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Calophyllaceae

Calophyllum L.

Photos

  1. Calophyllum blancoi Planch. & Triana, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. iv, 15 (1862) 272; --Merr., EPFP 3  (1923) 78; --PF Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 206. --Calophyllum megistanthum Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 170. --Calophyllum ferrugineum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 324; EPFP 3 (1923) 79. --Calophyllum glabrum Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 92; EPFP 3 (1923) 79. --Calophyllum mindanaense Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2684; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 80. --Calophyllum racemosum Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 198; EPFP 3 (1923) 80. Taiwan, Philippines, NE Borneo. BATANES (ITBAYAT), CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, CALAYAN, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Cagayan, Isabela, Mountain Province (Bontoc), Ifugao (Banawe, Mt Taggutu; Liwang, Poitan), Benguet, Pangasinan, Cagayan (Peñablanca), Isabela (Mt Moisés; San Mariano; Palanan), Aurora (Baler), Nueva Ecjia (Mt Umingan), Zambales (Subic; Botolan), Bataan (Lamao River; Mt Mariveles), Rizal (Mt Lumutan; Montalban, San Mateo; Antipolo; Boso-boso; Morong) Laguna (Mt Makiling; San Antonio; Pangil; Sta. Maria), Quezon (Real, Llavac; Guinayangan; Kinatakutan), Camarines Sur (Pasacao; Sipaco, Lagonoy); Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), AMBIL, PALAWAN, MANGSI, MASBATE, PANAY: Capiz (Macosolon), LEYTE (Ormoc, Lake Danao), SAMAR: (San Jose, Catubig River), TAWI-TAWI (Tarawakan), MINDANAO: Zamboanga (Sax River); Zamboanga del Sur (Port Banga), Lanao del Sur (Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley); Lanao: (Maria Cristina Falls; Siggapod; Kulasinan), Bukidnon (Quilayong; Mt Camates) Davao (Mt Apo, Todaya), Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta; Butuan, San Mateo, Tungao; Diwata Mtns), Surigao del Norte (Mt Kabatuan). In well-drained primary forests, thickets, from near sea level to 1900m. Often abundant. Flowering February-June, rarely in Jan, Aug, Sept, Nov, Dec. Fruiting throughout the year. Photos
  2. Calophyllum brachyphyllum Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 289; EPFP 3 (1923) 78; --PF Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 61(1980) 667; --Type: BS 34482 Ramos & Pascasio (A, K, P, US, iso), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte prov., Hegapit River, c. 350m, 25-Apr-1919. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Streamside forest, c. 350m. Not by L.L.Co: Known only from the type collection. Photos
  3. Calophyllum cucullatum Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 288; EPFP 3 (1923) 78; --PF Stevens, J. Arnold Arb.  61 (1980) 382; --Type: BS 34518 Ramos & Pascasio (A, BM, BO, K, L, NY, P, US, iso), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte prov., in thickets along streams at the iron deposit on the NE coast, 25-Apr-1909. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. DINAGAT, based on BS 83930 Ramos & Convocar (NY, erroneously labeled as an iso). Lowland streamside thickets on ‘iron deposit’ (may well be lateritic soil on ultramafics which is very common in the two areas).
  4. Calophyllum dasypodum Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1 (1859) 511, nomen novum for C. lanceolatum Teijsm.  & Binn; F-Muell. in Walp., Ann. Syst. Bot. 7 (1868) 357; --PF Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 364,  Fig. 19 d-g, Map 18; --Type from Java. S Sumatra, W Java, S Borneo, ?Philippines. BUSUANGA: Malbato, based on Marche 381 (?) (A, P). Note by L.L.Co: This only known specimen from the Philippines is sterile.
  5. Calophyllum gracilipes Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 197; EPFP 3 (1923) 79; --PF Stevens, J. Arnold  Arb. 61 (1980) 653, Fig. 43k, Map 46; --Type: FB 9405 Whitford & Hutchinson (K, LY, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur prov., Port Banga, ridge forest, c. 600m, 3-Feb-1908. Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; Kalimantan), SW Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga (Sax River), Zamboanga del Sur (Port Banga). Mixed dipterocarp forest, c. 600m.
