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Gentianaceae

Canscora Lam.

Photos
  1. Canscora diffusa (Vahl) R Br. ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. ed. 15 (1818) 301; --Fern.-Villar,   --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 367; EPFP 3 (1923) 318; --Thiv., Blumea 48 (2003) 11, pl. 2e-h. Tropical Africa and Asia, across Malesia to tropical Australia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Apayao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Bulacan, Rizal, Cavite.  Photos
  2. Canscora macrocalyx Miq., Fl. Ned.-ind. 2 (1856) 558; --Thiv., Blumea 48 (2003) 15, f. 1, pl. 1e, f. Java, Timor and the Philippines: MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte, PNH 36300 Frake. Moist open places in grasslands, fields; heavy soil. 0-600m. Flowering Jan.-Aug.

Centaurium Hill [Not native]

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  1. Centaurium spicatum (L.) Fritsch ex Janch; -- Mitt. Naturwiss. Vereins Univ. Wien n.s., 5: 97. (1907); --Erythraea spicata (L.) Pers., Syn. 1 (1905) 283; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 317. Native of the Mediterranean region. Introduced into Taiwan by early Portuguese colonists, extending thereafter southward to the Batanes Isls Group. BATAN. Open places at low elevation.

Cotylanthera Blume = Exacum

Crawfurdia Wall. = Tripterospermum

Cyrtophyllum Reinw.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 January 2015

No Photos
  1. Cyrtophyllum fragrans (Roxb.) DC., Prodr. [A. P. de Candolle] 9 (1845) 31; --Fagraea fragrans Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 32; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 314; --Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 304, Fig. 5-8; --Wong & Sugau, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 2 (1996) 206. --Fagraea cochinchinensis (Lour.) A Chev., Cat. Pl. Jard. Bot. Saigon (1919) 65; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 314. Bengal, Andaman Isls, Lower Myanmar, Thailand, C & S Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, W Java (naturalized), Bawean, Borneo, SW Philippines, Sulawesi, Japen Is (near NW New Guinea). MINDORO, BUSUANGA, CULION, PALAWAN, BALABAC. Lowland forests, especially secondary and disturbed ones.

Exacum L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 February 2016

Photos
  1. Exacum parviflorum Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 96; EPFP 3 (1923) 317; --Type: Vanoverbergh 758. LUZON: Mountain Province. Open slopes, c. 1200m.
  2. Exacum tenue (Blume) Klack., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 126(4) (2006) 478; --Cotylanthera tenuis Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 707; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 223; EPFP 3 (1923) 317; --Type from Java. Java, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Sorsogon, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation damp primary forests, ascending to 1700m. Photos
  3. Exacum tetragonum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 413. --Exacum chironioides Griseb., Gen. Sp. Gent. (1839) 109; --Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 136; --Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 307; EPFP 3 (1923) 317. Widespread in Malesia. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Rizal, MINDORO, PANAY, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation wet grasslands, swamps, etc. Photos

Fagraea Thunb.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 January 2015

Photos
  1. Fagraea auriculata Jack, Malay Misc. 2, No. 7 (1822) 82; --Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 509; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 314; --Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 326, Fig. 2d, 20. --Fagraea epiphytica Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2743. Photos
  2. Fagraea blumei G Don, Gard. Dict. 4 (1837) 69 (‘blumii’); --Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 320, Fig. 17; --Wong & Sugau, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 2 (1996) 202. --Fagraea obovata (non Wall.) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 369; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 315, pro parte. --Fagraea cuernosensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 600; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 314. --Fagraea negrosensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 599; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 315. Photos
  3. Fagraea borneensis Scheff. in Hassk., Flora 32 (1869) 309; --Wong & Sugau, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 2 (1996) 202; --Fagraea auriculata Jack ssp. borneensis (Scheff.) Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 328; --Type from Sarawak. --Fagraea nonok Elmer, LPB 3(1910) 858; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 315. --Fagraea jackii Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2744. Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; Kalimantan), W-C Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls (Flores). MINDORO, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Lowland and montane forests.
  4. Fagraea ceilanica Thunb., Vet. Acad. Handl. Stockh. 3 (1782) 132, t. 4; --Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 315, Fig. 13-15. --Fagraea obovata Wall. in Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 33, non Blume (1826); --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 315, pro parte. --Fagraea loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 49; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; --Type: Loher. Sri Lanka, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, SW China, Hongkong, Hainan, Taiwan (S peninsula only) and throughout Malesia, Bougainville, Solomon Isls. Throughout the Philippines, high-climbing woody hemi-epiphyte in forests, 0-2100m. Photos
  5. Fagraea gitingensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 859; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 315; --Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 334. C Philippines, N Moluccas (Talaud Is). SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting).
  6. Fagraea longiflora Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 260; Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 597; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 315. --Fagraea macgregorii Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 51. LUZON, CATANDUANES. A dubious specimen from Mindanao (BS 38650).

Gentiana L.

Photos
  1. Gentiana copelandii Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2671; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 319; --Type: Elmer 11692. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Calelan). In mosses at the summit, c. 2500m.
  2. Gentiana diversifolia Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 224; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 319; --Type: Merrill 4443 (PNH, holo, possibly lost), Luzon: Benguet prov., Kabayan. On damp, rocky banks, in open lands, rare, c. 1300m, 27-Oct-1905. LUZON: Benguet. Damp rocky banks among grasses, 1200-1900m.
  3. Gentiana quadrifaria Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 14 (1826) 847. --Gentiana apoensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 223; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 318; --Syntypes: Copeland 1161 & 1432 (PNH, possibly lost), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, summit area, c. 3000m, ‘Occasional in turf, but inconspicuous, not common’, Apr & Oct-1904; --de Vore & Hoover 371 (PNH, possibly lost), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, May-1903. --Gentiana luzoniensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 224; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 319; --Type: Merrill 4558 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Data, on dry, open grassy slopes in thin pine forests at c. 2100m, 4-Nov-1905. LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, Quezon, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Open grasslands and exposed ridges on the higher mountains, 1700-2800m. Photos

Hoppea Willd.

