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Arecaceae

= Palmae

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 June 2013

Adonidia Becc.

Photos
  1. Adonidia merrillii (Becc.) Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 329; Brown & Merr. in Philip Bur. Forestry Bull. 18 (1919) 15, t. 2, 3; --Veitchia merrillii (Becc.) HE Moore; --Normanbya merriilii Becc. in PJS 14 (1909) Bot. 606, t. 30, 31, LPB 8 (1919) 3009; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 127; --Type: Plates 30 & 31, Becc. l.c. Borneo (Sabah), Philippines. CORON, CALAMIANES, LANGEN, PALAWAN (Taytay Bay: APULIT; Brookes Point). Karst limestone formations, sandy coastal areas, often subgregarious in Coron and N Palawan. Common in cultivation worldwide as an ornamental. The genus is now reportledly known from Borneo (Sabah), fide ES Fernando, citing LG Saw, 2005, pers. com.). Photos 

Areca L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Areca caliso Becc. in Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2998; PJS 14 (1919) 310; --Type: Elmer 11898 (FI, holo; BM, BO, CAS, K, NY, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, c. 1000m, May-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), BILIRAN: Naval, Mt Sayao, LEYTE: Dagami, Lake Danao, Mt Pangasugan, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo), Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta), Agusan del Sur (Trento), Surigao del Sur (Tandag). Moist humus-covered soil along streams in forested slopes, 350-1000m. Apparently flowering and fruiting throughout the year. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT). Photos
  2. Areca camarinensis Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 309; --Type: FB 14268 Aguilar (FI, holo), Luzon: Camarines Sur prov., Mt Isarog. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte (Bicol National Park), Camarines Sur (Mt Isarog). Lowland evergreen rain forest. Photos
  3. Areca catechu L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1189 (err. cathecu); --Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 714, ed. 2 (1845) 494, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 129, t. 350; --Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 8; --Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 42, t. 94, Fig. A; --Naves, Novis. App. (1882) 278; --Becc. in PJS 3 (1908) Bot. 340, 6 (1911) Bot. 229; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 32, Fl. Manila (1912) 128, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 89; --Becc. in LPB 8 (1919) 2997, PJS 14 (1919) 304; Brown & Merr. in Philip. Bur. Forestry Bull. 18 (1919) 20, t. 4, 5. --Areca alba “Rumph;” Naves Novis. App. (1882) 278. --Areca catechu var. alba Becc. --Areca catechu var. batanensis Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 304; --Type: BS 3824 Fénix (holo, FI; iso US), Batan: Basco, along a mountain stream. --Areca catechu var. longicarpa Becc., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 229, 14 (1919) 304, t. 2, Fig. 2; --Type: BS 10470 McGregor, Polillo, Probably from planted trees. --Areca catechu var. portoricensis Becc. --Areca catechu var. semisilvatica Becc. --Areca catechu var. silvatica Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 304, t. 1, Fig. 2; --Type: Merrill 9447 (holo, FI; iso US), Palawan: near Lake Manguao, in primary forest at a place where an old trail crosses a small stream. --Areca macrocarpa Becc., PJS 4 (1909) Bot. 601, 14 (1919) 306, t. 3, Fig. 2; --Type: FB 9103 Whitford & Hutchinson (holo, FI), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur prov., Port Banga, Jan. 1908. Old World Tropics generally, introduced in the New World. Generally cultivated throughout the settled areas of the Philippines, in some places spontaneous. SABTANG, BATAN: Basco; Mt Iraya, LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela (Jones), Bataan (Lamao River), Rizal (Antipolo), Laguna (Mt Makiling), Quezon (Lucban; Tiaong), Camarines Norte (Labo), PALAWAN (Lake Manguao), Zamboanga peninsula (La Paz, Camp Suzana), Zamboanga del Sur (Port Banga). Misamis Occidental (Mt Malindang). Thought to be possibly indigenous in the Philippines, having been found once
    spontaneous in primary forests in Palawan. Conservation status: Least Concern (LC). Photos
  4. Areca costulata Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 310; --Type: BS 15236 Ramos (holo, FI; iso K), Leyte: Dagami. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Surigao del Sur (Diwata Mtns). Low and medium elevation primary forests. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT). Photos
  5. Areca hutchinsoniana Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 312. --Areca mammillata Becc. var. mindanaoensis Becc., PJS 4c (1909) 602; --Type: FB 9141 Whitford & Hutchinson (holo, FI), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur prov., Port Banga, 20m. Endemic to the Philippines. SIASI, BASILAN (Maliqui; Mt Bulanting), MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Sur (Port Banga; Kabasalan, Dipala; Muralong Mt.; Malangas), Zamboanga del Norte (Malayal; Siocon, Laclacan); Lanao, Low to medium elevation primary forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (VU).
  6. Areca ipot Becc. in Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 639; --Type: Elmer 9292 (FI, lecto; BM, BO, NSW, NY, isolecto ), Luzon: Quezon prov., Lucban. --Areca catechu L. var. humilis Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1837) 716. --Areca ipot Becc. var. polillensis Becc., PJS 6 c (1911) 229; --Type: 6938 Robinson (FI, holo; BM, iso), Polillo. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Laguna (Nagcarlan, Luisiana), Quezon (Lucban; Sampaloc), POLILLO: Burdeos. Forest along streams at low and medium elevation. Also planted in and about towns. Conservation status: Vulnerable (VU). Photos
  7. Areca parens Becc., PJS 14 (1909) 307; --Type: FB 21712 Peñas, Soriano & Abellanosa (holo, FI), Luzon: Camarines prov., precise locality not known, 23-Apr-1914. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte (Mt Labo), Camarines Sur (Bicol National Park). In lowland forests, often in damp, semi-swampy areas, also along streams, up to 600m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (CR). Photos
  8. Areca triandra Roxb. ex Buch.-Ham., Mem. Wern. Nat. Hist. Soc. 5 (1826) 310. India to W and C Malesia, Philippines.
  9. Areca vidaliana Becc., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 222; --Type: Vidal 3955 (holo, FI; iso K), Paragua (=Palawan). No exact locality. --Areca mammillata Becc., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 220; --Type: FB 3816 Curran (holo, FI), Palawan: Sariban River. Balembangan, Banggi and SW Philippines. BUSUANGA, PALAWAN (Puerto Princesa: St Paul’s Bay National Park, Mt Beaufort; Mt Binohan; Bagumbayan; Brookes Point, Aribungos. Lowland swampy forest, also on forested slopes. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT). Photos
  10. Areca whitfordii Becc., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 219, ibid. 14 (1919) 306; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 169; --Type: Whitford 1372 (holo, FI), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Bongabon River. --Areca whitfordii Becc. var. luzonensis Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 306; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 169; --Type: BS 11384 McGregor (holo, FI; BM, iso), Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya prov., Dupax. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan (Mt Narig), Isabela (Palanan), Nueva Vizcaya, Sorsogon, MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Bongabon River). Semi-swampy forests at low elevation. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT). Photos

Arenga Labill.

