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Euphorbiaceae

Acalypha L.

Edited by Pieter Pelser 29 October 2016

Photos
  1. Acalypha amentacea Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 676; --Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 243; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 2. --Type: Herbarium Roxburghii /Herbarium Martii 2615 (BR, holo; BM000926683, probable iso).
  2. Acalypha angatensis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 750; --Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 193; --Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 227; EPFP 2 (1923) 445; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 2; --Ricinocarpus angatensis (Blanco) Kuntze, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2 (1891) 617; --Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 333 (L, neo; A, US, isoneo), Luzon: Bulacan, Angat. --Acalypha tomentosa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 750; ed. 2 (1845) 516; ed. 3, 3 (1879) 150; --Ricinocarpus philippinensis Kuntze, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2 (1891) 617; --Type: none designated. --Acalypha grandis Muell.-Arg. var. velutina Muell.-Arg., Flora 47 (1864) 441; --Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 143; --Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 357; --Acalypha amentacea Roxb. var. velutina (Muell.Arg.) Fosberg in Fosberg & Sachet, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 45 (1980) 10; --Type: Cuming 1159 (G-DC, holo; A, BM, K (3 sheets), L, LE, iso), Luzon: Albay prov. --Acalypha akoensis Hayata, Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo 30 (1911) 266; --Acalypha grandis Benth. var. akoensis (Hayata) Hurus., Journal of the Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, Section III, Botany 6 (1954) 300; --Type from Taiwan. --Acalypha formosana Hayata, Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo 30 (1911) 267; --Acalypha grandis Benth. var. formosana (Hayata) Hurus., Journal of the Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, Section III, Botany 6 (1954) 300; --Type from Taiwan. --Acalypha longe-acuminata Hayata, Icones Plantarum Formosanarum 9 (1920) 100; --Acalypha grandis Benth. var. longe-acuminata (Hayata) Hurus., Journal of the Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, Section III, Botany 6 (1954) 300; --Type from Taiwan. Taiwan to Polynesia, Philippines. BATANES and N LUZON to MINDANAO. In thickets, chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 1500m. Photos
  3. Acalypha australis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1003; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 445; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 35 (1980) 584; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 2; --Ricinocarpus australis (L.) Kuntze, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2 (1891) 617; --Type: Herb. Linn. No. 1139.5 (LINN, lecto). --Urtica gemina Lour. (1790) 558; --Acalypha gemina (Lour.) Spreng., Systema vegetabilium 3 (1826) 880; --Acalypha gemina (Lour.) Spreng. var. genuina Muell. Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 41, nom. inval.; Muell. Arg. in De Candolle A (ed), Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis (1866) 866; --Type: Not located. --Acalypha sessilis Poir., Encyclopedie methodique. Botanique 6 (1804) 204.; --Type: l'Herbier de Jussieu (P). --Acalypha pauciflora Hornem., Enumeratio plantarum horti botanici Hafniensis (1807) 1; --Type from China. --Acalypha chinensis Roxb., Flora indica, ed. 1832, 3 (1832) 677; --Type: Roxburgh 2099 (K, holo). --Acalypha lanceolata Wall. (1828) n. 7789, nom. nud., non Willd., Species plantarum. 4 (1805) 524. --Acalypha australis L. var. lanceolata Hayata, Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo 20 (1904) 51; --Acalypha australis L. forma lanceolata (Hayata) Hurus., Journal of the Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, Section III, Botany 6 (1954) 298; --Type from Taiwan. --Acalypha virgata auct. non L.: Thunb., Flora Japonica (1784) 268. NE to S China, Japan, Taiwan and the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan. In open places near streams and settlements.
  4. Acalypha cardiophylla Merr., PJS 1 (1906) 80; --Type: Merrill 2506 (SING, lecto; BM, G, GH, MO, US, isolecto), Syntype: Ahern's collector 1249 (BM, G, US), Luzon: Bataan, Lamao Forest.
  5. Acalypha grandibracteata Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 191; EPFP 2 (1923) 445; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 2, --Type: BS 3607 Fenix (PNH, lecto). --Acalypha kotoensis Hayata, Icones Plantarum Formosanarum 9 (1920) 99; --Acalypha grandis Benth. var. kotoensis Hurus., Journal of the Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, Section III, Botany 6 (1954) 300; --Type from Taiwan. Taiwan, Malesia, Philippines. LUZON, BATAN, BABUYAN ISLS. Low elevation thickets. An ally of Acalypha amentacea Roxb.
  6. Acalypha indica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1003; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 292; EPFP 2 (1923) 446; --Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 24; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 2; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 51. --Type from Sri Lanka. --Acalypha caroliniana Blanco, Flora de Filipinas (1837) 748, non Walter, Flora caroliniana (1788) 238, nec Elliott, Sketch of the botany of South Carolina and Georgia 2 (1824) 645; --Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 487 (L, neo; A, US, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal Province, Guadalupe. Acalypha ciliata Wall. (1847) n. 7779J, nom. nud. --Acalypha canescens Wall. (1847) n. 7785, nom. nud. Palaeotropical weed, tropical Africa, India, China, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines, Moluccas, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Polynesia. Throughout the Philippines. Introduced in the Neotropics. A common weed in and about towns, in thickets, waste places, etc. Photos
  7. Acalypha lanceolata Willd., Sp. Pl. 4 (1805) 524; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 2; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 51.
  8. Acalypha pulogensis Sagun & G.A.Levin, Blumea 52 (2007) 357; --Type: PNH (Celestino) 4372 (L, holo; L, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Kabayan, Mt Pulog. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet.

Non-naturalized:

  1. Acalypha hispida Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 203, t. 61, Fig. 1; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 445; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 2.; --Acalypha densiflora Blume, Bijdragen tot de Flora van Nederlandsch Indi‘ (1825) 628, nom. illeg.; --Ricinocarpus hispidus (Burm.f.) Kuntze, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2 (1891) 618; --Type: Illustration t. 61, f. 1. (Burman, Fl. Ind. 1768). --Caturus spiciflorus L., Mantissa Plantarum (1767) 127, non Acalypha spiciflora Burm.f.; --Type: Herb. Linn. No. 1163.1 (LINN, lecto). --Acalypha rubra Noronha ex Hassk., Tijdschrift voor Natuurlijke Geschiedenis en Physiologie 11 (1844) 216, non Willd., Enumeratio plantarum (1809) 992, nom. nud.; --Type: None designated. --Acalypha sanderi N.E.Br., Gardeners' Chronicle ser. 3, 20 (1896) 392; --Acalypha hispida Burm.f. var. sanderi (N.E.Br.) J.J.Sm., Mededeelingen Uitgeven van het Departement van Landbouw in Nederlandsch-Indie 10 (1910) 19; --Type: None designated. --Acalypha wilkesiana auct. non Muell.Arg.: Warb., Botanische Jahrbuecher fuer Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 13 (1891) 358. Probably a native of SE Malaya, now cultivated in most tropical countries. Grown as a common ornamental plant throughout the Philippines, but nowhere spontaneous. Photos
  2. Acalypha wilkesiana Muell.-Arg. in DC, Prodr. 152 (1866) 817; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 293; EPFP 2 (1923) 446; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 3; --Acalypha amentacea Roxb. subsp. wilkesiana (Muell.Arg.) Fosberg & Sachet, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 45 (1980) 10; --Type from Fiji. --Acalypha compacta Guilf. ex C.T.White, Gardeners' Chronicle ser. 3, 94 (1933) 343; --Type: C.T. White s.n. (BRI, lecto). --Acalypha grandis auct. non Benth.: Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 3. --Acalypha longispica auct. non Warb.: K.Schum. & Lauterb., Die Flora der Deutschen Schutzgebiete in der Suedsee (1900) 401 p.p. [Lauterbach 358]. Native of Polynesia, now cultivated in most tropical countries, introduced to the Philippines around 1905, since then widely cultivated throughout the archipelago but nowhere spontaneous. Photos

Agrostistachys Dalz

No Photos
  1. Agrostistachys borneensis Becc., Nelle Foreste di Borneo (1902) 331; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 3. --Agrostistachys leptostachya Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 57 (1912) 102; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 428; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 3. –Type from Borneo. Sarawak. Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, MINDANAO: Surigao. Lowland and medium elevation forests along streams. Flowering and fruiting throughout the year.
  2. Agrostistachys indica Dalz. in Hook., J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 2 (1850) 41; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 14 (1960) 472; Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 210; Kew Bull. 29 (1974) 312; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 26; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 24; --Sevilla & Welzen, Blumea 46 (2001) 83, Map 4; --Type from India. --Agrostistachys indica var. maesoana (Vidal) Pax & Hoffm.in Engl., Pflanzenreich 57 (1912) 102; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 428; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 3; --Agrostistachys maesoana Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1868) 242; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 428. --Type: Vidal 897 (PNH, holo, lost; A, AAU, L, iso), Luzon: Quezon Prov., Guinayangan. S India, Sri Lanka, Peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines, and New Guinea. LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, Isabela, Quezon, PALAWAN, BANCALAN, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO, BASILAN. Lowlandprimary and secondary dipterocarp forest understorey, frequent along streams and drywater courses, ascending to 400m. Flowering Jan- Feb, Apr-Jul; fruiting Mar-Jul, Sept- Oct.

