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Araceae

including Lemnaceae

Aglaonema Schott

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Aglaonema commutatum Schott, Syn. (1856) 123; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 182.
  2. Aglaonema cordifolium Engl., Pflanzenreich 64 (iv. 23 Dc) (1915) 29; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 183; --Nicolson, Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 1 (1969) 46; --Type: Warburg 14604 (B, holo). Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Dagatpat, type locality), Zamboanga (Mt Tabuan). Known only from these 2 collections.
  3. Aglaonema densinervium Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37 (1906) 134; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 183; --Nicolson, Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 1 (1969) 56; --Type: Copeland 418 (B, US) Sulawesi (NE tip), Philippines: LUZON (Albay), POLILLO, CATANDUANES, MASBATE, SAMAR, LEYTE, NEGROS, SIQUIJOR, MINDANAO (Agusan del Norte, Davao, type locality, Davao Oriental, Bukidnon, Zamboanga), BASILAN.
  4. Aglaonema philippinense Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25 (1898) 21; --Nicolson, Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 1 (1969) 57; --Type: Govt. Lab. 86 Gregory (B, neotype; also the holotype for A. latifolium), Luzon: Quezon prov., Atimonan. Photos
  5. Aglaonema robeleynii (Van Geert) Pitcher & Manda, Pl. Cat. U.S. Nurs. 1894 (1894) 31. --Aglaonema crispum (Pitcher & Manda) Nicolson, Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 1 (1969) 54; --Type: Photograph labeled Schismatoglottis roeblinii on p. 141 of Pitcher & Manda, General Illustrated Catalogue of Plants (1895). This same photograph also appears as Schismatoglottis crispata (not Hooker) in Vick’s Magazine (1899, vol. 23, p. 71) and as Schismatoglottis picta in American Gardener (1898, vol. 19, fig. 122). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan). Deep shade of primary dipterocarp forest, 300-950m. Known only from this locality.
  6. Aglaonema simplex Blume, Rumphia 1 (1837) 152; --Nicolson, Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 1 (1969) 39.
  7. Aglaonema tricolor Jervis, Aglaonema (1980) 38. Endemic to the Philippines.

Dubious species:

  1. Aglaonema haenkii (C.Presl) Schott, Bonplandia 7 (1859) 30; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 183 as ‘haenkei’; --Scindapsus haenkii C.Presl,.Epim. Bot. (1849) 240; --Type: Haenke s.n. (PRC). Nicolson in Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 1 (1969) 59 lists this as a dubious binomial, probably pertaining to a species of Monteroideae (where it was first described). The type has not been located (Hay et al. (1995) 5).

Alocasia (Schott) G.Don

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Alocasia atropurpurea Engl., Pflanzenreich 71 (iv.23E) (1920) 132; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 184; --Type: BS 19663 MacGregor (B). Nansei-shoto, Philippines. LUZON. Photos
  2. Alocasia boyceana A Hay, Gard. Bull. Sing. 51 (1999) 9; --Type: Cult. Botanischer Garten München ex Philippines. Cebu (orig. coll. Seidenschwarz, s.n., voucher M), J. Bogner s.n. (NSW, holo). Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  3. Alocasia clypeolata A Hay, Gard. Bull. Sing. 51 (1999) 12. Bali, Philippines. MINDANAO.
  4. Alocasia cucullata (Lour.) G.Don -- Hort. Brit. [Sweet], ed. 3. 3, 631. 1839. Not native. Cultivated? Photos
  5. Alocasia culionensis Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37 (1905) 135; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 184; --Type: Merrill 555 (B). Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  6. Alocasia heterophylla (C.Presl) Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 220; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 184. – Type: Haenke (PR). Alocasia warburgii Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25 (1898) 25; --Type: Warburg 13652 (B?, lost, PNH?, lost), 15723 (B ?lost) Alocasia manilensis Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25 (1898) 23; --Type: Warburg 12494 (B). Sulawesi and the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Pampanga, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon, POLILLO, ALABAT, PANAY, NEGROS, SAMAR, JOLO. In primary forests at low and medium elevation. Photos
  7. Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G Don, in Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 3 (1839) 631; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 185, as ‘macrorrhiza’. Type: “Arum maximum macrorrhizon zeylanicum” Hermann, Parad. Bat. (1698) t. 73 The natural distribution of this species is unknown, but it has been considered wild in S India, Sri Lanka and Peninsular Malaysia. It is very widely distributed as a crop and as an ornamental plant. A number of varieties have been described (sometimes initially as species) from cultivation, with or without type material being cited, including A. indica var. metallica Schott, A. indica var. rubra (Hassk.) Engl., A. indica var. variegata (C. Koch & Bouche) Schott, A. indica var. violacea Engl., A. macrorrhizos var. marmorata Furtado, A. macrorrhizos var. nigra Furtado, A. macrorrhizos var. rubra (Hassk.) Furtado, A. macrorrhizos var. variegata (C. Koch & Bouche) Furtado, A. metallica Schott, A. plumbea van Houtte, A. variegata C. Koch & Bouche, Caladium plumbeum C. Koch, Colocasia indica var. atroviridis Hassk., Colocasia indica var. rubra Hassk., Colocasia odorata var. rubra Hassk., etc. Although these are of horticultural significance in some cases, they are of little or no botanical interest and are not entered in this checklist (but see Furtado in Gard. Bull. Sing. 11 (1941) 244-257). It may be appropriate to recognize them at the level of cultivar. --A Hay et al., Blumea Suppl. 8 (1995) 17. Photos. Identified as A. odora by L. Co.
  8. Alocasia maquilingensis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 3; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 185; --Type: Baker 868 (?LBC, PNH ?lost), and several paratypes. Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  9. Alocasia micholitziana Sander, Gard. Chron. ser. 3, 51 suppl. (1912) xv, Fig. 9; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 185; --Type: NE Brown ex Hort. Sander (K). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Benguet. Thickets about limestone boulders, c. 1300m. Photos
  10. Alocasia nycteris Medecilo, GC Yao & Madulid, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1(2) (2007) 817, Figs. 1-3; --Type: MP Medicilo 397 (PNH, holo; DLSU, DLSU-D, iso), Panay: Aklan prov., Nabas, 11°54’18”N, 121° 59’ 43”E, 3 Nov 2005. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY: Aklan (Nabas). Photos
  11. Alocasia portei (Schott) Becc. & Engl. in DC., Monogr. Phan. 2 (1879) 645; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 185. Endemic to the Philippines. Photos.
  12. Alocasia ramosii A Hay, Gard. Bull. Sing. 51 (1999) 27. Endemic to the Philippines.
  13. Alocasia reversa NE Br., Gard. Chron. iii 8 (2) (1890) 38; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 185; --Type: NE Brown ex Hort. Sander s.n. (K). Described from material cultivated in Europe, said to be from the Philippines. 
  14. Alocasia sanderiana W Bull, Cat. (1884) 11; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 186; --Type: W. Bull, Cat. (1884) illus. p. 3; or NE Brown ex Bull (K) (specimen dated 1886). Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Misamis, Agusan. Damp low elevation primary forests. A very beautiful species common in greenhouse cultivation in Europe and America. Photos
  15. Alocasia scalprum A Hay, Gard. Bull. Sing. 51 (1999) 30. Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  16. Alocasia sinuata NE Br., Gard. Chron. n.s. 24 (1885) 252; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 186; --Type: NE Brown ex W. Bull (K). Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  17. Alocasia zebrina Schott ex van Houtte, Fl. des Serres et Jard. 15 (1863) 81; --Type: Fl. de Serres et Jard. 15 (1863) t. 1541-1542; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 186. Alocasia wenzelii Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 2; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 186; --Type: Wenzel 97 (not located, ?PNH ?lost; Wenzel duplicates widely distributed). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon. Primary forests at low and medium elevation. Precedes A. zebrina C. Koch & Veitch, Wochenschr. für Gartnerei u. Pflanzenkunde (1863) 331 by about four months. Photos

