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Burseraceae

Canarium L.

Photos
  1. Canarium asperum Benth. in Hook.f., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 215; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 293. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao, Davao. Medium elevation forests, 700-1200m. Photos
    • ssp. asperum var. asperum. --Canarium villosum Benth. & Hook.f. ex Fern.-Vill., Nov. App. (1880) 40; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 354. --Canarium minutiflorum Engl. in DC., Monogr. Phan. 4 (1883) 123; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 351. --Canarium calophyllum Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 91; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 349. --Canarium lucidum Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 94; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 351. --Canarium polyneurum Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 96; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 353. --Canarium reticulatum Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 141; EPFP 2 (1923) 353. --Canarium apoense Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1083; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 349. --Canarium ogat Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1086; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 352. --Canarium euphlebium Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 372; EPFP 2 (1923) 350. --Canarium heterophyllum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 19; EPFP 2 (1923) 350. --Canarium lagunense Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 21; EPFP 2 (1923) 350. --Canarium barnesii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 22; EPFP 2 (1923) 349. --Canarium sanchezii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 27; EPFP 2 (1923) 353. --Canarium agusanense Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2564; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 349. --Canarium urdanetense Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2568; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 354. --Canarium samarense Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 183; EPFP 2 (1923) 353. --Canarium unifoliolatum Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 267; EPFP 2 (1923) 354. Borneo (rare), Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Isls. Throughout the Philippines. Common in primary and secondary forests on both seasonal and ever-wet areas, also in more open savanna-like sites, on various soil types including waterlogged, usually in the lowlands, occasionally ascending beyond 1000m.
    • ssp. asperum var. clementis (Merr.) Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 295; --Canarium clementis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 142. --Canarium leytense Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1081. --Canarium wenzelii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 363; EPFP 2 (1923) 355. 
  2. Canarium denticulatum Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1162; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 272, Fig. 21-j, k; 37.
    • ssp. denticulatum. --Canarium laciniatum Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1084; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 350. S Andaman Isls, S Myanmar, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao, Davao, Agusan, Surigao. Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 700m. Photos
  3. Canarium euryphyllum Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. 1 (1904) 99; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 350; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 280. Photos
    • var. euryphyllum. --Canarium stenophyllum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 25; EPFP 2 (1923) 354. --Canarium microphyllum Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 304; EPFP 2 (1923) 351. Throughout the Philippines except Palawan. Rather common in lowland forests, ascending to 800m. Reportedly once collected at 1700m.
    • var. ramosii (Merr.) Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 280; --Canarium ramosii Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 374, also incl. var. parvum; EPFP 2 (1923) 353; --Canarium paucinervium Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 364; EPFP 2 (1923) 352. LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Surigao. Low elevation forests.
  4. Canarium gracile Engl. in DC., Monogr. Phan. 4 (1883) 140; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 350; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 282, Fig. 20c, 21m. --Canarium antonii Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3711, anglice, ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 350, in syn. Throughout the Philippines except Palawan. Low elevation forests generally, rarely up to 600m. Photos
  5. Canarium hirsutum Willd., Sp. Pl. 4 (1805) 760; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 287, Fig. 46. --Canarium altissimum Blume, Bijdr. 17 (1826) 1163; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 355. --Canarium multipinnatum Llanos, Fragm. Pl. Filip. 1 (1851) 107; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 351. --Canarium warburgianum Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 99; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 355. --Canarium ahernianum Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 70; EPFP 2 (1923) 415. --Canarium racemosum Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 141; EPFP 2 (1923) 353. --Canarium nervosum Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 482; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 352. --Canarium costulatum Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1080; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 349. --Canarium ellipsoideum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 26; EPFP 2 (1923) 350. --Canarium robustum Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 184; EPFP 2 (1923) 353. --Canarium oxygianum Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 155. --Canarium bataanense Merr. ex Sasaki, Cat. Gov. Herb. Formosa (1930) 295, nomen. --Canarium nervosum Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3713, descr. Anglice [ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 352, in syn.  Throughout Malesia except New Guinea and New Britain, Carolines (Palau). Throughout the Philippines. Rather common in primary, rarely in secondary forests, in ever-wet and seasonal areas, mostly at low elevations, occasionally up to 1800m. Photos
  6. Canarium indicum L., Amoen. Acad. 4 (1759) 143; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 287; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 266.
    • var. indicum. Solomon Isls, New Hebrides, New Britain, New Ireland, New Guinea, Moluccas, N Sulawesi. Non-native cultivated. Introduced in the Philippines. Not naturalized?
  7. Canarium luzonicum (Blume) A.Gray, Wilkes Exp. Bot. (1854) 374; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 270; PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 80; EPFP 2 (1923) 351; --Pimela luzonica Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1850) 220. --Canarium oliganthum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 23. LUZON, ALABAT, MINDORO, MASBATE, TICAO, BOHOL, MINDANAO. Common in primary forests at low and medium elevation. Photos
  8. Canarium odontophyllum Miq., Sum. (1861) 525; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 271, Fig. 22i. --Canarium palawanense Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1754. Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Lowland forests, up to 450m.
  9. Canarium ovatum Engl. in DC., Monogr. Phan. 4 (1883) 110; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 352. --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 271, Fig. 22f. --Canarium melioides Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1079; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 351. LUZON: Quezon, Laguna, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, POLILLO, SEMIRARA (Cabuya), LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Surigao. Cultivated in other parts of Malesia, Melanesia and Micronesia on account of the highly prized nuts. Photos.
  10. Canarium vrieseanum Engl. in DC., Monogr. Phan. 4 (1883) 142, t. 3, Fig. 15-18; --Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1956) 291. 
    • forma williamsii (C.B.Rob.) Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 291; --Canarium williamsii C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 185. --Canarium dolichophyllum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 20; EPFP 2 (1923) 350. --Canarium tongcalingii Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1082; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 354. --Canarium sibulanense Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1085; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 353. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao, Davao, Agusan. Primary and secondary forests, up to 500m.
    • forma stenophyllum Leenh., Blumea 8 (1959) 194; Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 291. MINDANAO: Davao. Primary and secondary forests, up to 500m.