Alchornea Sw.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser 7 July 2012, following Van Welzen & Bulalacao 2007

Photos
  1. Alchornea parviflora (Benth.) Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 168; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 438; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 3; --Stipellaria parviflora Benth. in Hook., J. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 4. --Type: Cuming 1800. LUZON: Bulacan, Rizal, PALAWAN, NEGROS, LEYTE. Lowland andelevation medium second-growth forests and thickets.
  2. Alchornea rugosa (Lour.) Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 170; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 438; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 4; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 53; --Type from Vietnam. --Alchornea petalostyla Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 35 (1980) 395; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 4. --Type: Vidal y Soler 3719 (K, holo). --Alchornea pubescens Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 399; EPFP 2 (1923) 438; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 4; --Type: FB 22724 Castillo, Luzon: Cagayan. Nicobar Isls, Myanmar, S China, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea. BABUYAN ISLS and N LUZON to PALAWAN, BALABAC, and MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation thickets, secondary forests, etc. Common. Photos
  3. Alchornea sicca (Blanco) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 192; Fl. Manila (1912) 297; EPFP 2 (1923) 439; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 4; --Excoecaria sicca Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 787, ed. 2 (1845) 542, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 193, t. 307. --Type: Not extant; Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 642 (K, neotype; L, isoneo), Luzon: Metro-Manila, Makati, along banks of the Pasig River opposite Guadalupe, April-1914. LUZON: Pangasinan, Pampanga, Rizal, Manila, Laguna. Lowland thickets along small streams.

Aleurites J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 October 2016

Photos
  1. Aleurites moluccanus (L.) Willd., Sp. Pl. 4 (1805) 590; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 290; EPFP 2 (1923) 448; --Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 29; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 4; Kew Bull. 20 (1967) 393; Kew. Bull. 26 (1972) 213; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 54; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 29; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 26; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 252; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 5; Alph. Enum. Euphorb. Philip. Isl. (1983): 4; --Stuppy et al., Blumea 44 (1999) 80, Fig. 1j-m; --Jatropha moluccana L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1006. --(Lecto)type from the Moluccas. Native of tropical Asia and Oceania: from India and China, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines (throughout), Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, to Polynesia and New Zealand. Widely cultivated in the tropics generally. Occurring wild and cultivated, from sea-level up to at least 1000m elevation on a variety of substrates, both on red loam and stony clay ground, on sand and limestone, sometimes in periodically rather dry areas (J.J. Smith 1910). Young plants are common as pioneers in disturbed gaps or margins of the vineforest (Forster 1996). Photos

Balakata Esser

No Photos
  1. Balakata luzonica (Vidal) HJ Esser, Blumea 41 (1999) 157, Fig. 1, map 1; --Sapium luzonicum (Vidal) Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 577; EPFP 2 (1923) 461; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 44; --Myrica luzonica Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 40, t. 90 B; --Type: Vidal 610 (K, lecto), Luzon: Rizal prov., San Mateo. --Sapium lateriflorum Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 83, nom. illeg., non Hemsley [Hooker's Icon. Pl. (1901) tab. 2680]; --Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1303; --Merr., PJS (1920) 577. --Sapium merrillianum Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich IV.147.v (1912) 243, nom. nov; --Type: FB 2565 Borden (PNH, holo, lost; K, P, US, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov., Lamao River, Mt Mariveles. --Urandra elliptica Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 195, non Schellenb. (1924), nom. illeg. =Stemonurus ammui (Kaneh.) Sleum., Icacinaceae; PJS 16 (1920) 577; --Sleumer, Blumea 17 (1969) 263; --Type: FB 20003 Topacio (PNH, holo, lost; US, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov. New Guinea, Moluccas (Mangoli), Sulawesi and the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, MINDORO, PALAWAN, TICAO, MINDANAO, BUCAS GRANDE.Primary or secondary lowland semi-deciduous forests, also on limestone hills. May be locally very common and conspicuous on account of straight boles with scaly peeling bark. On clay, sand, or volcanic soils, 10-120m. Flowering Oct.-Dec, Mar.; fruiting Feb.-Jun; Sept.

Blachia Baill.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 October 2015

No Photos
  1. Blachia philippinensis Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 277; EPFP 2 (1923) 455; --Type: Curran FB 4128 (L, lecto; isolecto, K), Palawan: Palawan prov., near Puerto Princesa, Apr-1906; --Syntypes: Curran & Merritt FB 8369 (US), Luzon: Pangasinan Prov.; Merritt & Darling FB 13829 (US), Luzon: Ilocos Norte Prov., Cape Bojeador. --Blachia andamica auct. non (Kurz) Hook.f.: Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 10. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, La Union, Pangasinan, PALAWAN. Lowland thickets and forests in the more seasonal areas of the archipelago.

Blumeodendron (Muell.-Arg.) Kurz

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 May 2016

No Photos
  1. Blumeodendron kurzii (Hook.f.) J.J.Sm., Meded. Dept. Landbouw 10 (1910) 463; --Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 57; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 10; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 70; --Syntypes from Malaysia and Andaman Isls. --Blumeodendron verticillatum Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 557; EPFP 2 (1923) 429; --Type: FB 2603 Meyer (PNH, holo, lost; L, iso), Luzon: Bataan Prov., Mt Mariveles. Indonesia, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, SAMAR.
  2. Blumeodendron philippinense Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 16 (1920) 555; EPFP 2 (1923) 429; --Type: FB 20054 Topacio (PNH, holo, lost; L, iso), Luzon: Bataan Prov., Mt Mariveles. Endemic to Philippines. LUZON: Bataan.
  3. Blumeodendron subrotundifolium (Elmer) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) 384; EPFP 2 (1923) 429; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 70; --Sapium subrotundifolium Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 930; --Type: Elmer 12349 (PNH, holo, lost; A, BISH, G, GH, HBG, K, L, NY, US, iso), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting. --Blumeodendron subcaudatum Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 557; EPFP 2 (1923) 429; --Type: FB 21075 Sherfesee, Cenabre & Cortes (K, lecto; A, US, isolecto), Samar. Peninsular Malaysia, Peninsular Thailand, Borneo, Sumatra, Philippines. SAMAR, SIBUYAN.
  4. Blumeodendron tokbrai (Blume) Kurz, J. As. Soc. Beng. 42 (1873) 245; --Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 60; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 10; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 71, Fig. 3; --Lectotype from Indonesia. --Blumeodendron paucinervium (Elmer) Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 555; EPFP 2 (1923) 428; --Elateriospemum paucinervium Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 484; --Type: Elmer 7416 (PNH, holo, lost; L, iso), Luzon: Tayabas Prov., Lucban. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Sulawesi, Thailand, Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Quezon. Forests, up to 750m.

Chamaesyce Gray = Euphorbia

Cheilosa Blume

Photos
  1. Cheilosa montana Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 614; --Pax & K Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV, 147, 4 (1912) 12, fig. 3; --Backer & Bakh. f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 496; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 68 (sub Ch. malayana); --Welzen, Banka & Leoncito, Blumea 38 (1993) 163, Fig. 1, 2. --Type from Java. Cheilosa malayana (Hook.f.) Corner ex Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 16 (1963) 364; Euph. Born. (1975) 68; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 11; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 77. Cheilosa homaliifolia Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 379; EPFP 2 (1923) 457; --Type: Wenzel 147Cheilosa homaliifolia var. grandifolia Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 457; --Type: BS 37282 Ramos & EdañoSumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Borneo, Philippines. LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, DINAGAT. Lowland primary forests, sometimes along streams. Flowering Feb, Jun-Nov; fruiting Apr-Oct.

Cladogynos Zipp. ex Span.

Photos
  1. Cladogynos orientalis Zipp. ex Span., Linnaea 15 (1841) 349; --Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 384;EPFP 2 (1923) 444. --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 78.S China, Thailand, Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Langkawi, Java, C Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls (Timor). SIQUIJOR, CEBU. Lowland dry limestone thickets. Photos

Claoxylon Juss.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Claoxylon albicans (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 220, EPFP 2 (1923) 429; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 12. --Claoxylon elongatum Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 204; EPFP 2 (1923) 430. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan, Bulacan, Laguna, Cavite, Batangas, Quezon. Lowland thickets, secondary and primary forests. Photos
  2. Claoxylon arboreum Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 486, excl. synon. C. elongatum Merr.; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 429; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 12. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Agusan del Norte. Low and medium elevation forests. Photos
  3. Claoxylon brachyandrum Pax & Hoffm.in Engl., Pflanzenreich 63 (1914) 115; --Merr., EPFP 2(1923) 430; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 12. Borneo, Philippines. BATAN, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Cagayan, Mountain Province, Benguet, Pampanga, Rizal, CULION, PALAWAN, PANAY, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1400m.
  4. Claoxylon crassipes Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 63 (1914) 121; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 430; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 12; --Type: BS 9361 CB Robinson. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Tayabas (East Coast). Mossy forests, c. 900m.
  5. Claoxylon crassivenium Pax & Hoffm.in Engl., Pflanzenreich 63 (1914) 120; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 430; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 12; --Type: Merrill 5668. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Forests, c. 2000m.
  6. Claoxylon ellipticum Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 553; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 430; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 12; --Type: BS 32303 RC McGregor. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY: Antique. Forests, c. 800m.
  7. Claoxylon euphorbioides (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 430; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 12; --Quadrasia euphorbioides Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2656; --Type: Elmer 12424. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN, NEGROS. Primary forests, ascending to 600m. Photos
  8. Claoxylon indicum (Reinw. ex Blume) Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor. (1844) 235. S China through Indo-China to New Guinea, Philippines.
  9. Claoxylon longifolium (Blume) Endl. ex Hassk., Cat. Pl. Hort. Bogor. Alter (1844) 235; --Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 72; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 12; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 79.
  10. Claoxylon oblanceolatum (Merr.) Pax & Hoffm.in Engl., Pflanzenreich 63 (1914) 115; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 431; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 13; --Claoxylon rubescens Miq. var. oblanceolatum Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 79. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Bataan, Camarines. Low elevation forests on slopes.
  11. Claoxylon pubescens Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 42; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 13; --Type: BS 76416 Edaño (NY, iso). Luzon: Camarines Sur prov., Panagan River (erroneously as ‘Ponawa River’ in the typewritten label), on slopes in forest streams, 2700ft, 1-Dec-1928. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Sur. Forested slopes along streams, c. 820m.
  12. Claoxylon purpureum Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 204; EPFP 2 (1923) 431; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 13. LUZON: Kalinga, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet. Montane forests, 1700-2400m, common.
  13. Claoxylon rubescens Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1(2) (1859) 387. Lombok, Philippines.
  14. Claoxylon rubrivenium Pax & K.Hoffm. in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenr., IV, 147, XVII (1924) 182. Endemic to the Philippines.
  15. Claoxylon spathulatum Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 63 (1914) 120; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 431; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 13; --Type: Ahern 266 (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur prov., Pasacao. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Sur (Pasacao).
  16. Claoxylon subviride Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 907; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 431; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 13; --Type: Elmer 12374 (L, MO, NY, US, iso), Sibuyan: Magallanes (=Magdiwang, along lower slopes of Mt Giting-giting), red soil mixed with soft shale stones of humid forested slopes at 1750ft along the trail leading down to España, Apr-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon), SIBUYAN, PANAY, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao del Sur.

