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Araliaceae

Acanthopanax Miq. = Eleutherococcus

Acanthophora Merr. = Aralia

Anomopanax Harms = Mackinlaya

Aralia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser 22 April 2014

Photos
  1. Aralia bipinnata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 222; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 235. --Aralia glauca Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 291; EPFP 3 (1923) 236. Photos
  2. Aralia merrillii C.B.Shang, J. Nanjing Inst. Forest. 2 (1985) 28; --Aralia scandens (Merr.) Ha, Nov. Vyssh. Rast. 11 (1974) 229, nom. illeg.; --Philipson, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 19; --Acanthophora scandens Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 316; EPFP 3 (1923) 236. Photos

Arthrophyllum Blume = Polyscias

Boerlagiodendron Harms = Osmoxylon

Brassaia Endl. = Schefflera

Cephaloschefflera (Harms) Merr. = Schefflera

Eleutherococcus Maxim.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 October 2016

Photos
  1. Eleutherococcus trifoliatus (L.) SY Hu, J. Arn. Arb. 61 (1980) 110; --Philipson, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 554; --Acanthopanax trifoliatus (L.) Voss. Vilmor. Blumengärtn. 1 (1894) 406; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 217; EPFP 3 (1923) 234; --Philipson, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 103; --Zanthoxylum trifoliatum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 270. Himalayas through S China to Japan, Taiwan, Philippines.

Gastonia Commers. ex Lam. = Polyscias

Hydrocotyle L.

Edited by James V. LaFrankie & Pieter B. Pelser, 24 April 2016

Photos

  1. Hydrocotyle javanica Thunb., Diss. Hydrocot. (1798) No. 17; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 237; --Buwalda, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 115. SE and E Asia to the Solomon Isls, Australia, Tasmania, and in tropical Africa. Throughout Malesia except Lesser Sunda Isls, Madura and the Kangean Isls.
  2. Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam., Encycl. 3 (1789) 153; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 237; --Buwalda, Fl.Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 115. --Hydrocotyle benguetensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 628; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 237.--Hydrocotyle delicata Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 629; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 237. Australia, tropical Asia, tropical Africa, ?S America. Throughout Malesia. Photos

Mackinlaya F.Muell.

Photos
  1. Mackinlaya celebica (Harms) Philipson, Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. 1 (1951) 8; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 27; --Anomopanax celebicus Harms, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 19 (1904) 14. --Anomopanax digitatus Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 301; EPFP 3 (1923) 236, as ‘Anompanax’. --Anomopanax philippinensis Harms, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 19 (1904) 15; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 236, as ‘Anompanax’. Solomon Isls, New Guinea (incl. New Britain and Aru Is.), Sulawesi, S and C Philippines. PANAY, NEGROS, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Misamis Occidental, Lanao del Sur, Davao, SIARGAO. Lowland and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1000m. Photos.