Edited by James V. LaFrankie & Pieter B. Pelser, 25 April 2016

Photos

  1. Arenga brevipes Becc., Malesia 3 (1889) 95; --Type from Borneo. Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN: Puerto Princesa, St Paul’s Bay National Park;
    Aborlan, Talakaigan Watershed. Low elevation forests. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT). Photos
  2. Arenga distincta Mogea, Reinwardtia 12 (2004) 182. Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN: Lipuun (Mendoza 91193, L).
  3. Arenga pinnata (Wurmb.) Merr., Interpr. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 119; --Saguerus pinnatus Wurmb, Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunsten 1 (1779) 351. --Caryota onusta Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 741. S China, Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Ambon. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna (Mt Makiling), Cavite, Quezon (Mt Banahaw de Lucban), POLILLO, BOHOL (Bilar), BILIRAN, MINDANAO. Widely cultivated and abundant in some forested areas, but never venturing far from human settlements. It has all the apprarance of an introduced palm that has become naturalized. Sugar palm, kaong, kabo-negro. Conservation status: Least Concern (LC). Photos
  4. Arenga tremula (Blanco) Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 612, quoad syn. excl. descr.; --Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 87; Brown & Merr. in Philip. Bur. Forestry Bull. 18 (1919) 34, t. 9; --Didymosperma tremulum (Blanco) Wendl. & Drude in Kerch. Palm. (1878) 243; --Wallichia tremula (Blanco) Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 315; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 280; --Vidal Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 279; --Caryota tremula Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 744, ed. 2 (1845) 512, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 144; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 88. --Saguerus mindorensis (Becc.) OF Cook, Invent. Seeds Import. U. S. Dept. Agr. 33 (1915) 10; --Arenga mindorensis Becc. in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 48, Webbia 1 (1905) 329, PJS 14 (1919) 355; --Type: Merrill 1790 (holo ??), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Calapan. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Laguna (Mt Makiling; Calauan), Quezon (Mauban; Pagbilao; Unisan; Atimonan), Batangas (Lobo), Camarines Sur (Liguanan), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Calapan), MINDANAO: Davao. Low elevation thickets and secondary forests, occurring in large clumps. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT). Photos
  5. Arenga undulatifolia Becc., Malesia 3 (1886) 92; --Saguerus undulatifolius (Becc.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 736. --Arenga ambong Becc., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 229; --Type: Copeland 1681 (holo, FI), Mindanao: Zamboanga, San Ramon. Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Quezon, Sorsogon, PALAWAN (Puerto
    Princesa; Irawan; Aborlan, Mt Tabiey; Brookes Point, Aribungos & Addison’s Peak), BALABAC, SULU, BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga (San Ramon), Zamboanga del Norte (Baliguian). Low elevation forests. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT). Photos

