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Asparagaceae

including Agavaceae, Anthericaceae, Convallariaceae, Dracaenaceae, Laxmanniaceae, Ruscaceae

Agave L. [or Agavaceae; not native, not naturalized]

Photos

  1. Agave cantala Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 25, nomen; Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 167; --Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 144; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 99; EPFP 1 (1922) 212; --Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 253; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 146. --Agave americana Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 258; ed. 2 (1845) 180; ed. 3, 1 (1877) 322, t. 96; --Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 253; --Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 23. Introduced from Mexico during the Spanish colonial period, now widely distributed in the Philippines. In some provinces extensively grown for its fiber. Maguey. Cultivated only.
  2. Agave sisalana Perine ex Engelm., Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 3 (1875) 314; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 213. Native of tropical America, introduced into the Philippines during the early part of the 20th century, here planted for its fiber. Cultivated only. Photos

Asparagus L. [or Agavaceae]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 July 2017

Photos
  1. Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr., PJS 15 (1919) 230; EPFP 1 (1922) 206; --Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 216. Korea, Japan, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, S China, Indochina, N Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Based on Loher 1928, probable from above 1200m.

Cultivated taxa, not naturalized:

  1. Asparagus aethiopicus L., Mant. Pl. (1770) 1. --Asparagus sprengeri Regel, Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 11 (1890) 302. Photos
  2. Asparagus officinalis L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 313. Photos
  3. Asparagus setaceus (Kunth) Jessop, Bothalia 9 (1966) 51; --Asparagopsis setacea Kunth, Enum. Pl. 5 (1850) 82. --Asparagus plumosus Baker, Baker, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 14 (1875) 613.

Cordyline Comm. ex R.Br. [or Agavaceae; not native, not naturalized?]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 July 2017

Photos

  1. Cordyline fruticosa (L.) A.Chev., Cat. Pl. Jard. Bot. Saigon (1919) 66; --Taetsia fruticosa (L.) Merr., Interp. Herb. Amb. (1917) 137; EPFP 1 (1922) 205; --Convallaria fruticosa L. in Stickm., Herb. Amboin. (1754) 16. --Cordyline terminalis (L.) Kunth, Abh. Acad. Berlin (1820) 30; Enum. 5 (1850) 25; --Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 558; --Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 265; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 145. Native of Malaya (R.L.Reyes: or Pacific to Southeast Asia?), now pantropic in cultivation. Widely cultivated in the Philippines for ornamental purposes. Cultivated only? Photos

Disporopsis Hance [or Convallariaceae, Ruscaceae]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 October 2016

Photos
  1. Disporopsis luzoniensis (Merr.) J.M.H.Shaw, Hanburyana 5 (2011) 48; --Disporum luzoniense Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 338; EPFP 1 (1922) 206. --Disporopsis fusco-picta non Hance; --Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 219, Fig. 13. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Mossy forest, 1700-2500m. Also in secondary pyrogenous pine savanna. Photos

Disporum Salisb.: no true representatives in the Philippines = Disporopsis

Dracaena Vand. ex L. [or Dracaenaceae, Ruscaceae]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 April 2014

Photos

  1. Dracaena angustifolia Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 24; Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 155; --Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 264; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 35, idem. 3 c (1908) Bot. 400; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 61; --Pleomele angustifolia (Roxb.) NE Br., Kew Bull. (1914) 277; --Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 137; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 96; EPFP 1 (1923) 205. India through Malaya to Australia. Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces. Chiefly in lowland and medium elevation primary forests. Photos
  2. Dracaena bangueyensis (Merr.) ined.; --Pleomele bangueyensis Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 355; ibid. 30 (1926) 390; --Type from Banguey (off Sabah). Banguey, Philippines. CALAMIANES (BICAWAYAN), TAWI-TAWI. Lowland thickets.
  3. Dracaena multiflora Warb. ex Sarasin Reisen, Sulawesi 1 (1905) 136, t. 4; --Pleomele multiflora (Warb.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 205. Philippines and Sulawesi. BATANES, LUZON: Nueva Ecija, Quezon, POLILLO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, TICAO, MASBATE, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Chiefly on coastal limestone formations. Photos