Uncertain Placement:

  1. Alocasia liervalii Herincq, L’Hortic. Franç. (1869) 243; --Type: Not traced. Said to have been discovered by Porte and brought into commerce by Lieval. Possible a synonym of Alocasia zebrina Schott ex van Houtte.

Invalid names:

  1. Alocasia talihan Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3614, invalid name, no Latin description; --Type: Elmer 17381 (NY, isotype). =Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott.
  2. Alocasia urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3699, invalid name, no Latin description; --Type: Elmer 13857 (not located) 

Amorphophallus Blume

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Amorphophallus adamsensis L.M.Magtoto, D.G.Mones, K.A.Ballada, C.M.Austria, R.M.Dizon, W.V.Alangui, A.A.Reginaldo, W.M.Galvan, K.T.Dizon & Hett., Blumea 58 (2013) 267; --Type: LKD 130 (University of the Philippines Baguio Northern Luzon Herbarium, holo), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Adams, 27-May-13. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte.
  2. Amorphophallus dactylifer Hett., Blumea 39 (1994) 252; --Type: PNH 78180 Gutierrez (L, holotype), Luzon: Isabela prov., Sierra Madre Mtns, San Mariano, Disulap, 500 ft, 18-May-1961. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela. Photos
  3. Amorphophallus declinatus Hett., Blumea 39 (1994) 252; --Type: Merrill 9419 (L, holo; BO, K, SING, US, iso). Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  4. Amorphophallus konjac K.Koch, Wochenschr. Gärtnerei Pflanzenk. 1(4): 262 (1858); --Amorphophallus rivieri Durieu var. konjac (K.Koch) Engl. in DC Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 313; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 180. China. Not native to the Philippines. Naturalized?
  5. Amorphophallus longispathaceus Engl. & Gehrm., Pflanzenreich 48 (iv.23 c) (1911) 91; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 179; --Type: Williams 2654 (PNH, ?lost). Note: Williams 2684 is cited as isotype in K webpage. Endemic to the Philippines.
  6. Amorphophallus luzoniensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 289; EPFP 1 (1922) 179; --Type: FB 19560 Curran (PNH, ?lost). Endemic to the Philippines.
  7. Amorphophallus merrillii K Krause, Notizb. Königl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 5 (1912) 266; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 180; --Type: BS 7177 Merrill (PNH, ?lost). Endemic to the Philippines.
  8. Amorphophallus natolii Hett., A.Wistuba, V.B.Amoroso, M. Medecilo & C.Claudel, Botanical Studies 53 (2012) 415; --Type: V.B. Amoroso s.n. (Central Mindanao University Herbarium, nr. CMUH 00007678, holo), Palawan, above El Nido town, on limestone cliffs overlooking the town, in small pockets or deep cracks with organic detritus (humus), 175-450 m, 14-Dec-2010. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Photos
  9. Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson, Taxon 26 (1977) 338; --Type: Mulenschena Rheede, Hort. Malab. 11 (1692) pl. 19. --Amorphophalus campanulatus Decne., Ann. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. 3 (1834) 366; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 179. Photos
  10. Amorphophallus palawanensis Bogner & Hett., Blumea 36 (1992) 467, Fig. 6-7; --Type: Bogner 2109 (M, holo), Palawan: Underground River, Piedras Point, Cliffs Head, 0-40m, growing in humus deposits on limestone; living tubers originally collected by O. Riegler, cultivated plants flowered in Munich Botanic Garden, 1991. Paratype: Hetterscheid H. AM. 124 (L), same origin as holotype. Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  11. Amorphophallus plicatus Bok & H.J.Lam, Blumea 2 (1936) 33. Indonesia, Philippines. PANAY: Iloilo. Photos
  12. Amorphophallus rostratus Hett., Blumea 39 (1994) 273; --Type: Loher 2433 (K, holo). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, MINDORO, PALAWAN, BALABAC, PANAY, MINDANAO. Low elevation forests and thickets.
  13. Amorphophallus salmoneus Hett., Blumea 39 (1994) 275; --Type: Hetterscheid H. AM.036-T (L). Endemic to the Philippines.
  14. Amorphophallus variabilis Blume, Rumphia 1 (1835) 146, t. 35, 37; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 180. From Hay et al. (1995) checklist, confined only to Java. Photos

Amydrium Schott

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2016

Photos
  1. Amydrium medium (Zoll. & Mor.) Nicolson, Blumea 15 (1968) 124. Epipremnopsis huegelii (Schott) Engl., 37 (IV.23B) (1908) 138; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 177, as ‘huegeliana’ Epipremnum truncatum Engl. & K Krause, 37 (IV.23B) (1908) 63; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 177; --Type: Elmer 7291 (B, PNH ?lost).
  2. Amydrium zippelianum (Schott) Nicolson, Blumea 16: 126 (1968). --Amydrium magnificum (Engl.) Nicolson, Blumea 15 (1968) 125; --Type: Beccari P.S. s.n. (B, FI), from Sulawesi. --Epipremnum elmerianum Engl., Planzenreich 37 (IV.23B) (1908) 66; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 177; --Type: Elmer 7295 (B destroyed, BO, G, K, PNH ?lost). --Epipremnum luzonense, K Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45 (1911) 659; --Type: Ramos 10052 (PNH ?lost). --Epipremnum miniatum Elmer ex Merr., LPB 10 (1938) 3622., invalid name, no Latin descr., --Type: based on Elmer 14522 (K, PNH ?lost, US), 15113 (K, PNH ?lost, US), 16422 (PNH ?lost). --Epipremnum philippinense Engl. & K Krause, 37 (IV.23B) (1908) 137; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 177; --Type: Elmer 7623 (B, PNH ?lost), 9253 (B, PNH ?lost). --Epipremnum sorsogonense Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 177; --Type: based on Elmer 16422 (K, US, PNH ?lost). --Rhaphidophora warburgii Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37 (1905) 116; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 176; --Type: Warburg (B). Central Malesia to New Guinea, Talaud Isls, SW and SE Sulawesi, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon, BILIRAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan. Low to medium elevation (at least to 650m) primary forests, sometimes reported in secondary forests but perhaps a survivor instead of an invader. Photos