Calamus L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Calamus affinis (Becc.) W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 141; --Daemonorops affinis Becc. in Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3042; --Type: Elmer 13978 (FI, holo; CAS, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Duros Peak, 1219m. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Upper montane forest on exposed peaks and ridges, c. 1200m. Known only from the type collection. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (CR).
  2. Calamus aidae Fernando, Gard. Bull. Sing. 41 (1988) 49, Fig. 1A-F; --Type: Baja-Lapis 123 (K, holo; iso LBC), Samar: Western Samar prov., Basey, Guirang, Rawis. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon (Irosin, Mt Bulusan), BILIRAN (Naval, Mojon), SAMAR: Western Samar (Basey), DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Agusan del Sur (Trento), Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur (Bislig). Dipterocarp forest, 50-500m. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT). Photos
  3. Calamus arugda Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 622; 14 (1919) 352; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 147; --Type: FB 6649 Klemme (FI, holo), Luzon: Cagayan prov., Lalloc, 50m. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao (Damag), Cagayan (Lalloc), Isabela. Low elevation primary forests. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  4. Calamus balerensis Fernando, Gard. Bull. Sing. 41 (1988, publ. 1989) 51, Fig. 2A-D; --Type: Fernando 478 (LBC, holo; K, iso), Luzon: Aurora prov., Baler. LUZON: Aurora (Baler: Digisit & Semento). In forest over ultramafics with large boulders, facing the sea, c. 50m. Thus far known only from two collections from the general vicinity of the type locality. Conservation status: Endangered (EN).
  5. Calamus batanensis (Becc.) Baja-Lapis, Sylvatrop 12 (1987 publ. 1989) 73; --Calamus siphonospathus Mart. var. batanensis Becc., PJS 3 c (1908) 342; --Type: BS 3611 Fenix (FI, holo), Batan: Mt Iraya. Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN (Mt Iraya). Lowland forest. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (CR).
  6. Calamus bicolor Becc. in Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3055; PJS 14 (1919) 356; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 147; --Type: Elmer 10541 (FI, holo; BM, BO, CAS, K, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao prov., Mt Apo, Todaya, 1300m. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao. Primary forests, 1200-1800m. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  7. Calamus caesius Blume, Rumphia 3 (1847) 57. Peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo and SW Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  8. Calamus clemensianus (Becc.) W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 142; --Daemonorops clemensiana Becc., Philipp. J. Sci., C 4: 636 (1909); --Type: Clemens 1227 (FI, holo), Mindanao, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley. Endemic to Philippines. MINDANAO.
  9. Calamus cumingianus Becc., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 210; PJS 14 (1919) 351; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 147; --Type: Cuming 762 (BM, iso), Luzon. LUZON: Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Low and medium elevation primary forests. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan. Endemic. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  10. Calamus curranii (Becc.) W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 142; --Daemonorops curranii Becc., Philipp. J. Sci., C 2: 238 (1907); --Type: Curran F.B. 3791 (FI, holo), Palawan. Endemic to Palawan. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Forests near sea level.
  11. Calamus daemonoropoides Fernando, Phytotaxa 166 (2014) 70; --Type: Fernando 386 (LBC, holo; K, iso), Luzon: Quezon Prov., Atimonan, Quezon National Park, 2-Mar-1984. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO. Photos
  12. Calamus diepenhorstii Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1860-61) 594; --Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 96, 322, t. 126. Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines.
  13. Calamus dimorphacanthus Becc., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 214; PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 631; ibid. 14 (1919) 355; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 148; --Type: Elmer 6238 (FI, holo), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Sto Tomas. Endemic to the Philippines.
  14. Calamus discolor C.Mart., Hist. Nat. Palms 3 (1838) 341; --Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 635; 14 (1919) 350; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 148. Endemic to the Philippines.
  15. Calamus elmerianus Becc. in Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 647; PJS 14 (1919) 353; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 148; --Type: Elmer, Quezon Prov., Lucban. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Davao, Agusan. Primary forests, often in mossy forests at 1300-1800m, sometimes also at low elevation. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  16. Calamus erinaceus (Becc.) Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 12(1): 232 (1911) auct. non Dransf., Kew Bull. 32 (1978) 484; --Daemonorops erinacea Becc., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2: 225 (1902); --Type: Beccari P.B. 2192 (FI, holo), Borneo, Sarawak, Sibo.
  17. Calamus filispadix Becc., PJS 6 c (1911) 230; 14 (1919) 350; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 148; --Type: Curran F.B. 10630 (FI, holo), Luzon: Albay Prov., Adlumay Hills. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon, POLILLO, CATANDUANES, MASBATE, SAMAR, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Agusan. Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1200m. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT). Photos
  18. Calamus flexilis W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 143; --Daemonorops gracilis Becc., Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 8: 3044 (1919); --Type: Elmer 12945 (FI, holo; K, NY, US, iso), Palawan, Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar. Endemic to Palawan. PALAWAN. Low elevation forests.
  19. Calamus foxworthyi Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 352, nomen nudum; Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 Suppl. 116, t. 65. --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 149; --Type: BS 690 Foxworthy (FI, holo), Palawan: Victoria Peaks, March/April-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  20. Calamus grandifolius Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 629; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 149; --Type: Loher 7088 (K, holo), Luzon: Laguna Prov., Mt Banahaw. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, CATANDUANES. Low and medium elevation forests.
  21. Calamus javensis Blume, Rumphia 3 (1837) 62. S Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Java and the Philippines: PALAWAN. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  22. Calamus jenkinsianus Griff., Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 5: 81 (1845). --Daemonorops margaritae (Hance) Becc., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2: 220 (1902). --Daemonorops margaritae var. palawanica Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 12(1): 57 (1911); --Type: Foxworthy F.B. 899 (FI, holo), Palawan: Iwahig. S China, Philippines. PALAWAN. Low elevation forests. Rare.
  23. Calamus jenningsianus Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 623; --Type: FB 4400 Merritt (FI, holo), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Mt Halcon, 1500m. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon). Mossy forest, c. 1500m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (CR).
  24. Calamus loherianus (Becc.) W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 145; --Daemonorops loheriana Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 637; --Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 12(1): 104 (1911); --Type: Loher 7073 (K, holo), Luzon, Rizal Prov., Siya Bundok. Endemic to Luzon. LUZON.
  25. Calamus longipes Griff., Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 5: 68 (1845); --Daemonorops longipes (Griff.) C.Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 329 (1853). --Daemonorops virescens Becc. in G.H.Perkins & al., Fragm. Fl. Philipp. 1: 47 (1904); --Type: Merrill 868 (FI, holo), Palawan: San Antonio Bay. Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo and the Philippines. PALAWAN.
  26. Calamus malawaliensis Dransf., Kew Bull. 36 (1982) 805. Borneo (Sabah) to Philippines. PALAWAN: Maliwali. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  27. Calamus manillensis (C.Mart.) Wendl. in Kerch. Palm. (1878) 237; --Becc. in Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3052; PJS 14 (1919) 352; --Daemonorops ?manillensis Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm 3 (1849) 330, t. 175, Fig. 1-3. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Davao, Agusan, Surigao. In humid forests, 600-1000m. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT). Photos