Ledebouria Roth [or Hyacynthaceae; not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser. 22 July 2017

Photos

  1. Ledebouria socialis (Baker) Jessop, Journ. S. Afr. Bot. 36 (1970) 253; --Scilla socialis Baker, Refug. Bot. [Saunders] t. 180. Native to South Africa. Philippines. SAMAR. Naturalized? Photos

Liriope Lour. [or Convallariaceae, Ruscaceae]

Photos
  1. Liriope graminifolia (L.) Baker, J. Soc. Bot. 17 (1879) 499; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 207; --Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 225. --Liriope muscari Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 62, non (Decne.) LH Bailey (1929). Japan to S China (including Hongkong), Taiwan and the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Benguet, MINDORO. Low elevation (in Batan) to c. 1400m in open slopes (in N Luzon).

Ophiopogon Ker [or Convallariaceae, Ruscaceae]

Photos
  1. Ophiopogon caulescens (Blume) Backer, Handb. Fl. Java 3 (1924) 74; --Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 226, Fig. 15, 16b. --Ophiopogon malayanus Ridley, J. Strait Branch Roy. As. Soc. 41 (1904) 34; EPFP 1 (1922) 207. Continental SE Asia ans W Malesia: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Langkawi, Java, Borneo (Sabah: Mt Kinabalu area), SW Philippines. JOLO, based on Clemens 9374. Forested slopes, elevation c. 700m.
  2. Ophiopogon japonicus (L.f.) Ker in Curtis’ Bot. Mag. (1807) t. 1063; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 207; --Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 227, Fig. 16a. Japan, S China, Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Pampanga, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao (Mt Apo). Chiefly in the mossy forest, rather common in the Mountain Province, 850-2400 (-2900) m. Fl. May-Jul; fr. Dec-Jan. Also a commonly cultivated garden plant in Malesia, especially for lining borders, but never flowering in the lowlands. Photos

Sansevieria Thunb. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 July 2017

Photos
  1. Sansevieria roxburghiana Schult. & Schult.f. in J.J.Roemer & J.A.Schultes, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 7 (1829) 357; --Cordyline roxburghiana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 206. --Sanseviera zeylanica Roxb., Pl. Coromandel. 2 (1798) 43, t. 184, quoad fig. --Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 265; Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. 422; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 144, non Willd., EPFP 1 (1922) 206. Native of tropical Asia, now pantropic in distribution. In the Philippines often cultivated, in many regions naturalized, occurring in thickets and hedges at low and medium elevation. Bowstring hemp.


Thysanotus R.Br. [or Anthericaceae, Laxmanniaceae]

Photos
  1. Thysanotus chinensis Benth., Fl. Hongk. (1861) 372; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 202; --Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 211, Fig. 10 c. S China (including Hongkong), N Vietnam, S Peninsular Thailand, Lesser Sunda Isls (Flores), Philippines, Sulawesi (Masamba), Moluccas (Aru Isls), New Guinea, Australia (Western Australia; Northern Territory). LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan, Mountain Province, Benguet. Open grasslands at medium elevation, grassy pine forest, ascending to 1600m, in the more seasonal parts of the archipelago. Photos

Pleomele Salisb. = Dracaena

Taetsia Med. = Cordyline


Acknowledgements

Jonah van Beijnen kindly provided some of the photos on this web page.

Literature

Backer, CA & Bakhuizen van den Brink. 1968. Flora of Java 3: 157-165.

Jessop, JP. 1979. Liliaceae - I. Flora Malesiana - Series 1, Spermatophyta 9: 189-235

Lu, P-L & CW Morden. 2014. Phylogenetic relationships among dracaenoid genera (Asparagaceae: Nolinoideae) inferred from chloroplast DNA loci. Systematic Botany 39: 90-104.

Shaw, JMH. 2011. Miscellaneous nomenclatural and taxonomic notes mainly relating to cultivated plants. Hanburyana 5: 47-56. [Disporopsis]

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 22 July 2017