Nothopanax Miq. = Polyscias

Osmoxylon Miq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 October 2017

Photos
  1. Osmoxylon camiguinense (Merr.) Philipson, Blumea 23 (1976) 113; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 48; --Boerlagiodendron camiguinense Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 252, 424; EPFP 3 (1923) 222. Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN (3 coll.). Forested slope, 500m.
  2. Osmoxylon catanduanense (Merr.) Philipson, Blumea 23 (1976) 105; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 37; --Boerlagiodendron catanduanense Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 318; EPFP 3 (1923) 222; --Type: Bur. Sci. 30438 Ramos, 18-Nov-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES. Note by L.L.Co: Known only from the type. Forested slopes, c. 350m.
  3. Osmoxylon caudatum (Merr.) Philipson, Blumea 23 (1976) 105; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 37; --Boerlagiodendron caudatum Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 440; EPFP 3 (1923) 222. --Type: Bur. Sci. 33308 Ramos, Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Mt Palimlim, forested slopes near the summit, c. 1000m, 21-Aug-1918. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON.
  4. Osmoxylon dinagatense (Merr.) Philipson, Blumea 23 (1976) 103; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 34; --Boerlagiodendron dinagatense Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 301; EPFP 3 (1923) 222; --Type: Bur. Sci. 35220 Ramos & Pascasio, 12-May-1919, Dinagat: in forests at low elevation. Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT. Photos
  5. Osmoxylon eminens (W.Bull.) Philipson, Blumea 23 (1976) 114; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 48; --Boerlagiodendron eminens (W.Bull) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 223; --Trevesia eminens W.Bull, Nursery Cat. (William Bull) 199 (1884) 17; --Type from Caroline Islands. LUZON: Isabela, Aurora, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PANAY: Capiz, NEGROS: Negros Oriental prov., LEYTE, DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao, Davao; BASILAN; TAWI-TAWI. Primary forests at moderately low elevation (100m) to ridge forest and mossy forest at 950m. Often in shady ravines. Photos
  6. Osmoxylon fenicis (Merr.) Philipson, Blumea 23 (1976) 114; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 48; --Boerlagiodendron fenicis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 44; EPFP 3 (1923) 223. --Boerlagiodendron tayabense Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 45; EPFP 3 (1923) 224. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, Isabela (Palanan), Aurora (Dingalan), Rizal. In primary dipterocarp forest, rocky slopes near streams, 40-400m. Photos
  7. Osmoxylon heterophyllum (Merr.) Philipson, Blumea 23 (1976) 106; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 38; --Boerlagiodendron heterophyllum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 329; EPFP 3 (1923) 223; --Type: Weber 1126, Mindanao, Butuan, Mt Hilong-Hilong, 29-Mar-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR, BILIRAN, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Cabadbaran). Primary forest, under shade near creek, 100-550m. 
  8. Osmoxylon humile (Elmer) Philipson, Blumea 23 (1976) 111; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 44; --Boerlagiodendron humile Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2327; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 223; --Type: Elmer 10860, Mindanao, Davao, Todaya (Mt. Apo), Jun-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo, S side of Baruring River). Damp fertile ground in dense forest, 1000m. 
  9. Osmoxylon lineare (Merr.) Philipson, Blumea 23 (1976) 106; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 39; --Boerlagiodendron lineare Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 253; EPFP 3 (1923) 223; --Type: BS 4953 Ramos (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Pangasinan prov., Dec-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan, NEGROS: Negros Occidental. Rheophytic in Negros. Photos
  10. Osmoxylon luzoniense (Merr.) Philipson, Blumea 23 (1976) 116; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 52; --Boerlagiodendron luzoniense Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 252, 424; EPFP 3 (1923) 223. --Boerlagiodendron agusanense Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2330; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 222. --Boerlagiodendron clementis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 155, 424; EPFP 3 (1923) 222. --Boerlagiodendron diversifolium Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 333, 424; EPFP 3 (1923) 223. Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Benguet (Baguio), Ifugao, Central LUZON (Loher 3602), Rizal (Mt Irid), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao (Mt Apo; Gumate), Davao Oriental (Mt Mayo), Agusan del Norte, Surigao. In forests, often along streams; ridges in mossy forests, 280-1650m. 
  11. Osmoxylon oblongifolium Philipson, Blumea 23 (1976) 105; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 37. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR: Bagacay Concord (PNH 2776 Sulit & Coñese); Mt Sarawag (PNH 15321 Edaño); Catubig River (2 colls.). Dipterocarp forest, along creek bank, 200m.
  12. Osmoxylon pectinatum (Merr.) Philipson, Blumea 23 (1976) 111; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 45; --Boerlagiodendron pectinatum Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 253, 424; EPFP 3 (1923) 224; --Type: from Taiwan. Taiwan, Philippines. BATAN (Mt Iraya). Forested slope, 650m. 
  13. Osmoxylon pulcherrimum S.Vidal ex Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 102; --Philipson, Blumea 23 (1976) 107; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 40. --Boerlagiodendron sibuyanense Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2328. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Tayabas, MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon), SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting). Damp primary forests, 225-800m.
  14. Osmoxylon ramosii (Merr.) Philipson, Blumea 23 (1976) 110; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 43; --Boerlagiodendron ramosii Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 27; EPFP 3 (1923) 224. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (Lucban), Camarines Sur, Sorsogon. Low-lying, wet ground, in forest, or on forested slopes, 700-800m. Photos
  15. Osmoxylon serratifolium (Elmer) Philipson, Blumea 23 (1976) 114; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 49; --Boerlagiodendron serratifolium Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 505; EPFP 3 (1923) 224; --Type: Elmer 7194, Leyte, Leyte prov., Palo, Jan-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY, LEYTE, CAMIGUIN. 
  16. Osmoxylon simplicifolium (Elmer) Philipson, Blumea 23 (1976) 103; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 34; --Boerlagiodendron simplicifolium Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2329; EPFP 3 (1923) 224; --Type: Elmer 13689, Mindanao, Agusan, Cabadbaran (Mt. Urdaneta), Sep-1912. Endemic of Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Wind-swept ridge at 1750m, on moss-covered soil with stone. Photos
  17. Osmoxylon trilobatum (Merr.) Philipson, Blumea 23 (1976) 116; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 51; --Boerlagiodendron trilobatum Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 289; EPFP 3 (1923) 224. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Laguna, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO. Primary forests, frequently beside streams in damp ravines, 75-750m. Photos
  18. Osmoxylon yatesii (Merr.) Philipson, Blumea 23 (1976) 106; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 38; -- Boerlagiodendron yatesii Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 44; EPFP 3 (1923) 225; --Type: Bur. Sci. 25418 Yates, Luzon, Tayabas Prov., Mt Cadig, 12-Dec-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (Mt Cadig), Camarines Norte (Paracale), CATANDUANES, DINAGAT. Mossy forest, 1250m. Photos
Species of unknown status:
  1. Osmoxylon geelvinkianum Becc., Malesia 1 (1878) 196. Photos
Unpublished species:
  1. Osmoxylon sp. A. Luzon, Aurora prov., Baler, Zabali, Sitio Ilaya, Northside of Dibudalan Mountain, 15-May-12. Photographed by RB. J. Gallego. Photos
  2. Osmoxylon sp. B. Luzon, Aurora prov., Mun. Maria Aurora, Brgy. Villa Aurora, along Aurora-Nueva Ecija road. Photographed by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona. Photos