  28. Calamus marginatus (Blume) C.Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 342; --Daemonorops marginata Blume, Rumphia 3: 24 (1847). Sumatra, Borneo and the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  29. Calamus megaphyllus Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 11(App.): 66 (1913); --Type: Elmer 11878 (FI, holo; CAS, K, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao Prov., Todaya, Mt Apo, 914m. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao. Forests, up to 900m. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  30. Calamus melanorhynchus Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 11(App.): 30 (1913); --Type: Elmer 11708 (FI, holo; CAS, K, NY, US, iso), Mindanao, Davao Prov., Todaya, Mt Apo, 1200 m. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Forest, c. 1200m. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  31. Calamus merrillii Becc. in Martelli, Webbia 1 (1905) 347; PJS 4 c (1909) 629; 14 (1919) 351; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 149, under synonymy of C. maximus Blanco; --Type: Merrill 1893 (B, holo; FI, iso), Luzon: Rizal Prov., Bosoboso. --Calamus maximus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 266; ed. 2 (1845) 185; ed. 3, 1 (1877) 331; --Type: none thought to exist, posible neotype: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 879 (US), Luzon: Rizal prov., Caytimon, forested slopes, 13-Mar-1915. Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  32. Calamus microcarpus Becc., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 213, PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 627; ibid. 14 (1919) 356; in Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3055; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 150; --Type: Elmer 10676 (NY, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, May-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  33. Calamus microsphaerion Becc. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 45; --PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 627; ibid. 14 (1919) 353; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 151; --Type: Merrill 507, Culion: Halsey Harbor.
  34. Calamus mindorensis Becc., Philipp. J. Sci., C 2: 235 (1907); --Type: McGregor 309 (FI, holo; US, iso), Mindoro: Balete, Baco River. Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, MINDORO. Low elevation forests. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  35. Calamus mitis Becc., Philipp. J. Sci., C 3: 341 (1909); --Type: Fenix B.S. 3817 (FI, holo), Batanes Prov., Batan Is. Endemic to the Philippines. BATANES, BABUYAN, LUZON. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT). Photos
  36. Calamus mollis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 264; --Daemonorops mollis (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 86. Endemic to the Philippines. Throughout the archipelago. BABUYAN ISLS to MINDANAO, in most islands and provinces. Low and medium elevation forests, often common. Photos
  37. Calamus moseleyanus Becc., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2: 211 (1902); --Type: Moseley s.n. (K, holo), Malanipa Island. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao, BASILAN, MALANIPA. Low elevation forests, ascending to 1000m. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  38. Calamus multinervis Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 11(App.) (1913) 88; --Type: Elmer 11791 (FI, holo; CAS, K, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao Prov., Todaya, Mt Apo, Baruring River, 1200 m. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Primary forest, c. 1200m. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  39. Calamus nicolai Verschaff., Nursery Cat. (Ambroise Verschaffelt) 72 (1863) 13. Endemic to the Philippines.
  40. Calamus ochrolepis (Becc.) W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 147; --Daemonorops ochrolepis Becc., in G.H.Perkins & al., Fragm. Fl. Philipp. 1: 47 (1904). --Daemonorops ochrolepis Becc. var. radulosus Becc. in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 12: 162, t. 66 (1912); --Type: Curran F.B. 10190 (FI, holo; US, iso), Luzon, Quezon Prov., Mauban, 1200-1500 m. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, POLILLO, CATANDUANES, BILIRAN, PANAY, LEYTE, and MINDANAO. Primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1200m. Common. Photos
  41. Calamus oligolepis (Becc.) W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 147; --Daemonorops oligolepis Becc. in Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3035; --Type: Elmer 11757 (FI, holo; BO, BM, CAS, GH, K, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, junction of Colon Creek with Baruring River, 1143m. Endemic to Mindanao. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Montane primary forest, often on ridges along creek, c. 1100m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (CR).
  42. Calamus ornatus Blume ex Schultes f., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 7, 2 (1830) 1326. Photos
  43. Calamus pannosus (Becc.) W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 147; --Daemonorops pannosa Becc. in Elmer LPB 8 (1919) 3033 (1919); --Type: Elmer 11600 (FI, holo; BM, CAS, GH, K, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao prov., Mt Apo, Todaya, Mainit Creek, 1219m. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Montane forest along streams, c. 1200m. Known only from the type collection. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (CR).
  44. Calamus pedicellaris (Becc.) W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 148; --Daemonorops pedicellaris Becc., Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 8: 3040 (1919); --Type: Elmer 14132 (FI, holo; CAS, K, NY, iso), Mindanao, Agusan Prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta. Endemic to Leyte and Mindanao. LEYTE and MINDANAO: Lanao, Davao, Agusan. Primary forests on ridges, c. 650-1250m.
  45. Calamus politus (Fernando) W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 148; --Daemonorops polita Fernando, Gard. Bull. Sing. 41 (1988) 56, Fig. 4A-H; --Type: Fernando 575 (LBC, holo; BH, K, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga peninsula, La Paz. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga peninsula (La Paz; Kabasalan). In dipterocarp forest, c. 600-800m. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT)
  46. Calamus ramulosus Becc., in G.H.Perkins & al., Fragm. Fl. Philipp. 1: 46 (1904); --Type: Merrill 2070 (holo FI), Luzon, Quezon Prov., Guinayangan. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  47. Calamus reyesianus Becc., Philipp. J. Sci., C 2: 237 (1907); --Type: Reyes s.n. (FI, holo), Luzon: Quezon Prov., Unisan. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, MINDORO, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation forests. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  48. Calamus samian Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 11(App.): 92 (1913); --Type: Elmer 11336 (FI, holo; CAS, K, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao Prov., Todaya, Mt Apo, 1400 m. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Davao. Primary forests, c. 1300m. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  49. Calamus scipionum Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 210. S. Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo and the Philippines: PALAWAN. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT). Photos
  50. Calamus siphonospathus C.Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 342 (1853).
  51. Calamus spinifolius Becc., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2: 202 (1902); --Type: Vidal 3954 (K, holo), Panay: Iloilo Prov., Igbaras. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, PANAY, MINDANAO. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  52. Calamus subinermis Wendl. ex Becc., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 212. N Borneo, Philippines, N Sulawesi. PALAWAN, BASILAN. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  53. Calamus symphysipus C.Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 336. Sulawesi and the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, CATANDUANES, BUCAS GRANDE, MINDANAO: Agusan. Primary forests up to 900m. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  54. Calamus trispermus Becc. in GH Perkins & al., Fragm. Fl. Philipp. 1 (1904) 46; --Type: Merrill 1645 (FI, iso), Luzon: Rizal Prov., Antipolo. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Forests at medium elevation. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT). Photos
  55. Calamus urdanetanus (Becc.) W.J.Baker, Phytotaxa 197 (2015) 149; --Daemonorops urdanetana Becc., Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 8: 3038 (1919); --Type: Elmer 14201 (FI, holo; CAS, K, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan Prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, 1676 m. Endemic to Mindanao. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Primary forests, c. 1600m.
  56. Calamus usitatus Blanco, Fl. Filip.: 265 (1837). --Calamus usitatus Blanco var. major (Becc.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 154. --Calamus usitatus Blanco var. palawanicus (Becc.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 154. --Calamus blancoi Kunth, Enum. 3 (1841) 595; --Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 635; 14 (1919) 349; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 147. --Calamus meyenianus Schauer, Nov. Actorum Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19 (Suppl. 1): 425 (1843); --Type: Callery s.n. (P, holo), Luzon: Pangasinan Prov., San Mateo, Mt Masiqui. Borneo and the Philippines. Throughout the archipelago. As C. blancoi: LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Zambales, Bataan, Bulacan, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Low elevation forests. Conservation status: Least Concern (LC). Photos
  57. Calamus vidalianus Becc., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2: 212 (1902); --Type: Vidal 938 (K, holo), Luzon: Quezon Prov., Unisan. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Rizal, Quezon, Camarines, PANAY. Low and medium elevation primary forests. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  58. Calamus vinosus Becc., LPB 8 (1919) 3061; --Type: Elmer 14158 (FI, holo; BM, CAS, K, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, 1448m. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Hilong-hilong). Forested ridges, c. 1450m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (CR).
  59. Calamus viridissimus Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 11(App.): 84 (1913); --Type: Elmer 11938 (FI, holo; CAS, K, NY, US, iso), Mindana: Davao Prov., Todaya, Mt Apo, 300 m. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Forests and wooded ravines, c. 300m. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).