Ined. name:

  1. Claoxylon trichophorum Merr. & Quisumb., ined., Based on PNH 5831 AP Castro. Samar: Eastern Samar prov., Borongan, Tagaslian. This not on Euphorbiaceae website?

Cleidion Blume

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 October 2016

Photos
  1. Cleidion javanicum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 613; --Pax &K Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.vii (1914) 290; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 487; Prain, Bengal Pl. 2 (1963) 712; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 74; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 57; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 279; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 12; --Kulju & Welzen, Blumea 50 (2005) 202, Fig. 1b, 2, Map 1; --Type from Java.
  2. Cleidion microcarpum Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 404; --Kulju & Welzen, Blumea 50 (2005) 208, Fig. 4, Map 3; --Type: BS 44226 Ramos & Edaño(UC, holo; A, B, K, NY, US, iso), Tawi-tawi. PALAWAN, BALABAC, TICAO, CEBU, TAWI-TAWI. Disturbed and secondary forests, often on limestone. Elevation up to 670 m. Flowering and fruiting: mainly May to October.
  3. Cleidion ramosii (Merr.) Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 400; EPFP 2 (1923) 439; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 13; --Kulju & Welzen, Blumea 50 (2005) 214, Fig. 6d–g, Map 3; --Mallotus ramosii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 401; Pax &K. Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.vii (1914) 195.–Type: BS 14602 Ramos (US, lecto; A, K, isolecto), Camiguin de Mindanao, near the summit of Mt Catarman. Mallotus samarensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 488.--Type: BS 17480 Ramos (K, US, iso), Samar: Yabong. Endemic to the Philippines. Photos

Doubtul species

  1. Cleidion megistophyllum (Quisumb. & Merr.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 25 (1971) 528; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 13; --Actephila megistophylla Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 158; --Type: BS 45466 Ramos & Edaño (A, lecto; K, NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Aurora prov., Casiguran. Endemic to the Philippines. Known only from the type collection consisting only of leaves and remants of the infructescenses and fruits. Staminate and pistillate flowers are needed to confirm placement in this genus.

Cnesmone Blume

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Cnesmone philippinensis (Merr.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 119; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16; --Tragia philippinensis Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 565; EPFP 2 (1923) 447. Endemic to the Philippines.

Cnidoscolus Pohl [Not native]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 June 2017

Photos
  1. Cnidoscolus aconitifolius I.M.Johnst., Contr. Gray Herb. 68 (1923) 86. Mexico and Central America. Introduced and cultivated as a vegetable in the Philippines. Naturalized near Cebu City, but not invasive. CEBU.

Codiaeum Juss.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 October 2016

Photos
  1. Codiaeum ciliatum Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 571; EPFP 2 (1923) 453; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16. Endemic to the Philippines.
  2. Codiaeum hirsutum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 476; EPFP 2 (1923) 453; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16. Endemic to the Philippines.
  3. Codiaeum luzonicum Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 81; EPFP 2 (1923) 453; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON (Isabela, Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Sorsogon), LEYTE, SIARGAO. Locally common, in primary forests at low elevation. Photos
  4. Codiaeum macgregorii Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 573; EPFP 2 (1923) 453; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16. Endemic to the Philippines.
  5. Codiaeum megalanthum Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 570; EPFP 2 (1923) 453; --Airy Shaw, Alphab.Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan. On forested slopes at low elevation. (Merr 2:453). Photos
  6. Codiaeum palawanense Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1283; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 453; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 17. Endemic to the Philippines.
  7. Codiaeum trichocalyx Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 570; EPFP 2 (1923) 454; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 17. Endemic to the Philippines.
  8. Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Juss., Tent. Euph. 80 (1824) 111; --Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 606; --AiryShaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 17.

Croton L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Croton argyratus Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 602; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 425; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 85; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 17. --Croton avellaneus Croiz., J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 498; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph.Philip. (1983) 17. Andaman Isls, Myanmar, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali), Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Zambales, Bulacan, Rizal, Batangas, PALAWAN, LEYTE, BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Cotabato. Lowland forests and edges in the more seasonal parts of the archipelago.
  2. Croton babuyanensis Croiz., J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 499; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph.Philip. (1983) 17. Endemic to the Philippines.
  3. Croton batangasensis Croiz., J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 499; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 17. Endemic to the Philippines.
  4. Croton cascarilloides Raeusch., Nomencl. ed. 3 (1797) 280; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 84; --Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 91; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 18. --Croton cumingii Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 101; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 426; --Type: Cuming 1384. Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Myanmar, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Langkawi, Pulau Tioman, Borneo, Philippines, Moluccas, Lesser Sunda Isls. LUZON: Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Camarines, MINDORO, PALAWAN, CAGAYAN DE TAWI-TAWI. Lowland thickets.
  5. Croton caudatus Geisel., Crot. Monogr. (1807) 73; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 425; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 85; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 18. NE India to S China, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls.
  6. Croton colubrinoides Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 451; EPFP 2 (1923) 425; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 73, in obs.; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 18. Endemic to the Philippines.
  7. Croton consanguineus Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 101; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 426; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 18. Endemic to the Philippines.
  8. Croton cotabatensis Croiz., J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 500; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 18. Endemic to the Philippines.
  9. Croton cupreus Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1281; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 18. Endemic to the Philippines.
  10. Croton ensifolius Merr., PJS C 11 (1916) 66. Borneo, New Guinea, Philippines.
  11. Croton heterocarpus Muell.-Arg. in DC, Prodr. 15 (1866) 621; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 82; Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo, Philippines.
  12. Croton lanceilimbus Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 395; EPFP 2 (1923) 426 (as `lancilimbus'); --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 18. Endemic to the Philippines.
  13. Croton leiophyllus Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 13; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 426; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 19. Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  14. Croton leytensis Croiz., J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 502; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip.(1983) 19. Endemic to the Philippines.
  15. Croton luzoniensis Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 118; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 427; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 19. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Mountain Province, La Union, Bataan, Zambales, Rizal. In thickets and forestselevation at low, ascending to 1400m.
  16. Croton novae-astigis Croiz., J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 499; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 19. Endemic to the Philippines.
  17. Croton palawanensis Merr. ex Croiz., J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 505; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 19. --Croton heterocarpus Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 426 non Muell.-Arg. (1866). Endemic to the Philippines.
  18. Croton pampangensis Croiz., J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 502; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 19. Endemic to the Philippines.
  19. Croton quisumbingianus Croiz., J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 500; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 19. Endemic to the Philippines.
  20. Croton rectipilis Croiz., J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 501; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip.(1983) 19. Endemic to the Philippines.
  21. Croton samarensis Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 25 (1971) 516; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 19. Endemic to the Philippines.
  22. Croton singularis Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 21 (1968) 374; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 19.
  23. Croton tiglium L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1004; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 427; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 20. India, S China, Thailand, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea. Throughout the Philippines, in and about towns, usually planted, sometimes naturalized. Of prehistoric introduction from Malaya; universally used for poisoning fish. Photos
  24. Croton verreauxii Baill., Étude Euphorb. (1858) 357.
  25. Croton vidalii Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 605. Endemic to the Philippines.
  26. Croton zambalensis Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 405; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 20. Endemic to the Philippines.

Dimorphocalyx Thwaites

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 October 2015

Photos
  1. Dimorphocalyx angustifolius (Merr.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20 (1966) 412; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20 (1966) 412; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 20; --Ostodes angustifolia Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 403; EPFP 2 (1923) 454; --Type: Whitford & Hutchinson FB 9343 (?), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Port Banga. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO.
  2. Dimorphocalyx denticulatus Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 278; EPFP 2 (1923) 455; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 20; --Type: Whitford & Hutchinson FB 9033 (PNH, holo (destroyed); K, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Port Banga. --Dimorphocalyx murinus Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1285; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 455; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 87; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 21; --Type: Elmer 12844 (L, lecto; BM, HBG, K, L, NY, P, U, US, isolecto), Palawan: Puerto Princesa (Mt Pulgar). --Dimorphocalyx loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 30; EPFP 4 (1925) 252; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 20; --Loher 12467 (UC, lecto; A, isolecto), Luzon: Rizal, Montalban. Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines.
  3. Dimorphocalyx ixoroides (C.B.Rob.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20 (1966) 412; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 20; --Ostodes ixoroides C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 332; EPFP 2 (1923) 454; --Type: Klemme FB 13426 (PNH, holo (destroyed); US, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Bangui. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Photos
  4. Dimorphocalyx malayanus Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 404; --Lectotype from Malaysia. --Dimorphocalyx luzoniensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 192; EPFP 2 (1923) 455; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 87; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 21; --Type: Tamesis FB 11907 (K, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Laguna, Los Baños. --Dimorphocalyx bulusanensis (Elmer) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 27 (1972) 92; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 20; --Trigonostemon bulusanensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3739; --Type: Elmer 17296 (PNH, holo (destroyed); HBG, K, L, MO, NY, S, U, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin (Mt Bulusan). Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines.