Polyscias J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 July 2017

Photos
  1. Polyscias aherniana (Merr.) Lowry & G.M.Plunkett, Pl. Divers. Evol. 128 (2010) 68; --Arthrophyllum ahernianum Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 109; EPFP 3 (1923) 235; --Philipson, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 56. Borneo (Sabah), throughout the Philippines, N Moluccas (Talaud, Ternate). Primary and second-growth forest, from the lowlands to 1000m. Photos
  2. Polyscias borneensis Philipson, Blumea 24 (1978) 170; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 80. Borneo (Sabah, Mt Kinabalu), SW Philippines. PALAWAN: Mt Mantalingahan. Montane forest, 1500m.
  3. Polyscias cenabrei (Merr.) Lowry & G.M.Plunkett, Pl. Divers. Evol. 128 (2010) 68; --Arthrophyllum cenabrei Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 417; EPFP 3 (1923) 235; --Philipson, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 65; --Type: FB 28343 Cenabre, Cebu: on slopes at 600m. Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU. Low elevation forests, ascending to 600m.
  4. Polyscias cumingiana (C.Presl) Fern.-Vill., Nov. App. (1880) 102; --Philipson, Blumea 24 (1978) 169; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 76; --Anomopanax cumingianus (C.Presl) Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 300; EPFP 3 (1923) 236, as ‘Anompanax’; --Paratropia cumingiana C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1851) 250. --Nothopanax crispatus (W.Bull.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 241; Fl. Manila (1912) 357; EPFP 3 (1923) 233; --Panax crispatus W.Bull, Nursery Cat. (William Bull) 242 (1888) 9. --?Nothopanax ornatus (W.Bull.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 241; Fl. Manila (1912) 357; EPFP 3 (1923) 234; --Panax ornatus W.Bull, Nursery Cat. (William Bull) 242 (1888) 9. Philippines to SW Pacific. Lowlands usually, up to 1700m. Cultivated as an ornamental. 
  5. Polyscias florosa Philipson, Blumea 24 (1978) 170; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 79. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay (Mt Malinao), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan). Forests up to 560m.
  6. Polyscias fruticosa (L.) Harms in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 38 (1894) 45; --Philipson, Blumea 24 (1978) 169; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 73; Philipson, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 73; -- Nothopanax fruticosus (L.) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 11 (1856) 765; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 358; EPFP 3 1923) 233; --Panax fruticosus L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1513. --Nothopanax fruticosus var. plumata (W.Bull ex W.Richards) Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 358; EPFP 3 (1923) 234; --Panax plumatus W.Bull ex W.Richards, Gard. Chron., n.s., 9 (1878) 439. --Nothopanax fruticosus var. victoriae (W.Bull) Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 358; EPFP 3 (1923) 234. Native country not properly known. Cultivated throughout Malesia and other parts of the Indo-Pacific tropics, commonly as an ornamental or hedge shrub. Low to moderate elevation (c. 1000m). Cultivated only? Photos
  7. Polyscias guilfoylei (W.Bull) L.H.Bailey, Rhodora 18 (1916) 153; --Philipson, Blumea 24 (1978) 169; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 76; --Nothopanax guilfoylei (W.Bull) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 242; Fl. Manila (1912) 357; EPFP 3 (1923) 234; --Aralia guilfoylei W.Bull, Gard. Chron. 1873 (1873) 606. Native country unknown, possibly E Malesia. Cultivated throughout Malesia and tropical Pacific. Usually planted as a hedge plant. Cultivated only?
  8. Polyscias nodosa (Blume) Seem., J. Bot. 3 (1865) 181; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 233; --Aralia nodosa Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 873. Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomom Isls. LUZON: Benguet, Pangasinan, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Quezon, Laguna, Batangas, Sorsogon, PALAWAN, LEYTE, BASILAN, MINDANAO. Disturbed lowland forests and associated thickets generally, ascending to 1000m. Photos
  9. Polyscias philippinensis (Merr.) ined. (David Frodin, pers. comm. 22-Apr-14); --Tetraplasandra philippinensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) suppl. 219; EPFP 3 (1923) 222; --Type: FB 3844 & 3809 Curran (syn), Palawan: Casuarina Point, back of the beach and in forest along the seashore, Mar-1906.
  10. Polyscias pinnata J.R.Forst. & G.Forst., Char. Gen. Pl. (1776) 64. Native to SW Pacific. Naturalized in the Philippines?
  11. Polyscias pulgarensis (Elmer) Lowry & G.M.Plunkett, Pl. Divers. Evol. 128 (2010) 70; --Arthrophyllum pulgarense Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2551; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 235; --Philipson, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 65. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN (Mt Pulgar = Thumb Peak). Montane thickets, 1200m. Common. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos.
  12. Polyscias scutellaria (Burm.f.) Fosb., Univ. Hawaii Occ. Pap. 46 (1948) 9; --Philipson, Blumea 24 (1978) 169; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 75; --Nothopanax scutellarium (Burm.f.) Merr., Interp. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 409; --Crassula scutellaria Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 78. --Nothopanax cochleatus (Lam.) Miq., Pl. Jungh. 3 (1855) 425; Fl. Ind. Bat. 11 (1856) 766; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 357; --Aralia cochleata Lam., Encycl. 1 (1783) 224. --Nothopanax trichochleatus Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1860) 135; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 234. Native country not known, possibly E Malesia. Cultivated throughout Malesia and tropical Pacific, commonly as an ornamental or hedge shrub. Low to moderate elevation. Cultivated only?
  13. Polyscias serratifolia (Miq.) Lowry & G.M.Plunkett, Pl. Divers. Evol. 128 (2010) 74; --Gastonia serratifolia (Miq.) Philipson, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 68; --Arthrophyllum serratifolium Miq., Sum. (1861) 341; --Type: from Sumatra. --Gastonia papuana Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. I (1863) 5; --Philipson, Blumea 18 (1970) 492. Central W Sumatra (Sibolga, Enggano Is.), Peninsular Malaysia (Johore), Sunda Straits, W Java, Lesser Sunda Isls. (Sumba, Timor, Wetar, Flores), Borneo (Karimata Is off W Borneo and E of Pontianak; Sabah), Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Talaud Is.), New Guinea (Vogelkop, NW & SW Irian, Biak Is., Waigeu Is., Solomon Isls (San Cristoval). PALAWAN, BALABAC. Beach thickets or forests.