Caryota L.

Photos
  1. Caryota cumingii Lodd. ex C.Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 315 (1853). --Caryota blancoi Hook.f., Kew Rep. 1882: 61 (1884). --Caryota merrillii Becc., Webbia 1: 333 (1905); --Type: Merrill 2880 (holo FI; iso US), Luzon, Pangasinan Prov., Bautista. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, La Union, Pangasinan, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, GUIMARAS, MINDANAO. Lowland forests. Sometimes cultivated as an ornamental. Photos
  2. Caryota maxima Blume, Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1838) 195. --Caryota rumphiana Mart var. oxyodonta Becc., Philipp. J. Sci. 14 (1919) 337. --Caryota rumphiana Mart var. philippinensis Becc., Philipp. J. Sci. 14 (1919) 337. China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDORO, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Davao, Agusan. In primary and secondary forests at low and medium elevation. Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental.
  3. Caryota mitis Lour., Fl. Cochinch.: 697 (1790). Nicobars, SW and S China, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  4. Caryota rumphiana C.Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 195 (1838). Philippines to Solomon Is. Photos

Cocos L.

Photos
  1. Cocos nucifera L., Sp. Pl.: 1188 (1753). C. Malesia to SW. Pacific, widely introduced elsewhere. Throughout the Philippines, extensively cultivated; wild-types in E SAMAR [wild-types also in E Australia]. From the seashore inland, usually up to c. 700m, in some regions up to 1500m. Photos

Corypha L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Corypha microclada Becc., Webbia 5 (1921) 7; --Type: BS 18720 McGregor, Biliran. Philippines. Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN. Conservation status: Vulnerable (VU).
  2. Corypha utan Lam., Encycl. 2: 131 (1786). --Corypha elata Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 176; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 123; EPFP 1 (1922) 143. --Livistona vidalii Becc., Webbia 1: 343 (1905). NE India to N Australia, S India, Sri Lanka, Andaman Isls, SE Asia, N Australia. Throughout the Philippines in open places, in some regions widely scattered, in others subgregarious and abundant at low and medium elevation. Photos

Daemonorops Blume = Calamus

Heterospathe Scheff.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Heterospathe brevicaulis Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 220, Fig. 1; --Type: Fernando 534 (holo, K; BH, LBC, iso), Luzon: Aurora prov., Baler, Saipon. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora (Baler, Saipon). Lowland stream valley with large boulders, forest on ultramafics, c. 50m. Known only from two collections from the type locality. Conservation status: Endangered (EN).
  2. Heterospathe cagayanensis Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 611; --Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 221; --Ptychoraphis cagayanensis (Becc.) Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 326; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 163; --Type: FB 11286 Klemme (holo, FI), Luzon: Cagayan prov., more precise locality not given. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan (Lallo, Magapig; Camalaniugan, Babayuan), Isabela (Divilacan, Aubarede peninsula; Palanan, Dimatog), Aurora (Dilasag; Baler, Digisit). Lowland forests. In Isabela found on ultramafic vegetation near the coast (as a trunk-forming palm in closed canopy forests and acaulescent on open scrubs). Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT). Photos
  3. Heterospathe califrons Fernando, Palms 45 (2001) 118, Fig. 1-6; --Type: Fernando 1567 & Sotalbo (holo, LBC; iso BH, K, PNH, PUH), Mindanao: Surigao del Sur prov., Carmen. Endemic to the Philippines. NE MINDANAO: E slopes of Diwata Mtns, Surigao del Sur (Carmen). In forest on ultramafic rocks, often along small creeks and partially water-logged areas, alt. 580 m. Known only from the type locality. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (CR). Vernacular names: yanisi (Bagobo). Photos
  4. Heterospathe dransfieldii Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 223, Fig. 2; --Type: Dransfield 6189 (holo, K; iso BH, PNH), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Beaufort & Thumb Peak. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN (vicinity of Mt Beaufort-Thumb Peak). Exposed ridge forest, c. 850m. Thus far known only from the type locality. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (CR).
  5. Heterospathe elata Scheff., Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 1 (1876) 141, 162; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 162; --Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 225; --Type: Fig. 134 in Scheff., loc. cit. Micronesia (Guam and Palau), Moluccas, and the Philippines.
  6. Heterospathe elmeri Becc. in Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 646; --Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 225; --Ptychoraphis elmeri (Becc.) Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 328; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 164; --Rhopaloblaste elmeri (Becc.) Becc. ex Martelli, Atti. Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat. Res. Pisa Mem. 44 (1934) 138, in Nuov. Gior. Bot. Ital. (n.s.) 42 (1935) 81; --Type: Elmer 9559 (holo, FI; iso BM, K, NY), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns. --Ptychoraphis microcarpa Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 327; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 164; --Rhopaloblaste microcarpa (Becc.) Becc. ex Martelli, Atti. Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat. Res. Pisa Mem. 44 (1934) 36, in Nuov. Gior. Bot. Ital. (n.s.) 42 (1935) 81; --Type: BS 14678 Ramos (holo, FI; iso K), Camiguin de Misamis. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO, NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns); Kinabkaban River, CAMIGUIN. Forests at medium elevation. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  7. Heterospathe intermedia (Becc.) Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 226; --Rhopaloblaste intermedia (Becc.) Becc. ex Martelli, Atti. Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat. Res. Pisa Mem. 44 (1934) 137, in Nuov. Gior. Bot. Ital. (n.s.) 42 (1935) 81; --Ptychoraphis intermedia Becc. in Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3011; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 164; --Type: Elmer 13663 (FI, lecto, chosen by HE Moore, Jr.; isolecto BM, K, NA, NY), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan; Bulusan Lake), BILIRAN (Naval, Mt Sayao), LEYTE (Ormoc, Mt Janagdan; Baybay, Mt Pangasugan; Mt Abucayan), SAMAR: Catubig River,
    MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta), Surigao del Norte (Mt Kabatuan). Forests, 500-1000m. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT). Photos
  8. Heterospathe negrosensis Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 611; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 162; --Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 227; --Type: Whitford 1539 (holo, FI), Negros: Negros Occidental prov., Mt Silay. Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting), MASBATE (Aroroy), NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Silay; Mt Marapara; Mt Canlaon; Mt Malbag =?Malbug), Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns). Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT). Photos
  9. Heterospathe philippinensis (Becc.) Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 610; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 162; --Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 227; --Ptychoraphis philippinensis Becc., Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 2 (1885) 90; --Type: Cuming 1476 (excluding infl. which belongs to H. elata; holo, FI; isoK), Luzon: Albay prov. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Ifugao (Mt Polis; Banawe, Bayninan), Benguet (Mt Atok), Isabela (Palanan), Nueva Vizcaya (Sta Fe, Imugan), Aurora (Baler; Aurora Memorial Forest Park; Maria Aurora), Quezon (Nakar; Sablang; Infanta; Real, Daraitan; Balete), Rizal (Mt Matulid; Montalban), Laguna, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), BILIRAN (Mt Suiro), LEYTE (Dagami), DINAGAT, BUCAS GRANDE, MINDANAO: Davao Oriental (Mt Kampalili). Chiefly in primary lowland and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1600m or higher. Photos
  10. Heterospathe scitula Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 228, Fig. 3; --Type: Fernando 506 (holo, K; iso BH, LBC), Luzon: Camarines Norte prov., Bicol National Park.
    Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte (Basud, Tuaca; Bicol National Park), Camarines Sur (Buhi), Albay (Daraga). Lowland dipterocarp forests on gentle slopes, c. 100-200m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (CR). Photos
  11. Heterospathe sibuyanensis Becc. in Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3014; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 162; --Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 230; --Type: Elmer 12350 (holo, FI; iso BISH, BM, CAS, K, NY, US), Sibuyan: Magallanes, Mt Giting-giting, 230m. Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting). Forest, c. 225m. Known only from the type collection despite repeated attempts to recollect it from the type locality. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (CR).
  12. Heterospathe trispatha Fernando, Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 231, Fig. 4; --Type: Fernando 481 (holo, LBC; iso BH, K), Luzon: Aurora prov., Baler, Dikaluyangan. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora (Dilasag; Baler). Lowland dipterocarp forest, c. 50m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (CR).

Korthalsia Blume

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Korthalsia laciniosa C.Mart. Hist. Nat. Palms 3 (1838) 211, 343; --Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 343; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 146. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java and the Philippines: LUZON: Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon, POLILLO, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, PANAY, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation primary forests. Photos
  2. Korthalsia merrillii Becc., Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 122: t. 81, ined., PJS 14 (1919) 342; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 146; --Type: Merrill 9140 (holo, FI), Palawan: Malampaya Bay. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Low elevation primary forests.
  3. Korthalsia rigida Blume, Rumphia 2: 167 (1843). S Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN.
  4. Korthalsia robusta Blume, Rumphia 2: 170 (1843). --Korthalsia squarrosa Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 620; 14 (1919) 343; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 146; --Type:
    Curran F.B. 4185 (holo FI; iso US), Palawan, Iwahig Sumatra, Borneo and the Philippines: PALAWAN, BALABAC. Low elevation primary forests.
  5. Korthalsia scaphigeroides Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 619; 14 (1919) 342; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 146; --Type: Hutchinson F.B. 4816 (holo, FI; iso NY, US), Mindanao, Zamboanga, Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Agusan del Sur, Surigao. Lows elevation primary forests. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).