  6. Calophyllum inophyllum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 513; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 79; --PF Stevens, J. Arnold  Arb. 61 (1980) 324, Map 14. Tropical E Africa to India, SE Asia, Hainan, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, across Malesia to N Australia, New Caledonia to Polynesia. Introduced to the Neotropics and tropical W Africa. Throughout the Philippines along the seashore, a characteristic strand tree. Photos
  7. Calophyllum laticostatum PF Stevens, Austral. J. Bot. 22 (1974) 575, Fig. 8; J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 579; --Type from Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea, New Britain and (fide Stevens) possibly Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (Dolores, Mt Calvario, FB 30019, UC).
  8. Calophyllum obliquinervium Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 409; EPFP 3 (1923) 80; --PF Stevens, J.  Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 644, Map 48; --Type: FB 27929 Cenabre, Paras & Gellidon (BM, UC, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Feb-1920. NE Borneo (Brunei; Sabah), Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte (Paracale), Albay, CULION, PALAWAN: (Silanga; Puerto Princesa, Tapul Mtn; Aborlan: Malasgao River), PANAY, SAMAR. Lowland and medium elevation forests, sometimes along the seashore.
  9. Calophyllum oliganthum Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 289; EPFP 3 (1923) 78; --PF Stevens, J. Arnold  Arb. 61(1980) 411; --Type: BS 35110 Ramos & Pascasio (A, BM, BO, K, P, US), Bucas Grande: 10-Jun-1919. DINAGAT, BUCAS GRANDE. Lowland forests. On Dinagat growing on iron deposit. Fl. Jun; fr. Apr and Jun.
  10. Calophyllum pentapetalum (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 266; EPFP 3 (1923) 80; --PF  Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 494, Map 33; --Ochrocarpus pentapetalus (Blanco) Fern.-Villar,  Novis. App. (1880) 17; --Tovomita pentapetala Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 432; --Type: Not extant;  neotype, designated by Stevens, 1980: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 184 leg. Peña (A; BO, F,  GH, K, L, MO, NSW, NY, P, US, isoneo), Luzon: Lepanto prov. (=a former geographic entity corvering W  Mountain Province and E Ilocos Sur). --Calophyllum amplexicaule Choisy ex Planch. & Triana, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. IV. 15 (1862) 281; --Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 96; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 54; --Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 199; --Type: Cuming 1212 (G, holo; BM, FI, K, MEL, iso), Luzon: Albay (according to Stevens, properly Ilocos Norte) prov. Photos
  11. Calophyllum rigidulum PF Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 668, Fig. 44, g, Map 49; --Type: BS 45686 Ramos & Edaño (A, holo; B, K, NY, UC, US, iso), Luzon: Aurora prov., Mt Alzapan, 6000ft (1829m), 7-Jun-1925. LUZON: Aurora (Mt Alzapan). Shrub in mossy forest, c. 1830m. Note by L.L.Co: Known only from the type collection.
  12. Calophyllum soulattri Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 121; --Merr., PJS 19 (1921) 366; EPFP 3 (1923) 81; --PF Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 277, Fig. 14 a-m, Map 10; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 386; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 192; --Type from Java. --Calophyllum kunstleri auct., non King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 592 (1890) 174; --Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 307;  EPFP 3 (1923) 79. --Calophyllum lancifolium Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2683; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 80; --Type: Elmer 13266 (A,  lecto; BISH, BM, BO, E, F, FI, G, GH, K, L, MO, NY 