Dacryodes Vahl

Photos
  1. Dacryodes costata (Benn.) H.J.Lam, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 42 (1932) 204, t. 14f; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 222, Fig. 10; --Santiria costata Benn. In Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1875) 537. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Banka, Billiton, Borneo, Philippines. LEYTE.
  2. Dacryodes incurvata (Engl.) H.J.Lam, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 42 (1932) 204; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 224; --Canarium incurvatum Engl. in DC., Monogr. Phan. 4 (1883) 138. --Santiria nitida Merr., Publ. Govt. Lab. (Philipp.) no. 35 (1906) 29; EPFP 2 (1923) 352. --Canarium nitens Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 24; EPFP 2 (1923) 352. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Zambales, Bataan, Laguna, SIBUYAN, PANAY, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Zamboanga.
  3. Dacryodes longifolia (King) H.J.Lam, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 42 (1932) 202; Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg ser. 3, 12 (1932) 340, t. 4, Fig. 9; --Kalkman, Blumea 7 (1954) 509; --Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1956) 228; --Santiria longifolia King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 62, 2 (1894) 258. Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO.
  4. Dacryodes macrocarpa (King) H.J.Lam, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 42 (1932) 203, t. 5, Fig. 8; t. 14,   Fig. 106 & 111; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 226, Fig. 11; --Santiria macrocarpa King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 62, ii (1894) 256.
    • var. merrillii H.J.Lam, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 42 (1932) 203; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 228. --Santiria elliptifolia Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 305; EPFP 2 (1923) 355. LUZON: Camarines. Low elevation forests. Known only from the type collection.
  5. Dacryodes rostrata (Blume) H.J.Lam, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 42 (1932) 203, t. 11, Fig. 59; t. 13, Fig. 109; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 225, Fig. 2d; --Santiria rostrata Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1850) 212. --Santiria samarensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 31; EPFP 2 (1923) 356. S Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Banka, Billiton, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Camarines, PALAWAN, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Damp forests at low and medium elevation.

Garuga Roxb.

Photos
  1. Garuga floribunda Decne., Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 3 (1834) 477; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 215, Fig. 2b, 5, 6.
    • var. floribunda. --Garuga abilo (Blanco) Merr., Publ. Govt. Lab. (Philipp.) no. 35 (1905) 73; EPFP 2 (1923) 356; --Guaiacum abilo Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 364. --Garuga littoralis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 27, incl. var. paucijuga; EPFP 2 (1923) 356. --Garuga clarkii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 29; EPFP 2 (1923) 356. Peninsular Malaysia, Java, NE Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, N Australia, Melanesia. Throughout the Philippines. Low to medium elevation thickets and secondary forests in the more seasonal parts of the archipelago. Photos

Protium Burm.f.

Photos

  1. Protium connarifolium (Perkins) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 30; EPFP 2 (1923) 348; --H.J.Lam, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 12 (1932) 320; --Leenh., Blumea 7 (1952) 155; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1956) 215, Fig. 4g; --Canarium connarifolium Perkins, Fragm. Fl, Philip. 2 (1904) 92. --Protium philippinensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2571. PALAWAN. Forests along streams at low elevation. Photos

Santiria Blume

No Photos
  1. Santiria apiculata Benn., in Hook., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1875) 537; --Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 234,   Fig. 13a-e; --Type from Peninsular Malaysia.
    • var. apiculata. --Santiria glabra Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 30; EPFP 2 (1923) 355. --Santiria lagunensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 31; EPFP 2 (1923) 355. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas. LUZON: Laguna, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao.
  2. Santiria grandiflora Kalkman, Blumea 7 (1954) 525, f. 7; --Type from Sarawak. Borneo (Sarawak; Sabah) and Philippines, MINDANAO: Surigao del Sur (Carmen, SUDECOR Logging Concession), E. Sotalbo PUH). New to the Philippines.
  3. Santiria laevigata Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 211, t. 40, incl. var. applanata; --Kalkman, Blumea 7 (1954) 540; -Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 232. Sumatra, Banka, Billiton, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, C Sulawesi. MINDANAO.
  4. Santiria tomentosa Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 211; --Kalkman, Blumea 7 (1954) 529; -Leenh., Fl. Males ser. 1, 5 (1956) 231. Sumatra, Banka, Billiton, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO.

Literature

Kalkman, C. 1954. Revision of the Burseraceae of the Malaysian area in a wider sense. Blumea 7: 498-552

Leenhouts, PW. (in collaboration with C. Kalkman & HJ Lam). 1956. Burseraceae. Flora Malesiana ser. 1, 5: 209-296; ibid. 1, 6 (1972) 917-928.

Leenhouts, PW. 1952. Revision of the Burseraceae of the Malaysian Area in a wider sense. I. Protium Burman f. Blumea 7: 154-160


Copyright 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 23 July 2017