Licuala Thunb.

Photos
  1. Licuala grandis H.Wendl., Ill. Hort. xxvii. (1880) t. 412. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated? Photos
  2. Licuala spinosa Wurmb., Verh. Bat. Genoots. 2 (1780) 469; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 143; --Type: Thunberg s.n. (UPS, microfiche at K), Java; neotype selected by Saw (1997). Nicobar Isls, Andaman Isls, Hainan, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo and the Philippines: BUSUANGA, CULION, PALAWAN, BALABAC, TAWITAWI. Lowland thickets, sometimes immediately back of mangroves in brackish mud. Common. Also widely cultivated as an ornamental. Photos

Livistona R.Br.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 September 2013

Photos
  1. Livistona saribus (Lour.) Merr. ex Chev., Bull. Econ. Indochine 22 (1919) 501; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 145. --Livistona inaequisecta Becc., Philipp. J. Sci., C 4: 616 (1909); --Type: Curran F.B. 10079 (holo, FI), Luzon, Laguna Prov., Sta. Maria, Mavitac. SE China, Thailand, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Laguna. Open, somewhat swampy regions at low elevation, in Cagayan. Gregarious.

Metroxylon Rottb.

[Not native]

Photos
  1. Metroxylon sagu Rottb., Nye Samml. Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Skrift. 2 (1783) 527; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 145. Native from Moluccas to New Guinea, introduced elsewhere. NEGROS, SIQUIJOR, CEBU, BOHOL, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Misamis, Cotabato, Davao, Agusan, Surigao, BASILAN, SULU. Photos

Nypa Steck

Photos
  1. Nypa fruticans Wurmb., Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunsten 1: 349 (1779). --Nipa fruticans (Wurmb) Thunb., Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl. 3: 231 (1782). --Nipa litoralis Blanco, Fl. Filip.: 662 (1837). India, across Malesia to tropical Australia. Widely distributed in the Philippines. Along tidal streams in brackish swamps, usually forming dense impenetrable stands. Photos

Oncosperma Blume

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016
 
Photos
  1. Oncosperma gracilipes Becc., Philipp. J. Sci., C 2: 228 (1907); --Type: Merrill 4010 (holo, FI), Luzon, Quezon Prov., Atimonan. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, BILIRAN. Low elevation forests. Locally common. Photos
  2. Oncosperma horridum (Griffith) Scheff., Tijdschr. Ned.-Indië 32: 191 (1871); --Areca horrida Griff., Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 5: 465 (1845). Peninsular Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines and Sulawesi. POLILLO, MINDANAO.
  3. Oncosperma platyphyllum Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 609; --Type: Whitford 1670 (holo, FI), Negros: Gimagaan River. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS: Gimagaan River. Lowland forest. Rare. Conservation status: Endangered (EN).
  4. Oncosperma tigillarium (Jack) Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 33: 173 (1864); --Areca tigillaria Jack, Malayan Misc. 2(7): 88 (1820). Peninsular Thailand, Cambodia, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Photos

Orania Zipp.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser & Jiro Adorador, 19 August 2015

Photos

  1. Orania decipiens Becc. PJS 4c (1909) 614 (1909); --Type: Merritt F.B. 4120 (FI, holo; K, iso), Mindoro, Bongabong River, Apr/May-1906. --Orania decipiens var. mindanaoensis Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 333; --Type: Whitford & Hutchinson 9179 (FI, holo). --Orania rubiginosa Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 333; --Syntypes: Curran 17192, Curran 17259, Loher 7090, McGregor 10575, Ramos 13390. Endemic to the Philippines. Widespread, but absent from Palawan. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Quezon, MINDORO, MINDANAO, BASILAN. Low and medium elevation forests. Conservation status: VU D2 (Keim & Dransfield 2012). Photos
  2. Orania palindan (Blanco) Merr., Publ. Bur. Sci. Gov. Lab. 27 (1905) 88; --Caryota palindan Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 714; --Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 144 (K, neo), Luzon: Montalban, Mar-1912. --Orania philippinensis Scheff. ex Becc., Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 2 (1885) 156; --Type from Java. --Orania palindan var. sibuyanensis (Becc.) Merr., Publ. Bur. Sci. Gov. Lab. 27 (1905) 88; --Orania philippinensis var. sibuyanensis Becc., PJS 4c (1919) 332; --Type: Elmer 12066 (FI, holo). New Guinea to Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, La Union, Benguet, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Batangas, Camarines, ROMBLON, SIBUYAN, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Agusan. Low and medium elevation forests. Conservation status: LC (Keim & Dransfield 2012).
  3. Orania paraguanensis Becc., Webbia 1: 335 (1905); --Type: Merrill 869 (FI, holo), Palawan, Separation Point, Banguey, Feb-1903. Indonesia (Sabah), Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: CR B2a,b (Keim & Dransfield 2012). Photos

Phoenix L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 October 2016

Photos
  1. Phoenix loureiroi Kunth, Enum. Pl. 3 (1841) 257.