Doryxylon Zoll.

No Photos
  1. Doryxylon spinosum Zoll., Nat. Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind. 14 (1857) 152; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 428; --Airy Shaw,Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 16; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 21. --Sumbavia rottleroides Baill., Étud. Gén. Euphorb. (1858) 390; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 291. Philippines and the Lesser Sunda Isls.

Endospermum Benth.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Endospermum ovatum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 481; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 457; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 24; --Type: Fenix BS 15921 (US, lecto, BM, iso), Mindanao: Butuan Subprov., near Sumulao. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO.
  2. Endospermum peltatum Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 35; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 457; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 24. --Endospermum philippinense Elmer ex Merr., Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 2: 457, nom. nud., in synon. (1923); --Type: Merrill 2603 (K, lecto), Luzon: Tayabas Prov., Pagbilao. Peninsular Thailand, Andaman Islands, Borneo, the Philippines, Malay Peninsula, Sulawesi?, Moluccas?. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, MINDORO, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Agusan del Norte. In primary forests at low elevation. Photos

Euphorbia L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 October 2016

Photos
  1. Euphorbia antiquorum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 450; --Radcliffe-Smith in Airy Shaw, Euph. Siam (1972) 262; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 24. Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, the Philippines, and Sulawesi. Photos
  2. Euphorbia atoto G Forst., Prodr. Fl. Austr. (1786) 207; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 461; --Radcliffe-Smith in Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 111; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 24; --Chamaesyce atoto (G. Forst.) Croiz. in Degener, Fl. Hawaiiensis, Fam. 190, Chamaesyce, leafl. 4 (1936), in obs.. India to S China and Taiwan through Peninsular Malaysia to Australia and Polynesia. A characteristic plant along sandy seashores throughout the Philippines. Photos
  3. Euphorbia bifida Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. (1837) 213. --Euphorbia vachellii Hook. & Arn., Beech. Voy. (1837) 213; --Radcliffe-Smith in Airy Shaw, Euph. Siam (1972) 268; Euph. New Guinea (1980) 88; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 26; --Chamaesyce vachellii (Hook. & Arn.) Hara, Enum. Spermat. Jap., Pt. 3 (1954) 44; --Hurusawa in J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Sect. 3, Bot.6 (1954) 283. --Euphorbia serrulata Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 282; EPFP 2 (1923) 463, non Thuill. (1799), nec Vell. (1825), nec Reinw. ex Blume (1826). Thailand, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda isls, Moluccas, New Guinea. Photos
  4. Euphorbia cyathophora Murr., Comm. Götting. 7 (1786) 81, t. 1; --Radcliffe-Smith in Airy Shaw, Euph. New Guinea (1980) 83; Poinsettia cyathophora (Murr.) Bartl., Ind. Sem. Hort. Acad. Gott. (1839) 6; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 24; --Euphorbia heterophylla Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 462, non L (1753). Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls. Photos
  5. Euphorbia heterophylla L. Sp. Pl. 1: 453 (1753). Poinsettia heterophylla Klotzsch & Garcke. Thailand, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda isls, Moluccas. Photos
  6. Euphorbia hirta L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 454; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 283; EPFP 2 (1923) 462; --Radcliffe-Smith in Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 111; Euph. New Guinea (1980) 85; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 24; --Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millsp., Publ. Field Columbian Mus., Bot. ser. 2 (1909) 303; -- Pantropic. Throughout the Philippines, in waste places, open grasslands, etc. usually abundant. Photos
  7. Euphorbia hypericifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 454; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 283; --Radcliffe-Smith in Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 111; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 25; --Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp., Field Columb. Mus. Bot. ser. 2 (1909) 302. --Euphorbia capillaris Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 461, non Gagnep. (1921). Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda isls. Photos
  8. Euphorbia lacei Craib, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1911 (1911) 456. --Euphorbia trigona non Mill.; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 464; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 26. Philippines. Photos
  9. Euphorbia luzoniensis Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 578; EPFP 2 (1923) 462; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 25; --Chamaesyce luzoniensis (Merr.) Soják in Cas. Nar. Muz. (Prague) 140 (1972) 169. Java, Philippines.
  10. Euphorbia makinoi Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 30 (1911) 262; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 462; --Chamaesyce makinoi (Hayata) Hara, J. Jap. Bot. 14 (1938) 356. China? Nansei-shoto, Taiwan, Philippines
  11. Euphorbia milii des Moul., Bull. Hist. Nat. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 1 (1826) 27; --Radcliffe-Smith in Airy Shaw, Euph. Siam (1972) 266; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 25. Euphorbia splendens Bojer in Curtis’ Bot. Mag. t. 2902; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 281; EPFP 2 (1923) 463. Thailand, Java, and the Philippines. Photos
  12. Euphorbia neriifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 451; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 462; --Radcliffe-Smithin Airy Shaw, Euph. New Guinea (1980) 85; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 25. Euphorbia trigona Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 281, non Haw. Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, and New Guinea.
  13. Euphorbia pallens Dillwyn, Rev. Hortus Malab. (1839) 54. Tropical and subtropical Asia to W Pacific, Philippines.
  14. Euphorbia plumerioides Teijsm. ex Hassk., Hort. Bogor. Descript. 1 (1858) 29; --Merr., EPFP2 (1923) 463; --Radcliffe-Smith in Airy Shaw, Euph. New Guinea (1980) 85; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 25.
  15. Euphorbia prostrata Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 (1789) 136; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 283; EPFP 2 (1923) 463; --Radcliffe-Smith in Airy Shaw, Euph. New Guinea (1980) 87; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 25; --Chamaesyce prostrata (Aiton) Small, Fl. SE United States (1903) 713, 1333. Thailand, Sumatra, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda isls, Moluccas.
  16. Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch in Otto & Dietr. Allgem. Gartenz. 2 (1834) 27; Poinsettia pulcherrima (Willd. ex Klotzsch) Graham, Edinburgh N. Phil. J. 20 (Jan. 1836) 412. --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 282; EPFP 2 (1923) 462; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 25. Java, Philippines. Photos
  17. Euphorbia serpens Kunth in Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Sp. 2 (1817) 41 (folio), 52 (quarto); --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 25; --Chamaesyce serpens (Kunth) Small, Fl. SE United States (1903) 709, 1333. Americas. Not native to the Philippines.
  18. Euphorbia thymifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 454; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 283; EPFP 2 (1923) 464; --Radcliffe-Smith in Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 112; Euph. New Guinea (1980) 88; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 26; --Chamaesyce thymifolia (L.) Millsp., Field Columb. Mus. Bot. ser. 2 (1916) 412. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda isls, Moluccas, New Guinea. Photos
  19. Euphorbia tirucali L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 452; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 282; EPFP 2 (1923) 464; -- Radcliffe-Smith in Airy Shaw, Euph. Siam (1972) 267; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 26. Native to Africa. Introduced in SE Asia: Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas. Not native in Philippines. Photos
  20. Euphorbia tithymaloides L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 453; --Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poit. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated. Photos

Excoecaria L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Excoecaria agallocha L., Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 1288; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 298; EPFP 2 (1923) 458; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 96; --Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 112; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 26. S India to Taiwan and the Ryukyu Isls, throughout Malesia to Polynesia. Throughout the Philippines along the seashore or within the influence of salt or brackish water. Photos
  2. Excoecaria bantamensis Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 124; --Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1923) 113; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 26. --Excoecaria macrophylla JJ Sm., Meded. Dept. Landbouw 12 (1910) 611; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 458; Thailand, Java, Borneo, and the Philippines.
  3. Excoecaria borneensis Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 63 (1914) (Euph.-Addit. V) 422; --Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 113; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 26. --Excoecaria mirandae Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 576; EPFP 2 (1923) 458. Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, Moluccas, Philippines.
  4. Excoecaria obtusa Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 389; EPFP 2 (1923) 458; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 26. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Apayao. In forests at low elevation.
  5. Excoecaria pachyphylla Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 575; EPFP 2 (1923) 458; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 27. Endemic to the Philippines.
  6. Excoecaria philippinensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 82; EPFP 2 (1923) 458; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 27. --Excoecaria philippinensis var. euphlebia Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 389; EPFP 2 (1923) 459. Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, ALABAT, SIBUYAN, PALAWAN, SAMAR. In primary forests at low elevation. Photos
  7. Excoecaria stenophylla Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 189; EPFP 2 (1923) 459; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 27. Endemic to the Philippines.