Schefflera J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 October 2017

Photos
  1. Schefflera actinophylla (Endl.) Harms, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3(8) (1894) 36; --Brassaia actinophylla Endl., Nov. Stirp. Dec. 1 (1839) 89. Not native. Cultivated. Photos
  2. Schefflera acuminatissima Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 109. Endemic to the Philippines.
  3. Schefflera agamae Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 196; EPFP 3 (1923) 225; --Type: FB 21603 Agama, Palawan: Alfonso XIII (Quezon municipality), rocky hills, c. 30m, 11-May-1914. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  4. Schefflera albido-bracteata Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2339; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 225. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Agusan. Forests, 700-1000m. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  5. Schefflera alvarezii Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 436; EPFP 3 (1923) 225. --Schefflera todayensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3704, nom. inval., no Latin descr. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao. Forested slopes, c. 1000m. 
  6. Schefflera angilogensis Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 483; EPFP 4 (1925) 250; --Type: BS 40748 Ramos. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal (Angilog). Forested ridges, 1400m. Photos
  7. Schefflera angustifolia Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 53; EPFP 3 (1923) 225. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Thickets on limestone cliffs and steep slopes at low and medium elevation. 
  8. Schefflera banahaensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 197; EPFP 3 (1923) 225. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Laguna, Quezon. Along streams in forests at medium elevation. 
  9. Schefflera benguetensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 198; EPFP 3 (1923) 225. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Thickets about limestone boulders and on slopes, 1200-2000m.
  10. Schefflera binuangensis C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 354; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 226. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON.
  11. Schefflera blancoi Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 109; --Cephaloschefflera blancoi (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 232. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Bataan, Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Cavite, Batangas, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Common on exposed ridges in the mossy forest and submossy forest and in damp forested ravines, 700-1500m. 
  12. Schefflera bordenii Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 110; EPFP 3 (1923) 226. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija, Quezon (Mt Binuang), Bataan. Primary forests, c. 750-900m.
  13. Schefflera brevipes Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 210; EPFP 3 (1923) 226. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela. Low or medium elevation forests. Type in PNH lost, no isotypes known. 
  14. Schefflera bukidnonensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 414; EPFP 3 (1923) 226. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. On trees, c. 1600m. 
  15. Schefflera catanduanensis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 319; --Cephaloschefflera catanduanensis (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 232. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, CATANDUANES. Primary forests, on ridges at or above 400m.
  16. Schefflera catensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2336; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 226. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. In very wet forests, c. 1800m.
  17. Schefflera caudata (S.Vidal) Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) 118; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 226; --Heptapleurum caudatum S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 175 (1885). --Schefflera pentaphylla Elmer, LPB 10 (1934) 3642, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; --Voucher: Elmer 14596 (NY, NA), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Albay, Sorsogon. Primary forests, c. 650m.
  18. Schefflera caudatifolia Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 331; EPFP 3 (1923) 226; --Type: BS 22062 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur prov., Mt Isarog. --Schefflera bulusanensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1934) 3637, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; --Type: Elmer 17130 (NY, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, 1066m. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON.
  19. Schefflera chartacea Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 456; EPFP 3 (1923) 226; --Type: Vanoverbergh 1789 (PNH, holo, lost). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Forests, c.1750m. 
  20. Schefflera cinnamomea Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 415; --Cephaloschefflera cinnamomea (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 232. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Mossy forests, c. 1700m.
  21. Schefflera clementis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 156; EPFP 3 (1923) 226. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao, Bukidnon. Forests along streams, c. 650m.
  22. Schefflera crassifolia Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 332; EPFP 3 (1923) 227. --Schefflera longispicata Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 227. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, CATANDUANES. Low and medium elevation primary forests.
  23. Schefflera crassissima Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 195; --Cephaloschefflera crassissima (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 232; --Type: BS 19379 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Pular, 900m, on trees, 15-Jan-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. On trees, probably in the mossy forest at or above 700m. 
  24. Schefflera cumingii (Seem.) Harms in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 38 (1894) 39; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 227; --Heptapleurum cumingii Seem., J. Bot. 3 (1865) 81. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya. Lowland primary forests.