Pinanga Blume

Photos
  1. Pinanga basilanensis Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 322; --Type: Reillo B.S. 16119 (holo, FI), Basilan. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, BASILAN. Low and medium elevation primary forests. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  2. Pinanga batanensis Becc., PJS 3 c (1909) Bot. 340; --Type: BS 3841 Fenix (holo, FI; NY, US, iso), Batan: Santo Domingo de Basco, along mountain stream, Jun-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN (Mt Iraya). Lowland forest. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (CR).
  3. Pinanga bicolana Fernando, Principes 32 (1988) 172, Fig. 5; 7A-H; --Type: Fernando 498 (holo, K; LBC, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte prov., Bicol National Park.
    Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte and Sur provincial borders (Bicol National Park). Dipterocarp forest, 100-200m. Only known from the type locality. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (CR). Photos
  4. Pinanga copelandii Becc., Webbia 1 (1905) 320; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 165; --Fernando, Principes 32 (1988) 170; --Type: Copeland 1283 (holo, FI), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, Sorsogon (Irosin, Mt Bulusan and Bulusan Lake), PANAY, NEGROS, BOHOL, SAMAR, LEYTE (Baybay, Mt Pangasugan), BASILAN (Maligui), MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte (Malayal), Zamboanga del Sur, Davao (Mt Apo), Agusan del Norte (Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta; Butuan; Agusan River), Agusan del Sur (Trento). In humid forests, 100-1250m. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT). Photos
  5. Pinanga curranii Becc., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 226; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 165; --Fernando, Principes 32 (1988) 165; --Type: FB 3515 Curran (holo, FI), Palawan: Puerto Princesa. --Pinanga maculata Becc. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. 1 (1904) 48, non Porte ex Lem.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 166. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN: (St Paul’s Bay, Kabayugan; Puerto Princesa; Bagumbayan; Iwahig River, Tagkauarim), DUMARAN, BUSUANGA. Primary forests, c. 10-500m. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT). Photos
  6. Pinanga egregia Fernando, Kew Bull. 49 (1994) 775, Fig. 1A-G; --Type: Fernando 549 (holo, LBC; iso BH, K, PNH), Luzon: Sierra Madre Mtns, Quezon prov., Real, Sitio Balete. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (Real), POLILLO. Dipterocarp forest, c. 500m. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT). Photos
  7. Pinanga geonomiformis Becc., Philipp. J. Sci., C 4: 602 (1909); --Type: Curran F.B. 10155 (holo, FI), Luzon, Quezon Prov. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Quezon, Rizal, POLILLO, MINDORO. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  8. Pinanga glaucifolia Fernando, Kew Bull. 49 (1994) 776, Fig. 2A-Q; --Type: Fernando 558 (holo, LBC; iso BH, K, PNH), Luzon: Camarines Norte prov., Bicol National Park. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte (Mt Labo; Bicol National Park). Lowland dipterocarp forest, c. 100-200m. Conservation status: Endangered (EN). Photos
  9. Pinanga heterophylla Becc., Philipp. J. Sci. 14: 319 (1919); Type: Curran F.B. 17346 (holo, FI), Negros, Mt Maripari. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, RAPU-RAPU, NEGROS. Forests, c. 100-700m. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT)
  10. Pinanga insignis Becc., Philipp. J. Sci., C 2: 223 (1907); --Pseudopinanga insignis (Becc.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 13: 194 (1936); --Type: Whitford 1388 (holo, FI; iso, US), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Bongabong River. --Pinanga insignis Becc. subsp. loheriana Becc., Philipp. J. Sci. 14: 322 (1919). Photos
  11. Pinanga isabelensis Becc., Philipp. J. Sci. 14: 318 (1919); --Type: McGregor B.S. 10660 (holo, FI), Luzon, Isabela Prov., Bicobian Bay. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela. Forests near the sea, most likely on ultramafics which is prevalent in the area. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT).
  12. Pinanga maculata Porté ex Lem., Illus. Hort. 10 (1863) pl. 361; PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 226; --Fernando, Principes 32 (1988) 166; --Pseudopinanga maculata (Porte ex Lem.) Burrett, Notizb. Bot. Gard. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 13 (1936) 194, excluding P. copelandii Becc. and all specimens cited; --Salvosa, Lexicon Philipp. Trees (1963)
    120; --Type: Plate 361 in Lem., loc. cit. --Pseudopinanga barnesii (Becc.) Burrett, Notizb. Bot. Gard. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 13 (1936) 193; --Salvosa, Lexicon Philipp. Trees (1963) 120; --Pinanga barnesii Becc., Webbia 1 (1905) 320; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 164; --Type: FB 122 Barnes (holo, FI; Iso K), Luzon: Bataan prov., Lamao River. --Pinanga barnesii Becc. var. macrocarpa Becc., Philipp. J. Sci., C 3: 340 (1908); --Type: McGregor 275 (holo, FI; iso K, US), Mindoro, Balete, Baco River. Endemic to the Philippines. BABUYAN, LUZON: Ifugao (Damag; Botwag), Benguet (Baguio; Mt Sto Tomas), La Union, Cagayan, Isabela (Palanan), Aurora, Zambales (Pinagtubo), Bataan (Lamao), Pampanga, Rizal (Mt Tokduanbanoy; Montalban; Tanay), Laguna, Quezon (General Nakar, Sablang; Infanta; Mt Banahaw; Mt Banahaw de Lucban; Tayabas; Atimonan, Quezon National Park), POLILLO, CATANDUANES, MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Baco River; Pinamalayan). In humid primary forests, chiefly at 300-800m, ascending to 1600m. Common. Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT). Photos
  13. Pinanga modesta Becc., Philipp. J. Sci., C 2: 225 (1907); --Type: Copeland s.n. (holo, FI), Mindanao, Zamboanga, San Ramon. Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao, Bukidnon, Davao, Agusan, Surigao del Sur, BASILAN. Primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascensing to 1200m. Photos
  14. Pinanga negrosensis Becc. Becc., Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 2: 642 (1909); --Type: Elmer 10030 (holo, FI; iso K, NY, US), Negros, Dumaguete, Cuernos Mountains. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS, ?DINAGAT. Photos
  15. Pinanga philippinensis Becc., Malesia 3: 180 (1889). --Pinanga elmeri Becc. in Martelli, Webbia 1 (1905) 322; --Type: Elmer 6067 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet
    prov., Baguio, Mar-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. As P. elmeri: BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Benguet, Ifugao, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, MINDORO, NEGROS, LEYTE, MINDANAO. Forests, c. 700-1800. Common. Photos
  16. Pinanga rigida Becc., Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 2: 644 (1909); --Type: Elmer 10187 (holo, FI; iso BM, K, NY, US), Negros, Dumaguete, Cuernos Mountains, 2000m. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS.
  17. Pinanga samarana Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 321; --Type: Ramos BS 17535 (holo, FI; iso BM, K, US), Samar: Mt Cauayan. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR: Mt Cauayan. Known only from the type collection. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (CR).
  18. Pinanga sclerophylla Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 603; --Type: Merritt FB 4468 (holo, FI), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Mt Halcon, 1500m. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon). Primary forests, c. 1500m. Rare. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (CR).
  19. Pinanga sibuyanensis Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 324; --Type: Elmer 12425 (holo, FI; BISH, BM, K, NY, US, iso), Sibuyan: Magallanes (=Magdiwang), Mt Giting-giting. Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting). Forests along streams, 200-600m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (CR).
  20. Pinanga sierramadreana Fernando, Kew Bull. 49 (1994) 780, Fig. 3A-J; --Type: Fernando 521 (holo, LBC; iso K), Luzon: Quezon prov., General Nakar, Sitio Sablang. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya (Caraballo Mtns), Quezon (General Nakar: Sitio Sablang and Kabanbanan). A sheet at PNH (Gutierrez 61-289) from Isabela prov. (Palanan) probably also belongs here.
  21. Pinanga sobolifera Fernando, Kew Bull. 49 (1994) 782, Fig. 4A-L; --Type: Fernando 518 (holo, LBC; iso K, PNH), Luzon: Quezon prov., General Nakar, Sitio Sablang. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (General Nakar). Lowland dipterocarp forest, c. 800m. Known only from two collections. Conservation status: Endangered (EN).
  22. Pinanga speciosa Becc., Webbia 1: 316 (1905); --Type: Copeland 1265 (holo FI), Mindanao, Davao Prov., Todaya, Mt Apo. Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao, Bukidnon, Davao, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Surigao del Sur. Primary forests, 400-1200m.
  23. Pinanga urdanetensis Becc., Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 8: 3008 (1919); --Type: Elmer 14137 (FI, holo; BISH, BM, K, US, iso), Mindanao, Agusan Province, Mt Undaneta, Camilanan Peak. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta), Surigao del Sur. Forested slopes, c. 1400m. Rare. Photos
  24. Pinanga urosperma Becc., Philipp. J. Sci., C 3: 341 (1909); --Pseudopinanga urosperma (Becc.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 13: 194 (1936); --Type: Fenix 4044 (holo, FI; iso US), Babuyan, Camiguin. Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, Isabela, Aurora. Photos
  25. Pinanga woodiana Becc., Philipp. J. Sci., C 4: 604 (1909); --Type: Merrill 5680 (holo, FI), Mindoro, Mt Halcon, 1100 m. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, MINDORO, MINDANAO: Davao. Primary forests, 1050-1350m. Rare.