2sheets, U, UC, US, W, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, 1000ft (=305m), Jul-1912. --Calophyllum zschokkei Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2686; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 81; --Type: Elmer 12129 (GH,  lecto; A, BISH, BM, BO, E, F, FI, G, K, L, LY, MO, NY, P, US, W, isolecto), Sibuyan: Magallanes (=Magdiwang), Mt Giting-giting, Pauala River, 750ft [=225m], Mar-1910. --Calophyllum hibbardii Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 503; --Type: Elmer 9837 (A, BM, BO, E, F, FI, G, K, L, LY, MO,  NY, P, W, US), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, 3500ft [=1067m], Apr-1908. Andaman Isls, Nicobar Isls, Peninsular Thailand, Cambodia, S Vietnam, Sumatra and adjacent islands, Peninsular Malaysia, Java and adjacent islands, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali; Lombok; Sumbawa; Flores; Solor; Wetar), Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Sanana; Halmahera; Morotai; Bačan; Buru; Ambon; Seram; Kai Isls; Tanimbar Isls; Aru Isls); New Guinea (West Irian; Papua), Australia (Northern Territory), Caroline Isls (Palau). LUZON: Pangasinan, Mountain Province, Cagayan, Isabela (Palanan), Nueva Vizcaya (Caraballo Mtns), Nueva Ecija, Aurora (Baler), Zambales, Bataan (Mt Mariveles, Lamao River), Bulacan (Angat), Rizal (Montalban; San Mateo), Laguna (Famy, Minayotan; San Antonio), Quezon (Mt Binuang; Lucban), Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur (Sipacao), Albay (Manito), BATAN IS (off Albay prov.), Sorsogon (Cumadcad River; Mt Bulusan),  MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Yagaw), BUSUANGA (Malbato), PALAWAN (Binohan Mtn near Puerto Princesa), SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting), TICAO, CATANDUANES, GUIMARAS, NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley), Bukidnon (Mt Candoon; Mt Dumalucpihan; Malaybalay, Kimantri Plain), Davao del Sur (Sta Cruz), Agusan del Norte (Mt Hilong-hilong), Surigao. Lowland and hill forests, swamp forests. Photos
  13. Calophyllum venulosum Miq., Walp. Ann. Syst. Bot. 4 (1857) 366; J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 479, Fig. 30 a,b, d, e, g, Map 32. --Calophyllum auriculatum Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 291; EPFP 3 (1923) 78; --Type: RS Williams 2339 (A,  K, NY (3 sheets), US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River River, 500m, 20-Feb-1905.
  14. Calophyllum whitfordii Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 96; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 81; --PF Stevens, J.  Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 629, Fig. 43 q-s, y, Map 47; --Type: FB 2613 Meyer (K, NY, SING, US, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, 2300ft [=701m], Feb-1905. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela (Mt Moises), Zambales (Subic), Bataan (Mt Mariveles, Lamao River), Laguna (Famy, Minayotan), Quezon (Malicboy), MINDORO, MINDANAO: Davao Oriental (Mt Galintan). Hill forests, 150-700m. Fl. Jan-Mar; (submature) fr. May-Jul.
  15. Calophyllum sp. 95 (Entry #95 in Stevens’ monograph) --PF Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980)  493, Map 32; --Voucher: PNH 41930 (L, PNH, SING), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Butuan,  San Mateo Bo., Tungao Bo., along Ojot River, Maasin Line Km 25, 350m. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Hill forest, 350m. Fr. Jun. Note by L.L.Co: Known only from a single collection.
  16. Calophyllum sp. 121. PF Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 565, Fig. 36 m-o; Map 39. LUZON: Bataan (Mt Mariveles, Lamao River and Forest Reserve). Based on Whitford 257, RS Williams 424, and BS 1577. Lower montane forest, c. 1000m. Fl. Jan, fr. Mar, May, Jul, Oct, Nov.
  17. Calophyllum sp. 178. PF Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 678; --Voucher: FB 30772 (NY), Luzon: Quezon prov. (Malbog), 100m. LUZON: Quezon (Malbog). Forest, c. 100m. Fl. Feb. Note by L.L.Co: Only known from a single collection.