  25. Schefflera curranii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 199; EPFP 3 (1923) 227. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN: Victoria Peak, along river banks, 1200m. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  26. Schefflera demesae Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 330; EPFP 3 (1923) 227. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Along streams in lowland forests. 
  27. Schefflera elliptica (Blume) Harms in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 38 (1894) 39; --Sciodaphyllum ellipticum Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 878. --Schefflera agusanensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2340; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 225. --Schefflera nitida Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 204; EPFP 3 (1923) 230. --Schefflera odorata (Blanco) Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 117; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 358; EPFP 3 (1923) 230; --Polyscias odorata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 226. Taiwan, Indochina to N. Australia. BATANES and N LUZON to PALAWAN, MINDANAO and BASILAN. Common in primary and secondary forests from sea level to medium elevation, occurring in most or all islands and provinces.
  28. Schefflera elliptifoliola Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 320; EPFP 3 (1923) 227. --Schefflera auranticarpa Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 227. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, CTANDUANES, MINDORO, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation primary forests. 
  29. Schefflera eucaudata Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 200; EPFP 3 (1923) 227. Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN. Low and medium elevation primary forests. 
  30. Schefflera feriarum Frodin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 138 (1986) 422; --Type: Sandkuhl 159 (US, holo; K, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio and vicinity. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Note by L.L.Co: Known only from the type. 
  31. Schefflera foetida Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 290; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 228. --Schefflera williamsii C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 211; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 231. --Schefflera paniculata Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 585. Borneo, Philippines. MINDORO, NEGROS, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. Mossy forests, 1000-1900m.
  32. Schefflera foxworthyi Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 254; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 228. Endemic to the Philippines. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  33. Schefflera gigantifolia Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 157; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 228. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao, Misamis, Bukidnon. Primary forests, 650-1000m. 
  34. Schefflera glabra Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 201; EPFP 3 (1923) 228. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya. Mossy forests, c. 1500m. 
  35. Schefflera globosa Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 437; EPFP 3 (1923) 228. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY. On trees in medium elevation forests.
  36. Schefflera gracilipes Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 158; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 228. Endemic to the Philippines. MINADANAO: Lanao. Forests along streams, c. 650m.
  37. Schefflera halconensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 415; EPFP 3 (1923) 228. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon). Damp primary forests, 900m.
  38. Schefflera heptaphylla (L.) Frodin, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 104 (1991) 314; --Vitis heptaphylla L., Mant. Pl. 2 (1771) 212. --Schefflera octophylla (Lour.) Harms in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 38 (1894) 38; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 43; --Aralia octophylla Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 187. Indochina to Taiwan, S Ryukyus, Philippines. BATAN: Mt Iraya, 300m. Locally very rare. 
  39. Schefflera heteroclada Frodin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 138 (1986) 416; --Type: J.V. Santos 5691 (US, holo; L, PUH, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Sur prov., Tirad Pass. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur prov. Note by L.L.Co: Known only from the type. 
  40. Schefflera insularum (Seem.) Harms in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 38 (1894) 39; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 228; --Heptapleurum insularum Seem., J. Bot. 3 (1865) 80. --Schefflera digitata (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 294; EPFP 3 (1923) 227, nom. illeg.; --Polyscias digitata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 224. --Aralia octophylla Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 158, nom. illeg. --Schefflera decidua Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3641. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, POLILLO, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, MASBATE, NEGROS, CEBU, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Agusan, Lanao. Common in lowland primary forests along streams.
  41. Schefflera leytensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 211; EPFP 3 (1923) 228. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. Forests, c. 1150m. 
  42. Schefflera longifructescens Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 331; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 229. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon, LEYTE, SIARGAO, MINDANAO: Lanao, Misamis, Bukidnon, Agusan. Primary forests at medium elevation.
  43. Schefflera luzoniensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 218; EPFP 3 (1923) 229. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon. Forests, 1000-2000m.
  44. Schefflera macgregorii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 202; EPFP 3 (1923) 229. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao. Forests, probably above 1500m. 
