bremekamp, CEB. 1951. Philippine Acanthaceae I. Philippine Journal of Science 80: 11-21.

Bremekamp, CEB. 1955. The Acanthaceae of the Malesian area. I. General Considerations. Proceedings Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, series C 58: 162-171.

Bremekamp, CEB. 1955. The Acanthaceae of the Malesian area. II. Special part. Proceedings Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, series C 58: 294-306.

Bremekamp, CEB. 1955. The Thunbergia species of the Malesian area [Acanthaceae]. Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, section ii, 50 no. 4: 1-90.

Bremekamp, CEB. 1955. A revision of the Malaysian Nelsonieae. [Scrophulariaceae]. Reinwardtia 3: 157-261.

Bremekamp, CEB. 1956. Notes on some Acanthaceous genera and species of controversial position. Mededelingen van het Botanisch Museum en Herbarium van de Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht 130: 644-655.
Aside from some African plants, deals with Stenothyrsus (Hygrophiliinae) and Oreothyrsus with a new Philippine species.

Bremekamp, CEB. 1965. Delimitation and subdivision of the Acanthaceae. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 7: 21-30.

Bremekamp, CEB. 1965. Scrophulariaceae, Nelsonieae, Thunbergiaceae, Acanthaceae. Dansk Botanisk Arkiv 23: 197-224. Lists twenty new species and 3 new genera.

Bremekamp, CEB. and NE Nannenga-Bremekamp. 1948. A preliminary survey of the Ruelliinae (Acanthaceae) of the Malay Archipelago and New Guinea. Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Nederlandsche Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam sect. II, 45, no. 1: 1-39.

CABI Invasive Species Compendium

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Duke, NC. 1991. A systematic revision of the mangrove genus Avicennia (Avicenniaceae) in Australasia. Australian Systematic Botany 4: 299-324.

Gao, C-M, Y-F Deng. 2011. Justicia addisoniensis (Acanthaceae), comb. nova. Annales Botanici Fennici 48: 91-92.

Hsieh, Chang Fu & Huang Tseng Chieng. 1998. Acanthaceae. In Huang, TC (ed.). Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition, 648-686.

Langenberger, G. 2002. Notes on Philippine mangrove species. Flora Malesiana Bulletin 13: 169-174


Liang, Y-S, S-T Geng, LT Evangelista & J-C Wang. 2016. Lepidagathis boholensis, a new name of Philippine Acanthaceae. Phytotaxa 252: 131-136.

Moylan, EC, JR Bennett, MA Carine, RG Olmstead, RW Scotland. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships among Strobilanthes s.l. (Acanthaceae): evidence from ITS nrDNA, trnL-F cpDNA, and morphology. American Journal of Botany 91: 724-735.

Moylan, EC, RT Pennington, RW Scotland. 2002. Taxonomic account of Hemigraphis Nees (Strobilanthinae-Acanthaceae) from the Philippines. Kew Bulletin 57: 769-825.

Primavera, JH, RB Sadaba, MJHL Lebata & JP Altamirano. 2004. Handbook of mangroves in the Philippines-Panay, pp. 22-31. 

Acknowledgements

Derek Cabactulan, Alma Gamil, and Ravan Schneider kindly provided a number of photographs found on this webpage.

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 11 October 2017