Anadendron =Anadendrum 

Anadendrum Schott

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 October 2016

No Photos

  1. Anadendrum latifolium Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6 (1893) 540. China to W and C Malesia, Philippines.
  2. Anadendrum microstachyum (de Vriese & Miq.) Backer & Alderw., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 1 (1920) 371. China, Thailand to C Malesia, Philippines.
  3. Anadendrum montanum Schott, Bonplandia 5 (1857) 45; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 174.

Arisaema Mart.

Edited by James V. LaFrankie & Pieter B. Pelser, 3 April 2016

Photos
  1. Arisaema filiforme Blume, Rumphia 1 (1836) 102. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines. PALAWAN. Photos
  2. Arisaema laminatum Blume, Rumphia 1 (1836) 99; --Arisaema cuspidatum (non Engl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 188 (based on Merrill 9339); --Type: Rumphia 1 (1835) t. 27 (or material in L?). Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines. PALAWAN. Low elevation primary forests.
  3. Arisaema polyphyllum (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 27 (1905) 90; EPFP 1 (1922) 188. Photos

Caladium Vent.

[Not native]

Photos
  1. Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Vent., Jard. Cels. (1800) t. 30; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 187. Native of S America. Cultivated for its variegated leaves. Occasionally escaping from cultivation but never far away from settlements. Photos

Colocasia Schott

Photos

  1. Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, in Schott & Endl., Melet. Bot. (1832) 18; --Type: Sloane, Voy. Jamaica Nat. Hist. 2 (1725) t. 106, f. 1; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 186, as “esculentum”.  Photos.
  2. Colocasia formosana Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 8 (1919) 133. LUZON: Mountain Province, Ifugao and Bontoc. Photos

Cryptocoryne Fisch. ex Wydler

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Cryptocoryne aponogetifolia Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 370; EPFP 1 (1922) 189; --Type: BS 31119 Ramos & Edaño (B, BM, K, L, P, SING, US). Endemic to the Philippines.
  2. Cryptocoryne auriculata Engl., Bull. Soc. Tosc. Ortic. 4 (1879) 302. Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO, PALAWAN.
  3. Cryptocoryne coronata Bastm. & Wijng. Aqua Pl. 24(1) ()1999 23-28, Figs. –Type: van Wijngaarden sn, (L, holo; C, M, K, iso), Cult. ex Mindanao, 18-Nov -998. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO. 
  4. Cryptocoryne pygmaea Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 371; EPFP 1 (1922) 189; --Type: Merrill 8174; Copeland s.n. (according to Rataj both probably destroyed during the war. Neotype (Rataj): Ebalo 717 (GH, PNH, MICH, neo). Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  5. Cryptocoryne usteriana Engl. in Usteri, Vierteljahrsschr. Naturf. Ges. Zurich 50 (1905) 452; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 189; --Type: Usteri s.n., Guimaras (B, K). Note: This species has for some years been assumed to be identical with C. aponogetifolia, but live material from GUIMARAS (leg. Bogner) has proven that it is clearly distinct. Also described as “new” by Engler in Engler & Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54, Beibl. 118 (1916) 125. Endemic to the Philippines. Photos

Cyrtosperma Griff.

Photos
  1. Cyrtosperma merkusii (Hassk.) Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7 (1857) 61; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 179. 

Epipremnopsis Engl. =Amydrium

Epipremnum Schott

Photos
  1. Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl., Pflanzenreich 37 (IV.23B) (1908) 60; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 177; PC Boyce, Blumea 43 (1998) 201, f. 5; --Type: Appendix laciniata Rumph., Herb. Amb. 5 (1747) 489, t. 183, fig. 2; --Rhaphidophora pinnata (L.) Schott, Prod. Syst. Aroid. (1860) 385. --Epipremnum angustilobum K Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45 (1911) 659; --Type: BS 12587 Fenix (B, PNH ?lost). --Epipremnum glaucicephalum Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3620., Anglice, non rite publice; --Type: Elmer 15135 (K, MO, PNH ?lost). --Epipremnum merrilii Engl & K Krause, Pflanzenreich 37 (IV.23B) (1908) 137; --Raphidophora merrillii Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 37 (1905) 115; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 175; --Type: BS 5883 Curran (B, PNH ?lost). Tenasserim to New Guinea and Polynesia. LUZON: La Union, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, POLILLO, PALAWAN, NEGROS, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Davao. Thickets and forests from sea level to medium elevation. Photos

Dubious species:

  1. Epipremnum robinsonii K Krause, Notizbl. Königl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 5 (1912) 266; --Type: BS 9181 Robinson (PNH ?lost). With no surviving type found and no traceable authentic material, the identity of Krause’s E. robinsonii is unresolved (Boyce, p. 211). 

Homalomena Schott

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 October 2016

Photos
  1. Homalomena gaudichaudii Schott, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 1 (1864) 280. Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Ils.?, Thailand?, Philippines
  2. Homalomena palawanensis Engl. ex Engl. & K Krause, Pflanzenreich 55. (iv.23Da) (1912) 39; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 180; --Type: BS 912 Foxworthy (B). --Homalomena elmeri Engl. ex Engl. & K Krause, Pflanzenreich 55. (iv.23Da) (1912) 42; --Merr., EPFP 1 1923) 180; --Type: Elmer 13229 (B, K). Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Photos
  3. Homalomena philippinensis Engl. ex Engl. & K Krause, Pflanzenreich 55. (iv.23Da) (1912) 55; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 180; --Type: Warburg 12492 (B, lost?, Bermejos 1526 (PNH ?lost), Ahern 3431 (PNH ?lost), Loher 2451 (CAL), Merrill 7279 (B ?lost), Piper 266 (PNG ?lost), Robinson 6933 (B ?lost), Balansa 4819 (P), Tulmy s.n. (P) LUZON: La Union, Isabela, Pangasinan, Pampanga, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PANAY, PALAWAN, LEYTE, BILIRAN, NEGROS, MINDANAO. Along small streams in primary forests at low elevation; common. Photos
  4. Homalomena pygmaea (Hassk.) Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25 (1898) 18; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 181.