Plectocomia C.Mart. ex Blume

Photos
  1. Plectocomia elmeri Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 12 (1918) 34; --Becc. in Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3029; PJS 14 (1919) 342; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 146; --Type: Elmer 11887, Mindanao: Davao, Mt. Apo, Todaya, 1000m. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). In dense woods, 900m. Known only from the type collection. Rare. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (CR). Vernacular name: ungang.
  2. Plectocomia elongata C.Mart. ex Blume, in J.J.Roemer & J.A.Schultes, Syst. Veg. 7 (1830) 1333. Photos

Ptychoraphis, as to Philippine spp. = Heterospathe

Salacca Reinw.

Photos
  1. Salacca clemensiana Becc., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 618, 14 (1919) 342; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 146; --Type: Clemens 1109 (holo, FI), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur prov., Lake Lanao. N Borneo and the S Philippines: MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte (La Paz, Camp Susana; Siocon, Laclacan), Misamis Occidental (Mt Malindang), Misamis Oriental, Lanao del Sur, Davao. Mostly in thickets near streams and ravines, 600-900m. Conservation status: Endangered (EN). Vernacular names: dalubi, kaubi, lakaubi, lubo.
  2. Salacca ramosiana Mogea, Principes 30 (1986) 161; --Type: Elmer 20110 (iso NY, SING). Borneo, Sabah, Sandakan. Borneo (Sabah) and the Philippines. PALAWAN, TAWI-TAWI.

Saribus Blume

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Saribus merrillii (Becc.) C.D.Bacon & W.J.Baker, Palms 55 (2011) 113; --Livistona merrillii Becc. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 45; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 144; --Type: Merrill 2071 (holo, FI), Luzon, Quezon Prov., Guinayangan. --Corypha minor Blanco non Jacq., Fl. Filip. (1837) 229. --Livistona whitfordii Becc., Webbia 1: 341 (1905); --Type: Whitford 731 (holo, FI), Luzon, Quezon Prov., Atimonan. --Livistona blancoi Merr., Sp. Blancoana: 84 (1918). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora (photos), Cagayan, Zambales, Quezon, Camarines, POLILLO. Low elevation forests and thickets. Photos
  2. Saribus rotundifolius (Lam.) Blume, Rumphia 2 (1838) 49; --Livistona rotundifolia (Lam.) C Martius, Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 241 (1838); --Corypha rotundifolia Lam., Encycl. 2: 131 (1786); --Licuala rotundifolia (Lam.) Blume, Syst. Veg. [Roemer & Schultes] 7 (1830) 1305; --Type: Illustration in Rumphius, Herb. Amboin. 1 (1741) t. 8 (lecto). --Livistona rotundifolia var. luzonensis Becc. in Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3025; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 144. --Livistona altissima Zoll., Tijdschr. Ned.-Indië
    14 (1857) 150. --Livistona microcarpa Becc., PJS C 2 (1907) 231; --Livistona rotundifolia var. mindorensis Becc., PJS 14 (1919) 341; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 144; --Type: FB 4108 Merritt, Mindoro. --Livistona rotundifolia var. microcarpa Becc. in Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3024; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 144; --Type: FB 3784 Curran, Palawan, Caraniugan River. --Livistona microcarpa Becc., Philipp. J. Sci., C 2: 231 (1907); --Type: Curran F.B. 3784 (holo, FI).  --Livistona rotundifolia (Lam.) Mart var. luzonensis Becc., Philipp. J. Sci. 14: 339 (1919); --Type: Elmer 9293 (holo, FI; iso US), Luzon, Quezon Prov., Lucban, Mt Banahaw. --Livistona robinsoniana Becc., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 230, 14 (1919) 341; --Type: BS 9265 Robinson (holo, FI; iso US), Polillo. Edge of forest, 5m. Aug. 1909. Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas. LUZON: La Union, Benguet, Pangasinan, Zambales, Pampanga, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Albay, POLILLO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Davao. Low and medium elevation forests. Sometimes cultivated as an ornamental. Photos

Veitchia non H.Wendl. (as to Philippine species) = Adonidia 

Zalacca Blume = Salacca


Acknowledgements

Jiro Adorador, Jonah van Beijnen, Raab Bustamante, John Michael Galindon, Alma Gamil, and Wally Suarez kindly provided some of the photos on this webpage.


Literature

Bacon, CD & WJ Baker. 2011. Saribus resurrected. Palms 55: 109-116.

Baker, WJ. 2015. A revised delimitation of the rattan genus Calamus (Arecaceae). Phytotaxa 197: 139-152

Corner, EJH. 1966. The natural history of palms. London

Dowe, JL. 2009. A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae). Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 60: 185-344.

Dransfield, J. 1974. A short guide to rattans. Biotrop, Bogor.

Dransfield, J, NW Uhl, CB Asmussen, WJ Baker, MM Harley & CE Lewis. 2008. Genera palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. Kew Publishing.

Fernando, ES. 1988. The mottled-leaved species of Pinanga in the Philippines. Principes 32: 165-174.

Fernando, ES. 1990. The genus Heterospathe (Palmae: Arecoideae) in the Philippines. Kew Bulletin 45: 219-234.

Fernando, ES. 1994. New species of Pinanga (Palmae: Arecoideae) from Luzon Island, Philippines. Kew Bulletin 49: 775-784, fig. 1-4.

Fernando, ES. 2014. Three new species in Calamus sect. Podocephalus (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) from the Philippines, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea. Phytotaxa 166: 69-76.

Keim, AP & J Dransfield. 2012. A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae). Kew Bulletin 67: 127-190.
 
Mogea, JP. 1978. Palm Indonesia, LBN 13, Bogor.
 
Uhl, NW & J Dransfield. 1987. Genera palmarum, Ithaca.


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Last updated 8 February 2017