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Burseraceae

Canarium L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Canarium asperum Benth. in Hook.f., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 215; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 293. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao, Davao. Medium elevation forests, 700-1200m. Photos
    • ssp. asperum var. asperum. --Canarium villosum Benth. & Hook.f. ex Fern.-Vill., Nov. App. (1880) 40; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 354. --Canarium minutiflorum Engl. in DC., Monogr. Phan. 4 (1883) 123; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 351. --Canarium calophyllum Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 91; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 349. --Canarium lucidum Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 94; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 351. --Canarium polyneurum Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 96; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 353. --Canarium reticulatum Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 141; EPFP 2 (1923) 353. --Canarium apoense Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1083; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 349. --Canarium ogat Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1086; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 352. --Canarium euphlebium Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 372; EPFP 2 (1923) 350. --Canarium heterophyllum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 19; EPFP 2 (1923) 350. --Canarium lagunense Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 21; EPFP 2 (1923) 350. --Canarium barnesii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 22; EPFP 2 (1923) 349. --Canarium sanchezii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 27; EPFP 2 (1923) 353. --Canarium agusanense Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2564; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 349. --Canarium urdanetense Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2568; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 354. --Canarium samarense Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 183; EPFP 2 (1923) 353. --Canarium unifoliolatum Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 267; EPFP 2 (1923) 354. Borneo (rare), Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Isls. Throughout the Philippines. Common in primary and secondary forests on both seasonal and ever-wet areas, also in more open savanna-like sites, on various soil types including waterlogged, usually in the lowlands, occasionally ascending beyond 1000m.
    • ssp. asperum var. clementis (Merr.) Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 295; --Canarium clementis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 142. --Canarium leytense Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1081. --Canarium wenzelii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 363; EPFP 2 (1923) 355. 
  2. Canarium denticulatum Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1162; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 272.
    • ssp. denticulatum. --Canarium laciniatum Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1084; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 350. S Andaman Isls, S Myanmar, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao, Davao, Agusan, Surigao. Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 700m. Photos
  3. Canarium euryphyllum Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. 1 (1904) 99; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 350; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 280. Photos
    • var. euryphyllum. --Canarium stenophyllum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 25; EPFP 2 (1923) 354. --Canarium microphyllum Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 304; EPFP 2 (1923) 351. Throughout the Philippines except Palawan. Rather common in lowland forests, ascending to 800m. Reportedly once collected at 1700m.
    • var. ramosii (Merr.) Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 280; --Canarium ramosii Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 374; EPFP 2 (1923) 353. --Canarium ramosii var. parvum Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) 374. --Canarium paucinervium Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 364; EPFP 2 (1923) 352. LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Surigao. Low elevation forests.
  4. Canarium gracile Engl. in DC., Monogr. Phan. 4 (1883) 140; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 350; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 282. --Canarium antonii Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3711; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 350. Throughout the Philippines except Palawan. Low elevation forests generally, rarely up to 600m. Photos
  5. Canarium hirsutum Willd., Sp. Pl. 4 (1805) 760; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 287. --Canarium altissimum Blume, Bijdr. 17 (1826) 1163; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 355. --Canarium multipinnatum Llanos, Fragm. Pl. Filip. 1 (1851) 107; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 351. --Canarium warburgianum Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 99; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 355. --Canarium ahernianum Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 70; EPFP 2 (1923) 415. --Canarium racemosum Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 141; EPFP 2 (1923) 353. --Canarium nervosum Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 482; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 352. --Canarium costulatum Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1080; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 349. --Canarium ellipsoideum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 26; EPFP 2 (1923) 350. --Canarium robustum Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 184; EPFP 2 (1923) 353. --Canarium oxygianum Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 155. --Canarium bataanense Merr. ex Sasaki, Cat. Gov. Herb. Formosa (1930) 295, nom. nud. --Canarium nervosum Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 482; LPB 10 (1939) 3713; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 352. Throughout Malesia except New Guinea and New Britain, Carolines (Palau). Throughout the Philippines. Rather common in primary, rarely in secondary forests, in ever-wet and seasonal areas, mostly at low elevations, occasionally up to 1800m. Photos
  6. Canarium indicum L., Amoen. Acad. 4 (1759) 143; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 287; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 266.
    • var. indicum. Solomon Isls, New Hebrides, New Britain, New Ireland, New Guinea, Moluccas, N Sulawesi. Non-native cultivated. Introduced in the Philippines. Not naturalized?
  7. Canarium luzonicum (Blume) A.Gray, Wilkes Exp. Bot. (1854) 374; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 270; PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 80; EPFP 2 (1923) 351; --Pimela luzonica Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1850) 220. --Canarium oliganthum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 23. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, ALABAT, MINDORO, MASBATE, TICAO, BOHOL, MINDANAO. Common in primary forests at low and medium elevation. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  8. Canarium odontophyllum Miq., Sum. (1861) 525; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 271. --Canarium palawanense Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1754. Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Lowland forests, up to 450m.
  9. Canarium ovatum Engl. in DC., Monogr. Phan. 4 (1883) 110; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 352. --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 271. --Canarium melioides Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1079; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 351. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Laguna, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, POLILLO, SEMIRARA (Cabuya), LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Surigao. Cultivated in other parts of Malesia, Melanesia and Micronesia on account of the highly prized nuts. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  10. Canarium vrieseanum Engl. in DC., Monogr. Phan. 4 (1883) 142; --Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1956) 291. 
    • forma williamsii (C.B.Rob.) Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 291; --Canarium williamsii C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 185. --Canarium dolichophyllum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 20; EPFP 2 (1923) 350. --Canarium tongcalingii Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1082; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 354. --Canarium sibulanense Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1085; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 353. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao, Davao, Agusan. Primary and secondary forests, up to 500m.
    • forma stenophyllum Leenh., Blumea 8 (1959) 194; Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 291. MINDANAO: Davao. Primary and secondary forests, up to 500m.