Lemna L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 October 2016

Photos
  1. Lemna aequinoctialis Welw., Apont. (1859) 578. --Lemna paucicostata Hegelm., Lemnac. (1868) 139. Tropics and subtropics.
  2. Lemna minor L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 970. Cosmopolitan.
  3. Lemna perpusilla Torrey, Fl. New York 2 (1843) 245.
  4. Lemna trisulca L., Sp. Pl. ed. I (1753) 970.

Pistia L.

[Not native]

Photos
  1. Pistia stratiotes L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 963; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 130; EPFP 1 (1922) 189. Origin supposedly Lake Victoria in Africa, now introduced in the Neo- and Paleotropics. Photos

Pothoidium Schott

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Pothoidium lobbianum Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7 (1857) 70; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 174; --Boyce & A Hay, Teleopea 9 (2001) 559, f. 51; --Type: Lobb s.n. (K, holo). Luzon: ‘Manila’ Lanyu, the Philippines, Sulawesi, and Moluccas (Halmahera, Bacan). BATAN (Mt Iraya), LUZON: Apayao, Benguet (Baguio), Cagayan (Peñablanca), Isabela (Palanan), Bataan (Mt Mariveles; Lamao River; Morong), Rizal (Montalban; Boso-boso; Tanay), Laguna (Los Baños; Mt Makiling), Cavite, Batangas, Quezon (Atimonan; Guinayangan), Camarines Norte (Basud, Mt Nilisan), Camarines Sur (Bicol Ntional Park; Mt Isarog), Albay (Mt Malinao), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Pola River; Mt Yagaw), NEGROS (Mt Canlaon), BILIRAN, LEYTE, SAMAR: Catubig River; Western Samar (Bagacay), MINDANAO: Davao del Sur (Sta Cruz), Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta; Butuan), Surigao del Norte. Primary to disturbed lowland to hill forest on a variety of substrates including clays and volcanic-derived soils, 30–500 m. Photos

Pothos L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Pothos cylindricus C.Presl, Epim. Bot. (1849) 243; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 172; --Boyce & A Hay, Teleopea 9 (2001) 488, f. 13; --Type: Cuming 914 (PRG, holo; BM, E, FI, G, K, L, MO, P, iso), Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Camarines Sur, Sorsogon, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Compostela Valley, Davao. Primary and secondary lowland to upper hill forest, often in well-drained sites, 40–900m. Photos
  2. Pothos dolichophyllus Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 4; --Boyce & A Hay, Teleopea 9 (2001) 495, f. 16; --Pothos rumphii Schott var. dolichophyllus (Merr.) Nicolson, Amer. J. Bot. 54 (1967) 496; --Type: BS 23708 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost?; P, US, iso), Luzon, Sorsogon Prov., Jul/Aug-1915. --Pothos acuminatissimus Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) 175; EPFP 1 (1922) 172; --Type: BS 24125 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost?; US, iso), Samar, Catubig River at Tagabiran, 10-Feb-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Camarines Sur, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, PALAWAN, LEYTE, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Compostela Valley, Lanao del Norte, Surigao. Primary to secondary dipterocarp forest in valleys, on slopes and ridges, 110–900m. Photos
  3. Pothos inaequilaterus (C.Presl) Engl., in DC, Monogr. Phan. 2 (1879) 88; Pflanzenreich 21 (IV.23B) (1905) 37; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 172; --Boyce & A Hay, Teleopea 9 (2001) 528, f. 36. --Scindapsus inaequilaterus C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1851) 240. --Pothos cumingianus Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 5 (1855) 19 (‘cummingianus’) & Aroideae, 24 (1856–1857) t.50 & Prodr. Syst. Aroid. (1860) 570–571, nom. superfl. pro P. inaequilaterus; --Type: Cuming 908 (PRG, holo; BM, E, G, K, L, LE, M, P, iso), Luzon: Albay Prov., 1841. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Camarines Norte, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Compostela Valley, Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte. Secondary forest, 400–900m.
  4. Pothos insignis Engl., Bull. Soc. Tosc. Ortic. 4 (1879) 267; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 1 (1881) 180; Pflanzenreich 21(IV.23B) (1905) 39–40; --Boyce & Poulsen, Kew Bull. 49 (1994) 523–528; --Boyce & A Hay, Teleopea 9 (2001) 508, f. 41; --Type from Sarawak. --Pothos basilanensis Furtado, nom. nud. in sched. BM. Borneo (Kalimantan, Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah), Philippines. PALAWAN, BASILAN. Lianescent, hemi-epiphytic or lithophytic trunk or treelet climber at base of ridges or near rivers in primary to disturbed primary mixed dipterocarp forest on shales or limestone, 10–1200m. Photos
  5. Pothos luzonensis (C.Presl) Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 5 (1855) 19; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 173; --Engl. in A & C DC, Monogr. Phan. 2 (1879) 93–94 & in Engl., Pflanzenreich 21(IV.23B) (1905) 42–43; --Boyce & A Hay, Teleopea 9 (2001) 550, f. 47; --Goniurus luzonensis C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1851) 244. –Type: Cuming 1045 (PRG, holo; BM, E, G, K, L, LE, M, MO, P, iso), Luzon, Albay Prov., 1841. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, SAMAR. Dense hill to upper hill forest, 700–1100m.
  6. Pothos ovatifolius Engl., Pflanzenreich 21 (iv.23B) (1905) 40; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 173; -- Boyce & A Hay, Teleopea 9 (2001) 497 f. 17; --Type: Vidal 3969 (K, holo), Luzon, Albay, Mar-1886. --Pothos merrillii K Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45 (1911) 657; --Type: Merrill BS 7211 (B, holo), Siquijor: Sep-1910. Sumatra (P. Simeulue, Benkulu, P. Enggano), Peninsular Malaysia (P. Tioman), Borneo (Sarawak, Sabah), Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Camarines Sur, Sorsogon, PALAWAN, BALABAC, NEGROS, SIQUIJOR, BOHOL, LEYTE, SAMAR, BASILAN, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, South Cotabato, Davao del Norte, Agusan del Norte. Primary to degraded secondary lowland to lower montane forest, 70-1400m. Photos
  7. Pothos philippinensis Engl., Pflanzenreich 21 (iv.23B) (1905) 315; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 173; --Type: FB 369 Barnes (B, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan prov., Lamao River, Mar-1904. --Pothos peninsularis Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3628 [non Alderw. (1920)], not validly published; no Latin descr. --Voucher: Elmer 17050 (A, MO, NY), Luzon, Sorsogon Prov., Irosin (Mt Bulusan), Aug-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Isabela, Nueva Ecija (Mt Umingan), Bulacan (Angat), Bataan (Lamao), Rizal, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), PALAWAN (Penigisan; Mt Pulgar), SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting). Lowland to hill, primary to secondary rainforest, 20–650m.
  8. Pothos scandens L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 698; --Boyce & A Hay, Teleopea 9 (2001) 461, f. 1 & 2. --Pothos hermaphroditus (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 90; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 172; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java, 3 (1968) 104; --Batis hermaphrodita Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed.1 (1837) 791; --Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 57 (K, neo), Luzon, Laguna Prov., Mt Makiling, Nov-1912. --Pothos longifolius C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1849) 242; --Schott, Aroideae (1856–1857) 22, t.34 & Prodr. Syst. Aroid. (1860) 563–564; --Engl. in A & C DC, Monogr. Phan. 2 (1879) 82–83 & in Engl., Pflanzenreich 21 (IV.23B) (1905) 25, nom. illeg., non Pothos longifolius Hoffmans., Verz. Pfl. 102: Nachtr. 3 (1826) 53 (Mexico) nec Pothos longifolius Link & Otto ex Steud., Nom. ed. 2 (1841) 391 (Venezuela); --Type: Cuming 682 (PRG, holo; BM, E, G, K, P, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov. Widespread from Madagascar, through India and the Himalaya to SW China, S through Indochina. In Malesia: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, the Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa), and Moluccas. On trees and rocks in primary and secondary wet to dry lowland to hill evergreen tropical to subtropical forest, occasionally on sea cliffs, in hedges or scrub or in coconut plantations, on a variety of substrates including clay, limestone and granite. Sea-level to 1000m. LUZON: Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, Camarines Sur, Albay, MINDORO, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Photos
  9. Pothos tener Wall., in Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 454 ‘tenera’; --Boyce & A Hay, Teleopea 9 (2001) 490, f. 14, 15. --Pothos rumphii (C.Presl) Schott, Aroideae 1 (1853) 24; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 173. --Scindapsus arborum C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1851) 242. --Scindapsus tener (Wall.) C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1851) 242.  --Pothos gracilis Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 454; Schott, Aroideae (1856–1857) 24, t.52 & Prodr. Syst. Aroid. (1860) 572–573; Miq., Flora Ned. Indië 3 (1856) 181–182; Engl. in A. & C. DC, Monogr. Phan. 2 (1879) 91–92, nom. illeg., non Pothos gracilis Rudge (1805). --Adpendix arborum Rumph., Herb. Amb. 5 (1747) t.181, fig.2, see below. --Pothos rumphii Schott in Schott & Endl., Melet. Bot. (1832) 21 & Aroideae (1856–1857) 24 & Prodr. Syst. Aroid. (1860) 572; Engl. in A. & C. DC., Monogr. Phan. 2 (1879) 89–90 & Bull. Soc. Tosc. Ortic. 4 (1879) 267 & in Becc., Malesia 1 (1882) 263 & Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25 (1898) 4; K. Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Schutzgeb. Südsee (1901) 210; Engl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 21 (IV.23B) (1905) 38–39, Fig.16; Engl. & K Krause, Nova Guinea 8 (1910) 247; Merr., Enum. Philippine Pl. 1 (1922) 173; Elmer, Leafl. Philippine Bot. 10(133) (1938) 3628; Hay in Johns & Hay, Stud. Guide Monocot. Papua New Guinea 1 (1981) fig.28; Peekel ex Henty, Fl. Bismarck Archipelago (1984) 66, fig.108; Hay, Aroids of Papua New Guinea (1990) fig.33; Hay, Blumea 40 (1995) 402–404. --Scindapsus rumphii (Schott) C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1851) 242. --Adpendix porcellanica Rumph., Herb. Amboin. 5 (1747) t.182, fig.1. --Pothos rumphii Schott var. giganteus Engl. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25 (1898) 4; K. Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Schutzgeb. Südsee (1901) 210; Engl. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 21 (IV.23B) (1905) 38–39; Engl. & K Krause, Nova Guinea 8 (1910) 247.