Cultivated

  1. Excoecaria cochinchinensis. Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Java. Photos

 Fahrenheitia Rchb.f. & Zoll. = Paracroton

 Gelonium Roxb. ex Willd. = Suregada

Hancea Seem.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Hancea cordatifolia (Slik) S.E.C.Sierra, Kulju & Welzen, Blumea 52(2) (2007) 363; --Mallotus cordatifolius Slik, Blumea 43 (1998) 225; --Type: PNH 117545 Gutierrez et al. (holo, L), Samar: Mt Sohoton. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Known only from the type locality. Logged-over forest.
  2. Hancea hirsuta (Elmer) S.E.C.Sierra, Kulju & Welzen, Blumea 52(2) (2007) 364; --Mallotus hirsutus Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2648; --Type: Elmer 13480 (Holo in PNH, lost; isoin K, L, NY), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran (Mt Urdaneta). --Mallotus papuanus sec. Merr., EPFP 2 (1923): 435, non (JJ Sm) Pax & Hoffm. 1914. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO. In forest, 1333 m.
  3. Hancea longistyla (Merr.) S.E.C.Sierra, Kulju & Welzen, Blumea 52(2) (2007) 364; --Mallotus longistylus Merr., PJS 3 c (1920) 560; EPFP 2 (1923) 434. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR, DINAGAT. Primary forest, up to 266m. Philippines. Photos
  4. Hancea penangensis (Muell.-Arg.) S.E.C.Sierra, Kulju & Welzen, Blumea 52(2) (2007) 364; --Mallotus penangensis Muell.-Arg. Linnaea 34 (1865) 186. --Mallotus echinatus Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 925; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 433; --Type: Elmer 12253 (PNH, holo, lost; iso EDI, K, L, NY), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting. Philippines. --Mallotus sarawakensis Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich (1914) 201; --Soejarto et al. (1995). S Thailand and Andaman Isls to New Guinea. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Bataan, Camarines, Albay, MINDORO, SIBUYAN, PANAY, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, PALAWAN (Mt Beaufort and Brooke’s Point, Pulot). In forests at low and medium elevation. Mainly in understorey of primary forest or late secondary forest, where it can be very common, sometimes also in young secondary forest or scrub, along creeks, river banks, and roadsides; usually on dry, well- drained terrain, occasional also in swampy places; soils variable: from clay to sandy to loamy, also on limestone. Up to 1666m. Photos
  5. Hancea wenzeliana (Slik) S.E.C.Sierra, Kulju & Welzen, Blumea 52(2) (2007) 364; --Mallotus wenzelianus Slik, Blumea 43 (1998) 229, Fig. 3; --Type: Wenzel 2697 (G, holo; iso in UC, A, cited by Slik), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte prov., Jubud. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte (two collections). In forest, 150m.

Hevea Aubl.

Photos
  1. Hevea brasiliensis (Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth) Muell.-Arg.in Linnaea 34 (1865) 204; Fl. Manila (1912) 293; EPFP 2 (1923) 450; Native of Brazil. Introduced to the Philippines in the early part of the 20th century. Cultivated in MINDANAO, BASILAN, etc. occasionally planted in other islands. Para rubber. Photos

 Homalanthus Juss. = Omalanthus

Homonoia Lour.

Photos
  1. Homonoia riparia Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 637; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 296; EPFP 2 (1923) 448. India to S China and Taiwan southward through Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Timor and New Guinea. LUZON (Cagayan to Sorsogon), MINDORO, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN, NEGROS, MINDANAO. A very characteristic species, very abundant along small swift streams at low and medium elevation, on the banks and in the stream beds. Photos

Hura L. [Not native]

No Photos 
  1. Hura crepitans L. Native to the neotropics, widely cultivated in the tropics worldwide.

Jatropha L. [Not native]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 June 2017

Photos
  1. Jatropha curcas L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1006; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 289; EPFP 2 (1923) 449. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea. Introduced at an early date in colonial history from Mexico. Now pantropic. In hedges throughout the Philippines, usually very common in and about towns. Physic nut. Photos
  2. Jatropha gossypifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1006; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 290; EPFP 2 (1923) 449. Mexico to South America and Caribbean, naturalized throughout Malesia, incl. Philippines. Photos
  3. Jatropha integerrima Jacq. Enum. Syst. Pl. (1760) 32. --Jatropha hastata Jacq., Enum. Syst. Pl. (1760) 32. --Jatropha pandurifolia Andrews; --Jatropha diversifolia var. pandurifolia M.Gómez Anales Hist. Nat. 23 (1894) 51.Caribbean, introduced in Malesia incl. Philippines. Photos
  4. Jatropha multifida L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1006; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 289; EPFP 2 (1923) 449. --Jatropha janipha Blanco, Flora de Filipinas (1837) 758; --Merr. Species Blancoanae (1918) 229 (nom. inval., non L., non Lour.); --Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 625 (L, neo), Luzon: Manila. Americas, introduced and cultivated in Malesia incl. Philippines. Photos
  5. Jatropha podagrica Hook., Bot. Mag. 74 (1848) t. 4376. Central America and Caribbean, planted as ornamental in Malesia incl. Philippines. Not naturalized in the Philippines, but dangerous invasive in Caroline Isls. Photos

Lasiococca Hook.f.

No Photos
  1. Lasiococca brevipes (Merr.) Welzen & SEC Sierra, Blumea 50 (2005) 276; --Mallotus brevipes Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) 487; EPFP 2 (1923) 432. Sumatra, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls.

Macaranga Thouars

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 June 2012

Photos
  1. Macaranga amplifolia Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) 392; EPFP 2 (1923) 440. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Laguna, Quezon, BUCAS GRANDE, LEYTE. In damp primary forests at low elevation.
  2. Macaranga auctoris Whitmore, Gen. Macaranga Prodr. (2008) 82; --Type: Soejarto & Fernando 7445 (holo L). Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN.
  3. Macaranga balabacensis Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 63 (1914) 368; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 440; --Type: BS 424 Mangubat. Endemic to the Philippines. BALABAC. Forested slopes at low elevation.
  4. Macaranga bicolor Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 199; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 440. Endemic to the Philippines. UZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Apayao, Nueva Vizcaya, Bulacan, Bataan, Quezon, Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon, POLILLO, MINDORO, PANAY, BILIRAN, LEYTE, SAMAR, SIBUYAN, MINDANAO. In second-growth forests at low elevation. Photos
  5. Macaranga congestiflora Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) 282; EPFP 2 (1923) 440. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Old clearings at low elevation. Photos
  6. Macaranga cumingii (Baill.) Muell.-Arg. in DC, Prodr. 152 (1866) 1005; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 441; --Type: Cuming 1100. --Macaranga caudatifolia Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 427; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 440; --Type: Elmer 9652. Sulawesi, Philippines. BATAN, BILIRAN, SIBUYAN, LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Bataan, Tayabas, Laguna, Camarines, MINDORO, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Davao, TINAGO. Forests, deserted clearings, thickets, forested ravines, etc. ascending to 1500m. Photos
  7. Macaranga gigantea (Reichb.f. & Zoll.) Muell.-Arg. Myanmar to W and C Malesia, Philippines. Specimens mentioned by L.L.Co: N Bartolome 4525, 4730, 4955, 4987. Photos
  8. Macaranga grandifolia (Blanco) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) 394; Fl. Manila (1912) 441; EPFP 2 (1923) 441; --Croton grandifolius Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 753, ed. 2 (1845) 518; ed. 3, 3 (1879) 153. LUZON: La Union, Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Bataan, Rizal, Batangas, Laguna, Quezon, MINDORO. In second-growth forests at low elevation, locally abundant. Photos
  9. Macaranga hispida (Blume) Muell.-Arg. in DC, Prodr. 152 (1866) 990; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 442; --Mappa hispida Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 624. Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Seram, Ambon). LUZON: Quezon, Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, JOLO, BASILAN, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation, common in second growth forests, ravines, etc. Photos
  10. Macaranga leytensis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) 393; EPFP 2 (1923) 442. --Type: BS 15253 Ramos. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Sur (photos by Danilo Tandang). Forested slopes. Photos
  11. Macaranga loheri Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 423; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 442; --Type: Elmer 8558. CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Benguet, SAMAR. Forested ravines, 1000-1500m.
  12. Macaranga lowii King ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1887) 453; --Whitmore in Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 154; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 35. --Macaranga auriculata (Merr.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 19 (1965) 325; --Mallotus auriculatus Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 396; EPFP 2 (1923) 432; --Type: FB 7271 Everett (US, iso), Negros, 1907. Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Davao, Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Low and medium elevation primary forests.
  13. Macaranga mappa (L.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 1000; --Ricinus mappa L. in Stickm., Herb. Amboin. (1754) 4. --Macaranga gigantifolia Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) 391; EPFP 2 (1923) 441; --Type: BS 14702 Ramos. Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas. LUZON, CAMIGUIN, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Low elevation forests and thickets.
  14. Macaranga noblei Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 678; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 442; --Type: Elmer 10816. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, SURIGAO, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Bukidnon, Davao, Agusan del Norte. Streamside forests, 700-1000m.
  15. Macaranga ovatifolia Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 562; EPFP 2 (1923) 442; --Type: BS 34683 Ramos & Pascasio. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao. Low elevation forests along streams.
  16. Macaranga sinensis (Baill.) Muell.-Arg.in DC, Prodr. 152 (1866) 1001. --Macaranga dipterocarpifolia Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 205; EPFP 2 (1923) 441. Taiwan, Lanyu, Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Tayabas, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon, CEBU, LEYTE, MINDANAO. Primary forests and forested ravines, 400-1300m. Photos
  17. Macaranga stonei Whitmore, Gen. Macaranga Prodr. (2008) 247; --Type: Soejarto, Fernando & Fernando 7957 (L, holo). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora Prov. Photos
  18. Macaranga sylvatica Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 431; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 443; --Type: Elmer 9388. --Macaranga cuernosensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 429; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 440; --Type: Elmer 9549. --Macaranga ramiflora Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 433; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 442; --Type: Elmer 8108. --Macaranga montana Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) 394; EPFP 2 (1923) 442 --Type: Merrill 8076. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Quezon, MINDORO, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Davao, Zamboanga. Forests at medium elevation, ascending to 1200m. Photos
  19. Macaranga tanarius (L.) Muell.-Arg. in DC, Prodr. 152 (1866) 997; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 295; EPFP 2 (1923) 443; --Ricinus tanarius L. in Stickm., Herb. Amboin. (1754) 14; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 111. --Macaranga tanarius var. tomentosa (Blume) Muell.-Arg. in DC, Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 997; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 443. Nicobar Isls, Andaman Isls, Thailand, S China, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, NE Australia, Melanesia, Micronesia. Throughout the Philippines, characteristic of thickets and second-growth forests at low and medium elevation. Photos
  20. Macaranga triloba (Thunb.) Muell.-Arg. in DC, Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 989; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 443; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 107; --Ricinus trilobus Reinw. ex Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenz. (1823) 108. S Myanmar, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, SW Philippines, Sulawesi. PALAWAN. Forested river banks, c. 1000m. Photos