Insufficiently Known

  1. Calophyllum vanoverberghii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 454; EPFP 3 (1923) 81; --PF Stevens, J. Arnold Arb. 61 (1980) 680; --Type: Vanoverbergh 1466 (PNH, destroyed), Luzon: Mountain  Province, Bauco, c. 1700m, 12-Sep-1918. Note by L.L.Co: From Merrill’s original description, Stevens distinguishes this taxon from C. soulattri in the following vegetative features: oblong, very coriaceous lamina that dries concolorous & nitid. An additional specimen from CATANDUANES, BS 75484, may belong here.

Kayea Wall.

Photos
  1. Kayea garciae (Fern.-Villar) Vesque in DC. Monog. Phan. 8 (1893) 629; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 82; --Mesua garciae (Fern.-Villar) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 427. LUZON: Zambales, Rizal, Tayabas. POLILLO. Primary forests, ascending to 330m.
  2. Kayea lanceolata Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 290; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 82; --Mesua lanceolata (Merr.) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 427. LUZON: Camarines Norte (Paracale). Primary forests at low elevation.
  3. Kayea megalocarpa Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) 285; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 82; --Mesua megalocarpa (Merr.) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 428. LUZON: Nueva Ecija (Mt Umingan =Mingan). Primary forests at low elevation.
  4. Kayea navesii (Fern.-Villar) Vesque in DC. Monog. Phan. 8 (1893) 628; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 82; --Mesua navesii (Fern.-Villar) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 428. --Mesua brevipes (Merr.) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 426; --Kayea brevipes Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot.  200; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 81. LUZON: Apayao, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, Quezon. Forests at low or medium elevation.
  5. Kayea paniculata (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 29; 27 (1905) 20; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 82; --Mesua paniculata (Blanco) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 428. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, MINDORO, PALAWAN, BALABAC, MINDANAO: Lanao, Agusan del Norte, BASILAN. Primary forests at low and medium elevation. Common along streams.
  6. Kayea philippinensis Planch. ex Tr., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. IV 15 (1861) 298, nom. nud.; in DC.  Monog. Phan. 8 (1893) 616; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 82; --Mesua philippinensis (Planch. ex Tr. & Planch.) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 428. LUZON: Albay, Sorsogon, SIBUYAN, PANAY, NEGROS, CEBU, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Forests along streams at low and medium elevation.

Ined. Names: 

  1. Kayea brachybotrys PF Stevens, ined.; --Voucher: Co 3476 (A, PNH, PUH, CAHUP, L, US, K,  KEP), Luzon: Sierra Madre Range, Isabela prov., Palanan municip., steep headland (N spur of  Ditolong Peak), c. 4km SW of Palanan Point, 17º 07.5’N, 122º29.4’E. Dense pole forest of low- diameter trees on ultramafic site, prevailing canopy not exceeding 15m, 30m, 16-May-1991.
  2. Kayea lineata PF Stevens, ined.; --Voucher: PNH 118372 [=Madulid et al. 1405] (A, iso), Samar: Eastern Samar prov., Balangiga, Barrio Guinmangahan, May-1971.
  3. Kayea paniculata ssp. triangularis PF Stevens, ined.;, --Voucher: Elmer 12744 (A, holo; NY, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (=Thumb Peak), Mar-1911.
  4. Kayea pauciflora PF Stevens, ined.; --Voucher: PNH 39429 Lagrimas (A), Luzon: Quezon prov., Tagkawayan, Mapatong, 21-May-1959.
  5. Kayea stenophylla Merr. & Quisumb. ex PF Stevens, ined.; --Voucher: PNH 170 Edaño (L, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Bacungan, sea level, along river in forest, 24-Mar-1947.

Mammea L.

Photos
  1. Mammea ramiflora (Merr.) Kosterm., Mammea & Ochrocarpos (For. Serv. Indones., Div. Plann.) (1956) 14; --Ochrocarpos ‘sphalm. Ochrocarpus’ ramiflorus Merr., PJS 10c (1915) Bot. 325; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 77. LUZON: Quezon, Camarines. Primary forests along streams at low elevation. Photos

Ined. Names:

  1. Mammea digallarina PF Stevens, ined.; --Voucher: ISU 449 Ridsdale, Baquiran et al. (A, holo; L, PNH, iso), Luzon: Isabela prov., Palanan, Digallorin (=Digollorin), Divinisa camp site, 16º50’N, 122º  26’E, streamside forest on ultrabasic, 50m, 9-Apr-1992. 
  2. Mammea ultramafica PF Stevens, ined.; --Voucher: ISU 278 Ridsdale, Dejan & Baquiran (A, L,  PNH), Luzon: Isabela prov., Palanan, Diguyo, 122º30 N, 16º55 E, low stature disturbed forest on  ultrabasic, 50m, 27-Apr-1991.

Ochrocarpos (sphalm. ‘Ochrocarpus’ ) Merr. =Mammea

Ined. new genus:

Malindangia ined.

No Photos
  1. Malindangia glabra Merr., ined. genus et sp. nov.; --Voucher: FB 4767 Mearns & Hutchinson (PNH), Mindanao: Misamis Occidental prov., Mt Malindang, c.1700m. Note by L.L.Co: According to an unpublished manuscript by Merrill, apparently allied to Montrouziera Pancher, a genus of several species endemic to New Caledonia. However, the Malindang plant appear to be septicidally dehiscent while genera that are within Tribe Moronobeae all have indehiscent fruits. Structurally the flowers are very similar to those of Archtaea (Theaceae), but all Theaceae have alternate leaves.

Literature

Stevens, PF. 1980. A revision of the Old World species of Calophyllum (Guttiferae). Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 61: 117-699  

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Last updated 1 November 2016