Rhaphidophora Hassk.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Rhaphidophora acuminata Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 265; EPFP 1 (1922) 175; --Type: Wenzel 1139 (MO, PNH ?lost). --Rhaphidophora lagunensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3072; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 175; --Type: Elmer 17812 (BM, FI, K, L, MO, PNH ?lost). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: LAGUNA, BATANGAS, SORSOGON, LEYTE. Primary forests from low elevation to 1100m.
  2. Rhaphidophora banosensis PC Boyce, Gard. Bull. Sing. 52 (2000) 222, f. 2; --Rhaphidophora stenophylla Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3073, nom. illeg.; non K Krause (1912); --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 176; --Type: Elmer 18449 (MO, PNH ?lost). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna (Mt Makiling). Forest margins at low elevation. 
  3. Rhaphidophora conocephala Alderw., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 1 (1920) 384. Borneo, Sumatra, Philippines. PALAWAN.
  4. Rhaphidophora cretosa Boyce, Gard. Bull. Sing. 52 (2000) 228. Scindapsus fragilis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3702; --Type: Elmer 13658 (K, MO, NY, PNH ?lost). Endemic to the Philippines.
  5. Rhaphidophora elmeri Engl. & K Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 44, Beibl. 101 (1910) 11; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 175; --Type: Elmer 9268 (L, PNH ?lost). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Sorsogon, NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns). Forests at medium elevation. 
  6. Rhaphidophora korthalsii Schott, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1863) 129. --Rhaphidophora copelandii Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37 (1905) 115; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 175; --Type: Copeland 1193 (B, PNH ?lost). --Rhaphidophora grandifolia K Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 44, Beibl. 101 (1910) 11; --Merr., EPFP 1 1922) 175; --Type: Elmer 9464 (B, K, LE, MO, PNH ?lost). --Rhaphidophora palawanensis Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 451; EPFP 4 (1924) 247; --Type: Merrill 11570, Palawan. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Laguna, PALAWAN, NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Forests and thickets, 400-1600m.
  7. Rhaphidophora liukiuensis Hatusima, Acta Phytotax. et Geobot. 20 (1962) 57, f. 1. Ryukyus (Yaeyama), ?Taiwan (Lanyu), Philippines. BATAN: Mt Iraya, in thickets, 300m. Locally frequent. Hatusima 28919.
  8. Rhaphidophora lobbii Schott, Prodr. Syst. Aroid. (1860) 379. Borneo, Java, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Philippines.
  9. Rhaphidophora minor Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6 (1893) 544. Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Philippines.
  10. Rhaphidophora monticola K Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 44, Beibl. 101 (1910) 12; --Merr., EPFP 1(1922) 176; --Type: Elmer 10098 (BM FI, K, L, LE, MO, PNH ?lost). --Rhaphidophora bulusanensis Merr. ex Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3630; --Type: Elmer 16790 (FI, K, L, NY, MO, PNH ?lost). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, NEGROS, LEYTE. Primary forests, ascending into the mossy forest, 700-1200m. Photos
  11. Rhaphidophora perkinsae Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37 (1905) 115; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 176 as ‘perkinsiae’; --Type: Loher 2458 (K), 2459 (K), 2460 (K), Elmer 6305 (K, NY, PNH ?lost). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon. In primary forests on trees and in thickets about limestone cliffs and boulders, 1000-1600m.
  12. Rhaphidophora philippinensis Engl. & K Krause, Pflanzenreich 37 (iv.23B) (1908) 137; -- Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 176; --Type: Clemens 1299 (B, PNH ?lost). --Rhaphidophora rigida K Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45 (1911) 657; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 176; --Type: Elmer 10220 (B, K, NY, MO, PNH ?lost). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, NEGROS, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Lanao, Agusan. Forests from the lowlands to c. 1250m. 
  13. Rhaphidophora todayensis K Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45 (1911) 658; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 176; --Type: Elmer 10849 (B, BM, FI, K, L, NY, MO, PNH ?lost). Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO, MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo, Todaya). Forests at low elevation. 

