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Combretaceae

Combretum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2017

Photos
  1. Combretum acuminatum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 228; Hort. Beng. (1814) 28, nom. nud.; --Roxb. ex G.Don, Trans. Linn. Soc.  Lond. 15 (1827) 440, nom. nud.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 148; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 538. India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, W Java (including Christmas Is), Borneo, Philippines, SW Sulawesi, Moluccas, N New Guinea. LEYTE, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Low elevation secondary forests.
  2. Combretum confusum Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 116; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 544. --Combretum sundaicum auct. non Miq.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 149. LUZON: Rizal, Batangas. Forested slopes, low and medium elevation. According to Exell, what is extant in the Philippines (Luzon) is a possible hybrid between Combretum sundaicum and Combretum latifolium. However, both putative parents are not yet known from the Philippines. Exell (1954) tentatively accepts Combretum confusum Merr. & Rolfe as the name for this particular form.
  3. Combretum indicum (L.) DeFilipps, Useful Pl. Dominica (1998) 277; --Quisqualis indica L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 556; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 349; EPFP 3 (1923) 154; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 547. Widespread in the Old World tropics and widely planted in many tropical countries. Throughout the Philippines in thickets, secondary forest, sandy-gravelly riverbanks, etc. Sometimes planted for its fragrant flowers. Photos
  4. Combretum latifolium Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 641; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954)   542. --Combretum extensum Roxb. ex G.Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 15 (1827) 414; --Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 28, nom. nud.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 148. India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, throughout Malesia (except Moluccas and New Guinea). MINDORO, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Misamis. Low elevation thickets and forests. Photos
  5. Combretum punctatum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 640. Photos

Lumnitzera Willd.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2017

Photos
  1. Lumnitzera littorea (Jack) Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calcut. (1845) 39; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 153; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 586; --Pyrrhanthus littoreus Jack, Malayan Misc. 2(7) (1822) 57. Tropical Asia, N Australia, and Polynesia. Throughout the Philippines along the seashore and tidal streams. Photos
  2. Lumnitzera racemosa Willd., Neue Schr. Ges. Naturf. Fr. Berl. 4 (1803) 187; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 350; EPFP 3 (1923) 154; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 588, Fig. 1b. Photos

Quisqualis = Combretum (for Philippine species)

Terminalia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2017

Photos
  1. Terminalia calamansanai (Blanco) Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 310, as ‘calamansanay’; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 149; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 556. --Terminalia calamansanai var. acuminata Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 646; EPFP 3 (1923) 150. --Terminalia calamansanai var. platypteris Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 646; EPFP 3 (1923) 150. --Terminalia blancoi Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) 645; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 149. Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, N Peninsular Malaysia, Langkawi, ?Borneo, Philippines. SW Sulawesi, New Guinea (Papua). Throughout the Philippines, often common. Photos
  2. Terminalia catappa L., Mant. 1 (1767) 128; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 349; EPFP 3 (1923) 150; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 566. Tropical Asia, N Australia and Polynesia. Commonly planted in the tropics. Throughout the Philippines along the seashore, also often planted inland. Photos
  3. Terminalia citrina (Gaertn.). Roxb. ex Flem., As. Res. 11 (1810) 183; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 555; --Myrobalanus citrina Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2 (1790) 91. --Terminalia comintana (Blanco) Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 300; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 150; --Bucida comintana Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 856. India, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, throughout Malesia (except possibly New Guinea). LUZON (widespread), MINDORO, BANCALAN, TICAO, MASBATE, NEGROS, LEYTE, MINDANAO. Forests at low and medium elevation, also frequent along the seashore. Photos
  4. Terminalia copelandii Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1795; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 151; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 579. --Terminalia crassiramea Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 287; EPFP 3 (1923) 151. Sumatra, Simalur Is, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Buton Is, Lesser Sunda Isls (Flores), Moluccas (Talaud; Ternate; Sula; Seram), New Guinea. PALAWAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Surigao, Agusan del Sur, Davao. Freshwater swamps and low elevation primary forests. Photos 
  5. Terminalia darlingii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 202; EPFP 3 (1923) 151; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 559; --Type: FB 18735 Darling (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte prov., Mambulao, in forest, c. 100m, 6-Apr-1910. LUZON: Isabela, Aurora, Camarines, SAMAR. Primary forests at low elevation. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  6. Terminalia foetidissima Griff., Not. Pl. As. 4 (1854) 685; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 577. --Terminalia oocarpa Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 17 (1904) 32, as ‘ovocarpa’; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 152. S Myanmar (Mergui), S Thailand (Puket), Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the Philippines. Primary forests at low elevation. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Bataan, Quezon, Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PANAY, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Surigao. Low elevation primary forests. Photos
  7. Terminalia macrantha Rojo, Blumea 17 (1969) 93. SAMAR: Eastern Samar (Wright, Mt Calbiga). Summit of flat ridge, 300m. Locally common. Known only from the type collection. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  8. Terminalia microcarpa Decne., Nuov. Ann. Mus. Paris 3 (1834) 457; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 562. --Terminalia edulis Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 265; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 151. Throughout Malesia but apparently absent in Peninsular Malaysia and perhaps Sumatra. LUZON (Cagayan to Sorsogon) to PALAWAN and MINDANAO, in all or most islands and provinces. A usually tall tree common in both primary evergreen and in seasonal deciduous forests, up to 800m. Photos
  9. Terminalia nitens C.Presl, Epim. (1851) 214; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 152; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 559. LUZON (throughout) to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. Primary forests at low and medium elevation.
  10. Terminalia pellucida C.Presl, Abh. Kön. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. V, 6 (1851) 574; Epim. (1851) 214; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 152; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 575. LUZON: Pangasinan, Zambales, Tarlac, Pampanga, Quezon, PALAWAN, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Forests at low elevation. Photos
  11. Terminalia plagata Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 414; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 575. TAWI-TAWI.
  12. Terminalia polyantha C.Presl, Abh. Kön. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. V, 6 (1851) 574; Epim. (1851) 214; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 152; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 555. --Terminalia montalbanica Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 153, nom. nud. Indochina, Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan, Zambales, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Rizal, Batangas, MINDORO. Dry thickets and secondary forests at low and medium elevation.
  13. Terminalia surigaensis Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 295; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 153; --Exell, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1954) 559. MINDANAO: Surigao. Along streams at low elevation. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
Excluded:
  1. Terminalia magarapali S.Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 26. According to Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 151, possibly referable to Elaeocarpus monocera Cav. 

Acknowledgements

Benigno Resurreccion kindly provided some of the photos on this web page.

Literature

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Exell, AW. 1954. Combretaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 4: 533-589

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 23 October 2017