  45. Schefflera macrantha Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Suppl. 156. --Schefflera mindanaensis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Suppl. 157. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO.
  46. Schefflera merrillii Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2335; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 229. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Primary forests, c. 900m. 
  47. Schefflera merrittii Frodin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 138 (1986) 418; --Type: FB 18100 Curran, Merritt & Zschokke (US, holo), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Pulog. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Note by L.L.Co: Known only from the type.
  48. Schefflera microphylla Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 218; EPFP 3 (1923) 229. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet. Mossy forests on the higher mountains, 1800-2400m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  49. Schefflera minutipetiolata Frodin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 138 (1986) 410; --Type: J.V. Santos 5667 (US, holo; L, PUH, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Besao, along creek near Lake Bana-an. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Note by L.L.Co: Known only from the type. 
  50. Schefflera multiflora Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 203; EPFP 3 (1923) 229. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Agusan. Forests along streams, c. 900m.
  51. Schefflera multiramosa Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2332; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 229. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Agusan, Davao. Forested ridges, 1050-1650m. 
  52. Schefflera myrianthella Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 320; EPFP 3 (1923) 229. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. Damp lowland and medium elevation primary forests.
  53. Schefflera obliqua Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 159; EPFP 3 (1923) 230. --Schefflera populnea Elmer, LPB 10 (1934) 3644; --Type: Elmer 15760 (NA, NY, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Camarines, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao, Surigao. Primary forests and secondary forests, 0-650m.
  54. Schefflera oblongifolia Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 369; --Cephaloschefflera oblongifolia (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 232. --Schefflera albida Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 94; --Cephaloschefflera albida (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 231. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Bataan, Ifuago, Mountain Province, NEGROS. Mossy forest, 1000-2200m.  
  55. Schefflera obovata Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 329; EPFP 3 (1923) 230. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON.
  56. Schefflera obtusifolia Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 435; EPFP 3 (1923) 230. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. On trees and on rocks on forested slopes at low and medium elevation. Photos 
  57. Schefflera ovoidea Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 160; --Cephaloschefflera ovoidea (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 232. --Cephaloschefflera apoensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 232; --Schefflera apoensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2334. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao, Davao (Mt Apo). Forests, c. 600-2000m. Photos
  58. Schefflera palawanensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 204; EPFP 3 (1923) 230; --Type: Merrill 9221, Palawan: Taytay, thickets bordering grasslands at sea level. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Thickets bordering open grasslands at low elevation. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  59. Schefflera panayensis Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 439; --Cephaloschefflera panayensis (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 233. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY: Antique (Mt Madia-as). Mossy forests, probably above 1000m.
  60. Schefflera pawoiensis Frodin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 138 (1986) 417; --Type: BS 321768 J.K. Santos (US, holo; GH, K, NSW, PNH, UC, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Pawoy (Pauai). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Note by L.L.Co: Known only from the type.
  61. Schefflera piperoidea Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 330; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 230. --Schefflera trifoliata Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) 118; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 231. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Laguna, Sorsogon, POLILLO. Low and medium elevation primary forests.
  62. Schefflera platyphylla Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 438; EPFP 3 (1923) 230. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY: Capiz (Jamindan). Along small streams in lowland forest. 
  63. Schefflera santosii Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 438; EPFP 3 (1923) 231. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Damp forested ravines, 1600-2000m.
  64. Schefflera simplicifolia Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 159; EPFP 3 (1923) 231. --Schefflera sorsogonensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3646, nom. inval., no Latin descr. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, POLILLO, CATANDUANES, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao, Cotabato, Bukidnon, Agusan. In damp and primary forests at low and medium elevation. Photos
  65. Schefflera stellulata Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 318; EPFP 3 (1923) 231. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya (Dupax). Medium elevation forest. 
  66. Schefflera subdivaricata Merr. ex Frodin in D.G.Frodin & R.H.A.Govaerts, World Checklist Bibliogr. Araliaceae (2004) 379; --Schefflera divaricata Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 199; EPFP 3 (1923) 227, nom. illeg. Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN. Lowland forests. 
  67. Schefflera urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2337; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 231. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Dense primary forests, c. 1700m. 