Mallotus Lour.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 November 2016

Photos
  1. Mallotus cauliflorus Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) 399; EPFP 2 (1923) 433; LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines. In primary forests at low elevation. Endemic to the Philippines.
  2. Mallotus connatus M.Aparicio, Blumea 52 (2007) 54, fig. 4, map 6; --Type: Mahyar et al. 1197 (holo L; iso A, SING), Borneo, Kalimantan, Sintang, HPH Km 86. Borneo, Philippines.
  3. Mallotus cumingii Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 195. Neotrewia cumingii (Muell.-Arg.) Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 63 (1914) 212, Fig. 31, A-E; --Merr.,EPFP 2 (1923) 437; Sulawesi and the Philippines. LUZON (Cagayan to Sorsogon), MINDORO, MASBATE, PANAY, NEGROS, CEBU, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. In thickets and forests at low and medium elevation, often common. (Merr. 2:437). Photos 
  4. Mallotus floribundus (Blume) Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 187; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 433;--Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 113. Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, the Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, Solomon Isls. Photos
  5. Mallotus korthalsii Muell.-Arg. in DC, Prodr. 152 (1866) 976; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 433; -- Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 115. Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Cagayan, Tayabas, Camarines, SIBUYAN, PANAY, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao. Lowland forests.
  6. Mallotus lackeyi Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1298; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 433; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 114; --Type: Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines.
  7. Mallotus leucocalyx Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 970; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 434; --S.E.C.Sierra et al., Blumea 52 (2007) 75, map 5, plate 1a-c; --Type: Unit. Stat. Explor. Exped. s.n. (holo G-DC, IDC microfiche 800; iso GH, US), Philippines, Mindanao, Caldera.
  8. Mallotus minimifructus S.E.C.Sierra, Blumea 52 (2007) 79, fig. 7, map 5; --Type: S (Y.P. Ching) 62305 (holo L; iso CGE, K, KEP, SAN), Borneo, Sarawak, Ulu Sungai Kebhor. Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines. Photos
  9. Mallotus miquelianus (Scheff.) Boerl., Handl. Fl. Nederl. Ind. 3 (1900) 290; --Merr., EPFP 2(1923) 434; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 114. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, the Philippines, Sulawesi. Photos
  10. Mallotus mollissimus (Geisel.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 297; Euph. Born. (1975) 165. --Mallotus ricinoides (Pers.) Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 187; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 436;Mallotus confusus Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 559; EPFP 2 (1923) 433;Tenasserim, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, the Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, NE Australia. Widespread in the Philippines in most islands and provinces, usually very common in second-growth forests at low elevation, ascending to 2200m. Photos
  11. Mallotus nudiflorus (L.) Kulju & Welzen, Blumea 52 (2007) 124;  --Trewia nudiflora L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1193; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 431; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 134. India and Nepal, mainland Southeast Asia, China, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Philippines. 
  12. Mallotus paniculatus (Lam.) Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 189; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 434; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 114. --Croton appendiculatus Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 312, non Hort. Veitch, 1877. Myanmar, Thailand to S China and Taiwan, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, the Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, tropical Australia (Queensland).
  13. Mallotus peltatus (Geiseler) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 187. --Mallotus oblongifolius (Miq.) Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 192; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2(1973) 116. --Mallotus odoratus Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1299; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 434. --Mallotus alternifolius Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 395. --Mallotus camiguinensis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 397. Andaman Isls, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, the Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea. BABUYAN ISLS (CAMIGUIN), PALAWAN. Lowland dry forests. 
  14. Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 196; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 435;W Himalayas to S China and Taiwan, Thailand, across Malesia from Sumatra to New Guinea, Melanesia, southward to Australia (New South Wales). Throughout the Philippines in lowland thickets, secondary forests, forest fringes and open sites. Photos
  15. Mallotus repandus (Willd.) Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 197; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 435;Sri Lanka, India to S China and Taiwan, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, NE Australia, New Caledonia. Throughout the Philippines in thickets and second-growth forests at low elevation. Photos
  16. Mallotus resinosus (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 222; EPFP 2 (1923) 436; Sri Lanka, Andaman Islands, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi, Timor, Kei Isls, New Guinea. LUZON (Cagayan to Sorsogon), MINDORO, MASBATE, BALABAC, MINDANAO, BASILAN. Common in second-growth forests at low elevation. (Merr 2: 436) (M. resinosus). Photos
  17. Mallotus rufidulus (Miq.) Muell.-Arg. in DC, Prodr. 152 (1866) 970; --Airy Shaw, Euph.Sumatra (1981) 328. Sumatra, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls.
  18. Mallotus tiliifolius (Blume) Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 190; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 436; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 114. --Mallotus papillaris (Blanco) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 238; Fl. Manila (1912) 294; EPFP 2(1923) 434. Taiwan, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, NE Australia and Samoa. Throughout the Philippines in coastal thickets, never inland. Photos

Manihot Mill. [Not native]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 October 2016

Photos
  1. Manihot carthagenensis (Jacq.) Müll.Arg. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 15(2) (1866) 1073. Native to the Americas and Caribbean.
  2. Manihot esculenta Crantz, Inst. i. 167. --Manihot utilissima Pohl, Pl. Bras. Icon. Descr. 1 (1827) 32, t. 24; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 297; EPFP 2(1923) 450. Native to Americas. Photos

Megistostigma Hook.f.

No Photos
  1. Megistostigma cordatum Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 563; EPFP 2 (1923) 446. Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines.

Melanolepis Rchb.f. & Zoll.

Photos
  1. Melanolepis multiglandulosa (Reinw. ex Blume) Reich.f. & Zoll., Linnaea 28 (1856) 324;--Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 431; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 118; --Rottlera multiglandulosa Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 609. --Mallotus moluccanus Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 185; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 292. --Melanolepis multiglandulosa var. pendulus (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 432; --Mallotus moluccanus var. pendulus Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 401. S Thailand, Indochina, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea and the Marianas Islands. Throughout the Philippines from BATAN to MINDANAO, SULU and PALAWAN. Low and medium elevation thickets and second-growth forests. Common. Photos

Moultonianthus Merr.

Edited by James V. LaFrankie & Pieter B. Pelser, 20 May 2016

No Photos
  1. Moultonianthus leembruggianus (Boerl. & Koord.) Steenis, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg Ser. 3, 17 (1948) 405; --Erismanthus leembruggianus Boerl. & Koord., Syst. Verz. 2 (1910) 30. Borneo, Sumatra, Philippines. DINAGAT.

Neoscortechinia Pax

No Photos
  1. Neoscortechinia nicobarica (Hook.f.) Pax & K Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich iv, 147, xiv, add.vi (1919) 53; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 39; --Welzen, Blumea 39 (1994)314, Fig. 1b; 3a, b, d-g. --Neoscortechinia arborea (Elmer) Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich iv, 147, xiv, add. vi (1919) 52; --Merr.,EPFP 2 (1923) 456; --Alchornea arborea Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1274. Nicobar Isls, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (excl. Singapore), W Java, Borneo (Sabah, N Sarawak and E Kalimantan), Philippines, NE and SE Sulawesi. PALAWAN.
  2. Neoscortechinia philippinensis (Merr.) Welzen, Blumea 39 (1994) 316, Fig. 2a, 3c, 8; --Alcinaeanthus philippinensis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 380. --Type: RS Williams 2884 (NY, neo; A, NY, isoneo). --Neoscortechinia parvifolia (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 456; --Alcinaeanthus parvifolius Merr., PJS 9 c(1914) Bot. 461. --Neoscortechinia forbesii Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 38, non Hook.f. ex S.Moore. Myanmar, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (excl. Singapore), Biliton, Banka, Borneo (Kalimantan, Sarawak, Sabah), Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO.