Dacryodes Vahl

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Dacryodes costata (Benn.) H.J.Lam, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 42 (1932) 204; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 222; --Santiria costata Benn. in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1875) 537. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Banka, Billiton, Borneo, Philippines. LEYTE.
  2. Dacryodes incurvata (Engl.) H.J.Lam, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 42 (1932) 204; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 224; --Canarium incurvatum Engl. in DC., Monogr. Phan. 4 (1883) 138. --Santiria nitida Merr., Publ. Govt. Lab. (Philipp.) no. 35 (1906) 29; EPFP 2 (1923) 352. --Canarium nitens Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 24; EPFP 2 (1923) 352. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Zambales, Bataan, Laguna, SIBUYAN, PANAY, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Zamboanga.
  3. Dacryodes longifolia (King) H.J.Lam, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 42 (1932) 202; Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg ser. 3, 12 (1932) 340; --Kalkman, Blumea 7 (1954) 509; --Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1956) 228; --Santiria longifolia King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 62, 2 (1894) 258. Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO.
  4. Dacryodes macrocarpa (King) H.J.Lam, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 42 (1932) 203; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 226; --Santiria macrocarpa King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 62, ii (1894) 256.
    • var. merrillii H.J.Lam, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 42 (1932) 203; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 228. --Santiria elliptifolia Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 305; EPFP 2 (1923) 355. LUZON: Camarines. Low elevation forests. Known only from the type collection.
  5. Dacryodes rostrata (Blume) H.J.Lam, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 42 (1932) 203; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 225; --Santiria rostrata Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1850) 212. --Santiria samarensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 31; EPFP 2 (1923) 356. S Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Banka, Billiton, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Camarines, PALAWAN, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Damp forests at low and medium elevation. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11).

Garuga Roxb.

Photos
  1. Garuga floribunda Decne., Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 3 (1834) 477; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 215.
    • var. floribunda. --Garuga abilo (Blanco) Merr., Publ. Govt. Lab. (Philipp.) no. 35 (1905) 73; EPFP 2 (1923) 356; --Guaiacum abilo Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 364. --Garuga littoralis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 27, incl. var. paucijuga; EPFP 2 (1923) 356. --Garuga clarkii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 29; EPFP 2 (1923) 356. Peninsular Malaysia, Java, NE Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, N Australia, Melanesia. Throughout the Philippines. Low to medium elevation thickets and secondary forests in the more seasonal parts of the archipelago. Photos

Protium Burm.f.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos

  1. Protium connarifolium (Perkins) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 30; EPFP 2 (1923) 348; --H.J.Lam, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 12 (1932) 320; --Leenh., Blumea 7 (1952) 155; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1956) 215; --Canarium connarifolium Perkins, Fragm. Fl, Philip. 2 (1904) 92. --Protium philippinensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2571. PALAWAN. Forests along streams at low elevation. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos

Santiria Blume

No Photos
  1. Santiria apiculata Benn. in Hook., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1875) 537; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 234; --Type: from Peninsular Malaysia.
    • var. apiculata. --Santiria glabra Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 30; EPFP 2 (1923) 355. --Santiria lagunensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 31; EPFP 2 (1923) 355. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas. LUZON: Laguna, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao.
  2. Santiria grandiflora Kalkman, Blumea 7 (1954) 525; --Type: from Sarawak. Borneo (Sarawak; Sabah), Philippines, MINDANAO: Surigao del Sur (Carmen, SUDECOR Logging Concession), E. Sotalbo PUH).
  3. Santiria laevigata Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 211, incl. var. applanata; --Kalkman, Blumea 7 (1954) 540; -Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 232. Sumatra, Banka, Billiton, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, C Sulawesi. MINDANAO.
  4. Santiria tomentosa Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 211; --Kalkman, Blumea 7 (1954) 529; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 231. Sumatra, Banka, Billiton, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO.

Literature

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Kalkman, C. 1954. Revision of the Burseraceae of the Malaysian area in a wider sense. Blumea 7: 498-552

Leenhouts, PW. (in collaboration with C. Kalkman & HJ Lam). 1956. Burseraceae. Flora Malesiana ser. 1, 5: 209-296; ibid. 1, 6 (1972) 917-928.

Leenhouts, PW. 1952. Revision of the Burseraceae of the Malaysian Area in a wider sense. I. Protium Burman f. Blumea 7: 154-160


Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 21 October 2017