Tetraplasandra auct. mal. (non A.Gray) = Gastonia  


Literature

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Frodin, DG. 1998. Notes on Osmoxylon (Araliaceae), II. Flora Malesiana Bulletin 12: 153-156

Frodin, DG & R Govaerts. 2004. World checklist and bibliography of Araliaceae. The University of Chicago Press.

Lowry II, P. P. 2010. Recircumscription of Polyscias (Araliaceae) to include six related genera, with a new infrageneric classification and a synopsis of species. Plant Diversity and Evolution 128 55-84


Philipson, WR. 1970. The Malesian species of Gastonia (Araliaceae). Blumea 18: 491-495

Philipson, WR. 1970. A redefinition of Gastonia and related genera (Araliaceae). Blumea 16: 497-505

Philipson, WR. 1976. A synopsis of the Malesian species of Osmoxylon (including Boerlagiodendron), Araliaceae. Blumea 23: 99-119

Philipson, WR. 1978. A synopsis of the Malesian species of Polyscias (Araliaceae). Blumea 24: 169-172

Philipson, WR. 1979. Araliaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 9: 1-105. (Treatment does not include Schefflera)

Plunkett, GM. & PP Lowry. 2010. Paraphyly and polyphyly in Polyscias sensu lato: molecular evidence and the case for recircumscribing the "pinnate genera" of Araliaceae. Plant Diversity and Evolution 128: 23-54.


Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 15 October 2017