 Neotrewia Pax = Mallotus

Omalanthus Juss.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Omalanthus fastuosus (Linden) Fernandez-Villar in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3, Nov. App. (1880)196; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 459; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 32; --H-JEsser, Blumea 42 (1997) 435. --Omalanthus alpinus Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 307; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 459; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum.Euph. Philip. (1983) 32; --Omalanthus bicolor Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 282; EPFP 2 (1923) 459; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph.Philip. (1983) 32. --Omalanthus milvus Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 611. Taiwan, Philippines. BATAN, LUZON: Abra, Mountain Province, Ifugao, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Laguna, Rizal, Sorsogon, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, PANAY, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Lanao. Common in thickets, on ridges, old clearings, etc. mostly above 750m ascending to 2400m. (as O fastuosus & O alpinus). Photo
  2. Omalanthus macradenius Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich iv, 147, v (1912) 51; --Merr.,EPFP 2 (1923) 459; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 33; --H.-J. Esser, Blumea 42(1997) 443. --Omalanthus megaphyllus Merr., PJS 9 c (1915) Bot. 485; EPFP 2 (1923) 459; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum.Euph. Philip. (1983) 33. --Omalanthus rotundifolius Merr., PJS 9 c (1915) Bot. 486; EPFP 2 (1923) 460; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum.Euph. Philip. (1983) 33. --Omalanthus concolor Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 398; EPFP 2 (1923) 459; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 32. Endemic to Philippines. Photos
  3. Omalanthus populneus (Geisel.) Pax in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflazenfam. 3, 5 (1890) 96, excl.Fig. 60; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 460; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 102; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 32--H-J Esser, Blumea 42 (1997) 453. --Omalanthus populneus var. laevis (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 230; EPFP 2 (1923) 460 (‘levis’); --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 33. Omalanthus populneus var. minor (Muell.-Arg.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 390; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum.Euph. Philip. (1983) 33. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, Lesser Sunda Isls, Bismarck Archipelago. LUZON: Pangasinan, Zambales, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, Quezon, Albay, Sorsogon, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, TAWI-TAWI, JOLO, BASILAN, MINDANAO. In thickets, deserted clearings at low and medium elevation. Photos

Omphalea L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Omphalea bracteata (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 230; EPFP 2 (1923) 457; --Whitmore,Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 121; --Tragia bracteata Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 480. --Omphalea philippinensis Merrill, PJS 3 (1908) 236. Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. Photos
  2. Omphalea grandifolia Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 574; EPFP 2 (1923) 457. Endemic to the Philippines.
  3. Omphalea malayana Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 71; EPFP 2 (1923) 458; --Whitmore, Tree Fl.Malaya 2 (1973) 121. Peninsular Malaysia, Pulau Tioman, Borneo (Sarawak) and the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Camarines. Lowland primary forests.
  4. Omphalea sargentii Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 574; EPFP 2 (1923) 458. Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines. BANCALAN. Note by P.B. Pelser (5-Sep-14): According to Gillespie difficult to distinguish from Omphalea bracteata without fruits.

Ostodes Blume = Dimorphocalyx, Fahrenheitia, Paracroton

Pachystylidium Pax & K.Hoffm.

No Photos
  1. Pachystylidium hirsutum (Blume) Pax & Hoffm. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 681 (1919) 108; --Merr.,EPFP 2 (1923) 446, --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 115; idem., 26 (1971) 311; --Tragia hirsuta Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 630; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 446. --Tragia hirsuta var. irritans (Pax & Hoffm.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 446. Thailand, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi.

Paracroton Miq. [Also considered as a synonym of Fahrenheiria]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 October 2015

Photos
  1. Paracroton pendulus (Hassk.) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859): 382; --Fahrenheitia pendula (Hassk.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20 (1966) 410; idem. 26 (1972) 270; Euph. Born. (1975)114; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 97; --Type from Java. --Ostodes macrophyllus (Muell.-Arg.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Jackson, Index Kew. 2 (1895) 382; --Merr., EPFP2 (1923) 454. --Ostodes serratocrenata Merr., PJS 4 (1909) 283; --Syntypes: Klemme FB 7078, Luzon: Cagayan Prov., San Vicente; FB 11271, Luzon: Cagayan, Aparre.

Pedilanthus Neck. ex Poit. = Euphorbia

Pimelodendron Hassk.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Pimelodendron griffithianum (Müll.Arg.) Benth. ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1888) 468; --Stomatocalyx griffithianus Müll.Arg., Prodr. 15 (1866) 1142. Thailand to W Malesia, Philippines. TAWI-TAWI (Gaerlan (PPI) 10045, L).

Poinsettia Graham = Euphorbia

Plukenetia L.

No Photos
  1. Plukenetia corniculata Sm., Nov. Act. Soc. Sci. Upsal. 6(1799) 4. --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 447; --Pterococcus corniculatus (Sm.) Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 681 (1919) 22; -- Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 82; -- E Himalayas, India (Assam), Myanmar, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas. LUZON: Rizal. Low and medium elevation, in old clearings.

Pterococcus Hassk. = Plukenetia

Ptychopyxis Miq.

Edited by James V. LaFrankie & Pieter B. Pelser, 20 May 2016

No Photos
  1. Ptychopyxis bacciformis Croizat, J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 49; --Type from Indonesia. --Ptychopyxis philippina Croiz., J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 49; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 14 (1960) 372; --Syntypes: Wenzel 2710 (A), Mindanao: Surigao; Wenzel 3501 (A), Mindanao: Surigao. Indonesia, Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, SAMAR.

Reutealis Airy Shaw

Photos
  1. Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20 (1972) 395; --Aleurites trisperma Blanco,Fl. Filip. (1837) 755; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 290; EPFP 2 (1923) 448. LUZON: La Union, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Cavite, Batangas, Camarines, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Davao. Low and medium elevation forests, widely scattered, sometimes planted. Photos

Ricinus L. [Not native]

Photos
  1. Ricinus communis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1007; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 296; EPFP 2 (1923) 447. Native to tropical Africa. Photos

 Sapium L. = Philippine species previously ascribed here are now in Balakata, Triadica, and Stillingia, q.v.

Shirakiopsis Esser

No Photos
  1. Shirakiopsis sanchezii (Merr.) HJ Esser, Blumea 41 (1999) 189, Fig. 5a-c, g-h, map 5; --Sapium sanchezii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 402; EPFP 2 (1923) 461; --Type: Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumbawa) and MINDANAO: Surigao, Lanao, Cotabato. Thickets and forests along or near the seashore. 

Spathiostemon Blume

No Photos
  1. Spathiostemon javensis Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 622; --Baill., --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20 (1966) 45;--Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 132; --Airy Shaw; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 196; Kew Bull.Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 202; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 35; Alph. Enum. Euphor. Philip. Isl. (1983) 45;--Welzen, Blumea 43 (1998) 146, Fig. 4a--h, Map 3; --Type from Java. --Homonoia javensis (Blume) Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 200; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 447; --Merr., PJS 11c (1916) Bot. 283; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 492. --Homonoia javensis var. ciliata Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 391; EPFP 2 (1923) 447; --Type: FB 7246 Everett (n.v.), Negros: Negros Occidental prov., Cauayan. --Mallotus eglandulosus Elmer, LPB Bot. 1 (1908) 313; --Type: Elmer 7152 (PNH, holo, lost; A, K, NY, iso), Leyte: Leyte prov., Palo. Peninsular Malaysia (Perak), Java, Borneo (especially Sabah), C & S Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Ambon; Kai Isls), Lesser Sunda Islands (Timor), and New Guinea; absent in Sumatra. MINDORO, PANAY, NEGROS, CEBU, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Davao, Agusan del Norte, Surigao. Lowland primary and secondary forests. Often on limestone. Flowering and fruiting Jan-Dec.

Stillingia Garden ex L.

Photos
  1. Stillingia lineata (Lam.) Müll.Arg. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 15 (1866) 1157.

Strophioblachia Boerl.

Photos
  1. Strophioblachia fimbricalyx Boerl., Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 3, 1 (1900) 236; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 455; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euphorb. Philip. Is. (1983) 45; --Nguyen Nghia Thin et al.,Blumea 43 (1998) 485, Fig. 1-4, Map. 1. SW China (Guangxi), Thailand (NE, C, SE), Cambodia, Vietnam, Philippines, Sulawesi. Of typical dry monsoon distribution. LUZON: La Union, Pangasinan, N MINDORO, PALAWAN, MARINDUQUE, TAWI-TAWI (Bongao), MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Secondary and edges of primary semi-deciduous forests, thickets near the seashore. On rocky, calcareous and sandy soils, 0-250m. Flowering and fruiting throughout the year (but less so in Nov-Jan). 
  2. Photos

Sumbaviopsis J.J.Sm.

No Photos
  1. Sumbaviopsis albicans (Blume) JJ Sm.in Koord. & Valeton, Bijdr. Boom. Java 12 (1910) 357;--Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 428; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 132. India (Assam), Myanmar, Indochina, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines.

Suregada Roxb. ex Rottler

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Suregada glomerulata (Blume) Baill., Étud. Gén. Euph. (1858) 396; --Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 198; --Gelonium glomerulatum (Blume) Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bogor. (1844) 237; --Merr., EPFP2 (1923) 455. --Gelonium philippinense Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 52 (1912) 22; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 456. Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (Timor), Moluccas, New Guinea. N LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. Photos
  2. Suregada racemulosa (Merr.) Croiz., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 17 (1942) 216; --Gelonium racemulosum Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 281; EPFP 2 (1923) 456. Endemic to the Philippines.
  3. Suregada stenophylla (Merr.) Croiz., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 17 (1942) 216; --Gelonium stenophyllum Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 30; EPFP 4 (1925) 252. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal.

Tragia L. = Pachystylidium/Cnesmone

Trewia L. = Mallotus

Triadica Lour.

No Photos
  1. Triadica cochinchinensis Lour., Fl. Cochin. Ed. 1, 2 (1790) 610; --Esser, Blumea 44 (1999) 201, Fig. 7, map 7. --Sapium discolor (Champ. ex Benth.) Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 121; --Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975)192; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 44; --Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 404; NE India, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina up to Taiwan and E China, W Malesia: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo (Sarawak and Sabah), Philippines and Sulawesi. PALAWAN.