No Photos
  1. Hoppea dichotoma Willd., Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin Neue Schriften 3 (1801) 434; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 318; --Thiv, Blumea 48 (2003) 28, pl. 3e. India. Thiv argues that outside of India, this plant is non indigenous in occurrence. In the Philippines reported only from LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Benguet and Pangasinan, in open places at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1800m in Benguet. Rare or local.

Limnanthemum S.G.Gmel. = Nymphoides

Microrphium C.B.Clarke

No Photos
  1. Microrphium pubescens CB Clarke, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 74 (1906) 88.

Swertia L.

Photos
  1. Swertia decurrens C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1909) Bot. 214; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 319; --Type: RS Williams 1529. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Open slopes, extending into the mossy forest, 1200-2300m.

Tripterospermum Blume

Photos
  1. Tripterospermum luzoniensis (Vidal) J Murata, J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 14 (1989) 305; --Wang JC & Chen YC in Huang TC (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 186; --Crawfurdia luzoniensis Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 191; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 318. Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia. LUZON: Lepanto, Mountain Province, Benguet, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Mossy forests in very damp shaded ravines, 1100-2400m. Photos

Utania G.Don

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 September 2016

Photos
  1. Utania cuspidata (Blume) K.M.Wong, M.Sugumaran & Sugau, Gard. Bull. Singapore 65 (2013) 237; --Fagraea cuspidata Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1850) 170; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 314; --Wong & Sugau, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 2 (1996) 204. Borneo, SW Philippines. BALABAC. Mixed dipterocarp forests, in gaps and clearings, also secondary forests and forest edges.
  2. Utania philippinensis (K.M.Wong & Sugau) K.M.Wong, Sugumaran & Sugau, Gard. Bull. Singapore 65 (2013) 237; --Fagraea philippinensis K.M.Wong & Sugau, Sandakania 8 (1996) 35; --Type: FB 3270 Ahern’s Collector (K, holo). --Fagraea racemosa Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 311, pro parte, non Jack ex Wall. (1824). Borneo (Sarawak; Kalimantan), Philippines. Photos
  3. Utania spicata (Baker) K.M.Wong, Sugumaran & Sugau, Gard. Bull. Singapore 65 (2013) 238; --Fagraea spicata Baker, Kew Bull. (1896) 25; --Wong & Sugau, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 2 (1996) 214. --Fagraea congestiflora Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2741; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 316. --Fagraea racemosa sensu Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 311, non Jack ex Wall. (1824). Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines. Lowland to montane forests, frequently in gaps and also secondary forests.
  4. Utania volubilis (Wall.) M.Sugumaran, Gard. Bull. Singapore 64 (2012) 493; --Fagraea volubilis Wall. in Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 36; --Wong & Sugau, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 2 (1996) 215. --Fagraea racemosa sensu Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 315; --sensu Leenh., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 311, non Jack ex Wall. (1824). --Fagraea scholaris Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 93; ed. 3, 1 (1877) 171. Andaman Isls, Nicobar Isls, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo (Sarawak; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea.  Lowland forests, including secondary forests and forest edges. Photos

Literature

Backer, CA & Bakhuizen van den Brink. 1965. Flora of Java 2: 437-441.

Geesink, R. 1973. A synopsis of the genus Swertia (Gent.) in Malesia. Blumea 21: 179-183


Leenhouts, PW. 1962. Loganiaceae. Flora Malesiana, Series 1 6: 293-387 (includes Fagraea)

Mansion, G. 2004. A new classification of the polyphyletic genus Centaurium Hill (Chironiinae, Gentianaceae): Description of the New World endenic Zeltnera, and reinstatement of Gyrandra Griseb. and Schenkia Griseb. Taxon 53(3): 719–740.

Murata, J. 1989. A synopsis of Tripterospermum (Gentianaceae). Journal of the Faculty of Science, Univ. Tokyo Sec. III, 16 (4): 273-339.

Royen, P van. 1964. Nova Guinea Bot. 17: 369-416.

Sugumaran, M & KM Wong. 2012. Studies in Malesian Gentianaceae I: Fagraea sensu lato - complex genus or several genera? A molecular phylogenetic study. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 64: 301-332

Sugumaran, M & KM Wong. 2014. Studies in Malesian Gentianaceae VI: A revision of Utania in the Malay Pensinsula with two new species. Plant Ecology and Evolution 147: 213-223

Thiv, M. 2003. A taxonomic revision of Canscora, Cracosna, Duplipetala, Hoppea, Microrphium, Phylloccyclus and Schinziella (Gentianaceae-Canscorinae). Blumea 48: 1-46


Wong, KM & JB Sugau. 1996. A revision of Fagraea (Loganiaceae) in Borneo, with notes on related Malesian species and 21 new species. Sandakania 8: 1-93.

Wong, KM & M Sugumaran. 2012. Studies in Malesian Gentianaceae II: A taxonomic framework for the Fagraea complex, including the new genus Limahlania. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 64: 481-495

Wong, KM & M Sugumaran. 2012. Studies in Malesian Gentianaceae III: Cyrtophyllum reapplied to the Fagraea fragrans alliance. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 64: 497-510

Wong, KM, M Sugumaran & JB Sugau. 2013. Studies in Malesian Gentianaceae V: The Fagraea complex in Borneo: New generic assignments and recombinations. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 65; 235-239.

Copyright 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 3 September 2016