Status Uncertain:

  1. Rhaphidophora sylvestris (Blume) Engl. in DC, Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 239;--Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 248. Java, Borneo, Philippines, New Guinea. PALAWAN: BS 15527 Fenix. 

Schismatoglottis Zoll. & Moritzi

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Schismatoglottis bogneri A Hay, Telopea 9 (2000) 105; --Type: J Bogner 1629 (M, holo; K, iso), Luzon: Ifugao prov., near Banawe, 22-Jun-1983. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya (Dupax), Laguna (Mt Makiling), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Puerto Galera). Forest edges, along trail, low elevation to 1500m. Photos
  2. Schismatoglottis calyptrata (Roxb.) Zoll. & Moritzi, Syst. Verz. (1846) 83; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 181; --A Hay & Yuzammi, Telopea 9 (2000) 106; --Calla calyptrata Roxb., Fl. Ind. 3 (1842) 514. --Arisarum esculentum Rump., Herb. Amboin. 5 (1747) t. 111, Fig. 1 (Lecto, selected by A Hay, 1996); --Epitype: Zippelius sn (L, designated by A Hay, 2000) from Moluccas, Ambon. SW China to Indochina eastward to Vanuatu, throughout Malesia except for extremely seasonal areas. LUZON: Bataan, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas (Mt Mukulod), Quezon, Albay, ALABAT, CATANDUANES (San Miguel, Tagbak), PANAY, LEYTE, SAMAR (Mt Sarawag; Catubig River), MINDANAO: Compostela Valley, Agusan (Esperanza), Davao (Mt McKinley; Mt Apo), South Cotabato (Koronadal; Mt Matutum). Lowland and lower montane forests, usually along forest edges and stream banks, damp cliffs and other wet and well-drained sites. 
  3. Schismatoglottis edanoi Hay, Telopea 9 (2000) 121; --Type: PNH 15317 Edaño (GH, holo; iso L). Samar: Mt Sarawag, forest on ridge top c. 150m, 3-Dec-1951. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Known only from the type locality.
  4. Schismatoglottis ifugaoensis S.Y.Wong, Bogner & P.C. Boyce, Willdenowia 41 (2011) 101; --Type: J. Bogner 1630 (M; iso), Luzon: Ifugao prov., near Banaue, c. 1500 m, 22-June-1983. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao.
  5. Schismatoglottis luzonensis Engl., Pflanzenreich 55 (iv.23Da) (1912) 88, not 121 (=S. plurivenia). --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 182, pro parte, excluding BS 30875 (=S plurivenia Alderw.); --A Hay & Yuzammi, Telopea 9 (2000) 128; --Type: Merrill 5047 (PNH, holo, lost; BS 75547 Ramos & Edano (NY, SING, UC, neo), Catanduanes. LUZON: Rizal (Montalban), Quezon (Guinayangan, Hinakaan), Camarines Sur (Kamugong River). Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, PANAY: Capiz (Agsaman River; Jamindan), BOHOL, MINDANAO: Bukidnon (vicinity of Tanculan). On boulders and steep embankments along forest streams, low elevation up to 300m. 
  6. Schismatoglottis merrillii Engl., Pflanzenreich 55 (iv.23Da) (1912) 89; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 182; --A Hay & Yuzammi, Telopea 9 (2000) 129; --Schismatoglottis ramosii Engl., Pflanzenreich 55 (iv.23Da) (1912) 98; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 182; --Type: BS 12679 Fenix (PNH, holo, lost; B, lecto; B, BM, K, US, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet prov., Sablang (=Sablan), Nov-1910. --Schismatoglottis rizalensis Engl., Pflanzenreich 55 (iv.23Da) (1912) 100; --Type: FB 3351 Ahern’s collector (B, holo; K, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra (Massisiat), Mountain Province, Benguet (Baguio; Sablan), Rizal (Montalban; Arambibi), Quezon (Guinayangan, Hinakaan). Cliffs and ledges along forest streams, from low elevation (in S Luzon) to 1200-1800m in the highlands of N Luzon.
  7. Schismatoglottis mindanaoana Engl., Pflanzenreich 55 (iv.23Da) (1912) 103; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 182; --A Hay & Yuzammi, Telopea 9 (2000) 130; --Syntypes: MS Clemens 1225, Merrill 7320, Elmer 11753. None survives at B, rest cited as at BS Manila, presumed lost; duplicates not yet located; --Neotype: Elmer 13489; BO, G, GH, K, L, NY, U, UC, isoneo), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley), Davao (Mt Apo), Agusan del Norte (Agusan River), Surigao del Norte (Mt Kabatuan). Lithophytic along small forest streams, lithophytic (but not rheophytic), low and medium elevation up to 800m.
  8. Schismatoglottis prietoi P.C.Boyce, Medecilo & S.Y.Wong, Willdenowia 45 (2015) 407; --Type: Esquerion P. Prieto AR-4342 (PNH, holo; SAR, iso), Cebu: 25-Oct-2013. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, CEBU. Photos
  9. Schismatoglottis plurivenia Alderw., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 4 (1922) 209; --A Hay & Yuzammi, Telopea 9 (2000) 139; --Type: FB 1243 Borden (B, holo; NY, US, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, Jun-1904. --Schismatoglottis luzonensis Engl., Pflanzenreich 55 (iv.23Da) (1912) 121, not 88; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 182, excluding Merrill 5047. --Schismatoglottis latifolia auct. non Miq.: Engl. Pflanzenreich 55 (iv.23Da) (1912) 117, pro parte, quoad specim. cit. Philipp.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 182 (both as ‘var. viridis Engl.’, i.e. nom. superfl. pro var. typ.); --Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3634. --Alocasia merrillii Engl. & K Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54, Beibl. 118 (1916) 124; --K Krause & Engl., Pflanzenreich 71 (iv.23E) (1920) 79, non Schismatoglottis merrillii Engl. (1912); --Type: Merrill 8072 (B, holo), Mindanao: Zamboanga. --Schismatoglottis cardiophylla Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 136; --Type: BS 45387 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost?; K, NY, UC, US, iso), Luzon: Aurora prov., Casiguran, 11-Jun-1905. Philippines, Talaud Isls, C Sulawesi. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Aurora (Casiguran), Zambales (Mt Pinatubo), Pampanga (Mt Abu), Bataan (Mt Mariveles, Lamao River), Rizal (Mt Lumutan), Laguna (Mt Makiling), Cavite (Mendez Nuñes), Camarines Norte (Mt Bagacay; Paracale), Camarines Sur (Mt Isarog; Ponawa River), Albay (Guinobatan, Banao), Sorsogon (Irosin, Mt Bulusan), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mansalay, Mt Yagaw), PALAWAN (Aborlan, Mt Apis; Imolnod; Mt Mantalingahan), NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), Negros Occidental (Mt Katugasan), LEYTE: Leyte, SAMAR: Western Samar (Loquilocon), MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao del Sur (vicinity of Malabang), Davao Oriental (Mt Mansamuga), Agusan del Norte (Agusan River). Lowland forests, especially along wet ravines and stream embankments, ascending to 600m.
  10. Schismatoglottis pusilla Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 1 (1881) 184; --A Hay & Yuzammi, Telopea 9 (2000) 142; --Type: Jagor 1018a (B, holo). Leyte. --Schismatoglottis irosinensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3632 (invalid name, no Latin), based on: Elmer 14594 (BM, G, K, L, U, UC, US). --Schismatoglottis hastata Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3701 (invalid name, no Latin), based on: Elmer 17828 (K, GH, NY). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna (Mt Makiling), Sorsogon (Irosin, Mt Bulusan), CATANDUANES: Catanduanes (Masangasibaki), PANAY: Antique (Mt Balingaso, 10km NE of Libertad), Capiz (Jamindan), LEYTE. Wet places in forest floor, 350-1000m.
  11. Schismatoglottis samarensis A Hay in A Hay & Yuzammi, Telopea 9 (2000) 143; --Type: PNH 6043 Sulit (GH, holo), Samar: Western Samar prov., Loquilocon, Apr/May-1948. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Known from two collections. Primary rainforest, possibly on limestone, c. 100m. 
  12. Schismatoglottis warburgiana Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25 (1898) 20; --Engl. Pflanzenreich 55 (iv.23Da) (1912) 90, Fig. 57; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 182; --A Hay & Yuzammi, Telopea 9 (2000) 159. –Type: Warburg 14605 (B, holo, 2 sheets), Mindanao: Davao prov., Sagapan. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Known only from the type collection. Lowland hill forest with ebony, c. 600m. 