Trigonostemon Blume

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Trigonostemon acuminatus Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 190; EPFP 2 (1923) 451. Philippines.
  2. Trigonostemon angustifolius Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 396; EPFP 2 (1923) 451. Endemic to the Philippines.
  3. Trigonostemon capillipes (Hook.f.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 29 (1966) 413. Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines.
  4. Trigonostemon cumingii Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 213; --Dimorphocalyx cumingii (Muell.-Arg.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 124; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 20; --Tritaxis cumingii (Muell.-Arg.) Benth., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 17 (1878) 221; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 449; --Type: Cuming 1693 (P-DC, holo; K, L, iso), Samar. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR.
  5. Trigonostemon everettii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 408; EPFP 2 (1923) 451. Endemic to the Philippines.
  6. Trigonostemon filiformis Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 328, t. 7. Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  7. Trigonostemon hirsutus C Robinson, PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 335; EPFP 2 (1923) 451. Borneo, Philippines.
  8. Trigonostemon laevigatus Muell.-Arg., Flora 47 (1864) 538; --Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 203; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 135. --Trigonostemon anomalus Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 569; EPFP 2 (1923) 451. Andaman Isls, Thailand, Indochina (?), Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Pulau Tioman, Langkawi, Borneo, Philippines. Photos
  9. Trigonostemon laxiflorus Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 567; EPFP 2 (1923) 451. Endemic to the Philippines.
  10. Trigonostemon longifolius Baill., Étude Gén. Euphorb. (1858) 341. Myanmar, Peninsular Malaysia, Indonesia (Sumatra), Thailand, Philippines. Photos
  11. Trigonostemon longipedunculatus (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1306; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 452. Borneo, Philippines.
  12. Trigonostemon longipes (Merr.) Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 191; EPFP 2 (1923) 452; --Dimorphocalyx longipes Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 82; --Syntypes: Borden FB 1801 (NY, US), Whitford FB 1066 (NY, P, US), Luzon: Bataan, Lamao; Merrill 2699 (US), Luzon: Rizal, Bosoboso. Philippines. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Rizal. Photos
  13. Trigonostemon luzoniensis Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 568; EPFP 2 (1923) 452. Philippines.
  14. Trigonostemon merrillii Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1304; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 452. Borneo and the Philippines.
  15. Trigonostemon oblanceolatus C Robinson, PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 337; EPFP 2 (1923) 452. Endemic to the Philippines.
  16. Trigonostemon oblongifolius Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 409; EPFP 2 (1923) 452. Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan. Photos
  17. Trigonostemon philippinensis Stapf in Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 206; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923)452. Sumatra and the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Laguna, Camarines, PANAY, LEYTE. Primary forests at low and medium elevation. Locally abundant.
  18. Trigonostemon polyanthus Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 492; EPFP 2 (1923) 452.
  19. Trigonostemon stenophyllus Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 330, t. 8. Endemic to the Philippines.
  20. Trigonostemon villosus Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 397. Photos
  21. Trigonostemon viridissimus (Kurz) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 25 (1971) 545; Euph. Born. (1975)205; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 135. --Trigonostemon macgregorii Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 566; EPFP 2 (1923) 452. Myanmar, Andaman Isls, Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumbawa, Timor), Philippines. Photos
  22. Trigonostemon wenzelii Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 380; EPFP 2 (1923) 453. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls.
  23. Trigonostemon whiteanus (Croiz.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 38 (1983) 68; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 48; --Cheilosa whiteana Croiz., J. Arnold Arb. 23 (1942) 507. Endemic to the Philippines.

Tritaxis Baill. = Dimorphocalyx

Wetria Baill.

No Photos 
  1. Wetria insignis (Steudel) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 350; idem. 27 (1972) 87; Euph. Born. (1975) 206; Euph. New Guinea (1980) 207; --Agrostistachys pubescens Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 274; --Pax in EngI. Pfianzenreich 57 (1912) 99; --Type: FB 5940 Curran (US, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mabayo, in bamboo thickets along streams, Jan-1907. --Wetria macrophylla (Blume) JJ Sm., Meded. Dept. Landbouw 10 (1910) 471; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 437. Myanmar, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, New Guinea (Papua). LUZON: Bataan, BANCALAN, NEGROS. Lowland bamboo thickets and forests.

Literature

Airy-Shaw, H.K. 1963. Notes on Malaysian or other Asiatic Euphorbiaceae XX-XLVIII. Kew Bulletin 16: 342-372.

Airy Shaw, HK 1972. The Euphorbiaceae of Siam. Kew Bull. 26: 191-363.

Airy Shaw, HK 1975. The Euphorbiaceae of Borneo. Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 1-245.

Airy Shaw, HK 1980. The Euphorbiaceae of New Guinea. Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8: 1-243.

Airy Shaw, HK 1981. The Euphorbiaceae of Sumatra. Kew Bull. 36: 239-374.

Airy Shaw, HK 1982. The Euphorbiaceae of Cental Malesia (Celebes, Moluccas, Lesser Sunda Is.). Kew Bull. 37: 1-40.

Airy Shaw, HK 1983. An alphabetical enumeration of the Euphorbiaceae of the Philippine Islands. 56 pp. Kew Botanical Gardens, Richmond.
 
Backer, CA & Bakhuizen van den Brink f., RC 1963. Flora of Java 1: 441-505. NVP Noordhoff, Groningen.

Backer, CA & Bakhuizen van den Brink f., RC 1968. Flora of Java 3: 648, 649.

Esser, H-J. 1997. Revision of Omalanthus in Malesia. Blumea 42: 421-466

Esser, HJ. 1999. A partial revision of the Hippomaneae (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia. Blumea 44: 149-215

Forster, PI. 1994. Revision of Euphorbia plumerioides Teijsm. ex Hassk. (Euphorbiaceae) and allies. Austrobaileya 4: 227-246.

Gillespie, LJ. 2007. A revision of Paleotropical Plukenetia (Euphorbiaceae) including two new species from Madagascar. Systematic Botany 32: 780-802.

Guerrero, S.A., van Welzen, P.C. 2011. Revision of Malesian Endospermum (Euphorbiaceae) with notes on phylogeny and historical biogeography. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 68, 443-482.

Kulju, KKM & PC van Welzen. 2005. Revision of the genus Cleidion (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia. Blumea 50: 197-219

McLarnon E & The Malpighiales Team at Kew (Gill Challen, Sue Zmarzty). Interactive key to the genera of Euphorbiaceae s.l., Salicaceae and Achariaceae

Milne, R. 1995. Notes on Bornean and other West Malesian Trigonostemon (Euphorbiaceae). Kew Bull. 50: 25-49.

Nguyen Nghia Thin, Vu Hoai Duc & PC van Welzen. 1998. A revision of the Indochinese- Malesian genus Strophioblachia (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea 43: 479-487

Ottens-Treurniet, MAD & PC van Welzen. 2016. A revision of the Malesian genus Blumeodendron (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea 61: 64-82

Sagun, VG & GA Levin. 2007. Four new species of Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae) from Malesia. Blumea 52: 351-359


Sagun, VG, GA Levin & PC van Welzen. 2010. Revision and phylogeny of Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia. Blumea 55: 21-60

Schaeffer, J. 1971. Revision of the genus Endospermum Bth. (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea 19: 171–192


Sevilla, S & PC van Welzen. 2001. Revision and Phylogeny of Agrostistachys and Chondrostylis (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea 46: 71-97


Sierra, SE.C, KKM Kulju, JF Veldkamp & PC van Welzen. 2007. Resurrection of Hancea and lectotypification of Adisca (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea 52: 361-366.

Slik, JWF & PC van Welzen. 2001. A taxonomic revision of Mallotus sections Hancea and Stylanthus (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea 46: 3-66

Stuppy, W, PC van Welzen, P Klinratana & MCT Posa. 1999. Revision of the genera AleuritesReutealis and Vernicia (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea 44: 73-98

Welzen, PC van (ed.). Euphorbiaceae of Malesia website.

Welzen, PC van. 2015. A revision of the Malesian species of Blachia (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea 59: 163-166

Welzen, PC van, Banka, RA & CD Leoncito. 1993. A revision of the Malesian monotypic genus Cheilosa Blume (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea 38: 161-166

Welzen, PC van & FJ Fernández-Casas. 2017. Cnidoscolus (Euphorbiaceae) escaped in Malesia? Blumea 62: 84-86

Welzen, PC van, K Ning Tyas, E Gaerlan & FJM Gaerlan. 1999. The Malesian species of Melanolepis (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea 44: 437-446

Welzen, PC van & LJ Bulalacao. 2007. The genus Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae) in the Malay Archipelago and Thailand. Systematic Botany 32: 803-818.

Welzen, PC van, FST Sweet & FJ Fernández-Casas. 2017. A revision of Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia. Blumea 62: 58-74

Welzen, PC van & AF van Oostrum. 2015. Revision of the Malesian species of Dimorphocalyx (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea 59: 191-201


Welzen, PC van. 1994. Taxonomy, phylogeny, and geography of Neoscortechinia Hook.f. ex Pax (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea 39: 301-318


Welzen PC van. 1998. Revisions and phylogenies of Malesian Euphorbiaceae: Subtribe Lasiococcinae (Homonoia, Lasiococca, Spathiostemon) and Clonostylis, Ricinus, and Wetria. Blumea 43: 131-164

Whitmore, T.C. 1973. Tree Flora of Malaya 2: 34-136. Longman, London.

Yang, Y, R Riina, JJ Morawetz, T Haevermans, X Aubriot & PE Berry. 2012. Molecular phylogenetics and classification of Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae). Taxon 61: 764-789.


Acknowledgements

John Michael M. Galindon, John Clifton Mayer, Greg Rule, and Ravan Schneider kindly provided some of the photographs on this webpage. Renyong Yu identified many of the Trigonostemon photos.

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 14 June 2017