Scindapsus Schott

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 January 2013

Photos
  1. Scindapsus curranii Engl. & K Krause, Pflanzenreich 37 (iv.23B) (1908) 138; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 178; --Type: FB 8014 Curran & Merritt (B, PNH ?lost), FB 8027 Curran & Merritt (PNH ?lost). --Scindapsus philippinensis K Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45 (1911) 660; --Type: Merrill PNH 7303 (B, PNH ?lost). Borneo, Philippines. Photos
  2. Scindapsus cuscuaria (Aublet) C.Presl, Epim. Bot. (1849) 242. Java (naturalized), Philippines (naturalized?) 
  3. Scindapsus falcifolius K Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37 (1905) 119; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 178. --Type from Sulawesi. Sulawesi. Not accredited to the Philippines in Hay et al. (1995) checklist. Merrill cites a Warburg specimen from JOLO (B). 
  4. Scindapsus hederaceus Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 3 (1856) 185; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 178. S Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Sabah), Java, Philippines. 
  5. Scindapsus pictus Hassk., Flora 25 (2), Beibl. 1 (1842) 11. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Sabah, Brunei, Sarawak, Kalimantan), Sulawesi, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, CATANDUANES, NEGROS, LEYTE. In primary forests at low elevation. Includes S. argyraeus. Photos
  6. Scindapsus treubii Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25(1-2) (1898) 13. Java, Borneo, Philippines (Peter Boyce, 13-Jan-13). AURORA. Photos

Spathiphyllum Schott

Photos
  1. Spathiphyllum commutatum Schott, Osterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7 (1857) 158; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 178. Pacific islands, New Guinea (Papua), Moluccas, Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Tayabas, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, POLILLO, BILIRAN, MINDORO, LEYTE, MINDANAO. In damp primary forests at low and medium elevation. Photos

Spirodela Schleid.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 October 2016

Photos
  1. Spirodela oligorrhiza (Kurz) Hegelm., Lemnac. (1868) 147. Widespread in Africa, Asia, and Pacific, Philippines.
  2. Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. Linnaea 13 (1839) 392; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922). Cosmopolitan. Photos

Syngonium Schott

[Not native]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 March 2013

Photos
  1. Syngonium podophyllum Schott, Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 9 (1851) 85. Naturalized from South America. Photos

Typhonium Schott

[Not native]

Photos
  1. Typhonium blumei Nicolson & Sivadasan, Blumea 27 (1981) 494. Introduced in Australia, Sulawesi, Philippines and elsewhere. 
  2. Typhonium flagelliforme (Lodd.) Blume, Rumphia 1 (1837) 134; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 187. Australia, New Guinea (Papua), Lesser Sunda Isls, Java, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Philippines. Photos
  3. Typhonium roxburghii Schott, Aroideae 2 (1855) t. 17. Typhonium divaricatum (L.) Decne. var. motleyanum (Schott) Engl., in DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 612; -- Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 187. Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo (Sabah, Brunei, Sarawak, Kalimantan), Sulawesi, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea (Papua). Introduced in the Philippines. Photos
  4. Typhonium trilobatum (L.) Schott, Wien. Zeitschr. Für Kunst, Literatur, Theater, Mode (23rd June 1829) 732. Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo (Sarawak), Philippines (Introduced?). Photos

Wolffia Horkel ex Schleid.

Photos
  1. Wolffia globosa (Roxb.) Hartog & Plas, Blumea 18 (1970) 367.
  2. Wolffia arrhiza (non Wimmer) Martens.

Zantedeschia Spreng.

[Not native]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 October 2016

Photos
  1. Zantedeschia aethiopica (L.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3 (1826) 765. S. Africa, introduced elsewhere. Naturalized in the Philippines? Photos

Literature

Arends, J. C., J. D. Bastmeijer & N. Jacobsen.1982. Chromosome numbers and taxonomy in Cryptocoryne (Araceae). II. Nordic Journal of Botany 2: 453–463.

Bogner, J, A Hay. 2000. Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) in Malesia: 2. Aridarum, Bucephalandra, Phymatarum and Piptospatha. Telopea 9: 179-222.

Bogner, J, WLA Hetterscheid. 1992. Notes on the genus Amorphophallus (Araceae) 1. Three new species from tropical Asia. Blumea 36: 467-475

Boyce, PC. 1998. The genus Epipremnum Schott (Araceae-Monsteroideae-Monstereae) in West and Central Malesia. Blumea 43: 183-213

Boyce, PC. 2000. The genus Rhaphidophora Hassk. (Araceae-Monteroideae-Montereae) in the Philippines. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 52: 213-256.

Boyce, PC & A Hay. 2001. A taxonomic revision of Araceae Tribe Potheae (Pothos, Pothoidium, Pedicellarum) for Malesia, Australia and the tropical western Pacific. Teleopea 9: 449-572.

Boyce, PC, MP Medecilo & WS Yeng. 2015. A new and remarkable aquatic species of Schismatoglottis (Araceae) from the Philippines. Willdenowia 45: 405-408

Bunting, GS. 1962. The genus Schizocasia (Araceae). Baileya 10: 112-120.

Engler, A. 1911. 40. Amorphophallus Blume. Das Pflanzenreich IV. 23 C: 61-109.

Furtado, CX. 1939. Araceae Malesicae II. Notes on some Indo-Malaysian Homalomena species. Gardens’ Bulletin Straits Settlement 10: 183-238.

Gusman, G, L. Gusman, E. Gouda, P. Bongaerts & J. van Gijn. Key to Arisaema species of the world.

Hartog, C den & F van der Plas. 1970. A synopsis of the Lemnaceae. Blumea 18: 355-368

Hay, A. 1988. Cyrtosperma (Araceae) and its Old World Allies. Blumea 33: 427-469

Hay, A. 1993. The genus Typhonium (Araceae-Areae) in Australasia. Blumea 37: 345-376

Hay, A, PB Boyce, WLA Hetterscheid, N Jacobsen, J Murata & J Bogner. 1995. Checklist of the Araceae of Malesia, Australia, and the tropical western Pacific region. Blumea supplement 8: 1-161

Hay, A, WLA Hetterscheid, J Murata, PC Boyce, J Bogner & N Jacobsen. 1995. Botanical bibliography of the Araceae of Malesia, Australia, and the tropical western Pacific region. Blumea supplement 8: 163-210

Hay, A. 1999. Alocasia in the Philippines. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 51: pp ?.

Hay, A & R Wise, 1991. The genus Alocasia in Australasia. Blumea 37: 499-545

Hay, A & Yuzammi. 2000. Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) in Malesia I. Telopea 9 (1): 1-177.

Hetterscheid, WLA. 1994. Notes on the genus Amorphophallus (Araceae) 2. New species from tropical Asia. Blumea 39: 237-281

Hetterscheid, WLA, A Wistuba, VB Amoroso, MP Medecilo, C Claudel. 2012. Amorphophallus natolii (Araceae), a new species from limestone on Palawan, Philippines. Botanical Studies 53: 415-420.

Jacobsen, N. 1985. The Cryptocoryne (Araceae) of Borneo. Nordic Journal of Botany 5: 31-50.

Jacobsen, N & M Mansor, 1995. The Cryptocoryne of the Peninsular Malaysia. Nordic Journal of Botany 15.

Magtoto, LM, DG Mones, KA Ballada, CM Austria, RM Dizon, WV Alangui, AA Reginaldo, WM Galvan, KT Dizon & WLA Hetterscheid. 2013. Amorphophallus adamsensis (Araceae), a new species from Ilocos Norte, Philippines. Blumea 58: 267–270

Mayo, SJ, J Bogner & PC Boyce. 1997. The genera of Araceae. Royal Botanic Garden Kew.

Medecilo, MP & DA Madulid. 2013. A review of the taxonomy and taxonomic characters of Philippine Alocasia (Schott) G.Don (Araceae). Philippine Journal of Science 142: 145-157.

Murata, J. 1990. Present status of Arisaema systematics. Botanical Magazine Tokyo 103: 371-382.

Nicolson, DH. 1968. The genus Xenophya Schott. Blumea 16: 115-118


Nicolson, DH. 1968. The genus Spathiphyllum in the East Malesian and West Pacific islands. Blumea 16: 119-121

Nicolson, DH. 1968. A revision of Amydrium (Araceae). Blumea 16: 123-127

Nicolson, DH. 1969. A revision of the genus Aglaonema (Araceae). Smithsonian Contribution to Botany 11: 1-69.

Nicolson, DH. 1977. (429) Proposal to change the typification of 723 Amorphophallus, nom. cons. (Araceae). Taxon 26: 337-338.

Petersen, G. 1989. Cytology and systematics of Araceae. Nordic Journal of Botany 9: 119-166.

Plas, F van der. 1971. Lemnaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 7: 219-237

Sriboonma, D, J Murata & K Iwatsuki. 1994. A revision of Typhonium (Araceae). Journal of the Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo Sect. 3, 15: 255-314. 

Yeng, WS, TP Jean, NK Kiaw, AS Othman, LH Boon, FB Ahmad & PC Boyce. 2013. Phylogeny of Asian Homalomena (Araceae) based on the ITS region combined with morphological and chemical data. Systematic Botany 38: 589-599.


Acknowledgements

John Michael Agcaoili, Jonah van Beijnen, Derek Cabactulan, Alexander Dalabajan, Benigno Resurreccion, Ricardo L. Reyes, Greg Rule, Ravan Schneider, and George Yao kindly provided a number of photographs found on this webpage. Peter Boyce provided identifications for some of the Scindapsus photographs.

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 24 December 2016