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Lauraceae

Actinodaphne Nees

Edited by Fabian Brambach & Pieter B. Pelser, 21 May 2015

Photos
  1. Actinodaphne apoensis (Elmer) ined. Unpublished name, not in IPNI; --Neolitsea apoensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 727; --Type: Elmer 11255 (BISH, BM, E, GH, HBG, K, L, MO, NY, P, U, US), Mindanao: Davao, Todaya (Mt. Apo), Aug-1909. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo), Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Primary forests, c. 1050m. Photos
  2. Actinodaphne bicolor (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 190; --Litsea bicolor Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 259; --Type: Bolster 318. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao. Forests, 200-900m.
  3. Actinodaphne dolichophylla (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 190; --Litsea dolichophylla Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 134; --Type: BS 17540 Ramos. PANAY, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Low elevation primary forests.
  4. Actinodaphne intermedia (Elmer) ined. Unpublished name, not in IPNI; --Neolitsea intermedia Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 727; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 191; --Type: Elmer 8832 (A, E, K, L, NY, US), Luzon: Benguet Prov., Baguio, Mar-1907. LUZON: Benguet, Rizal. Forests and on ridges at medium elevation. Photos
  5. Actinodaphne lanceolata (Merr.) ined.; --Neolitsea lanceolata Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 397; EPFP 2 (1923) 191; --Type: BS 30231 Ramos (A, K, P, US), Catanduanes: Mt Mariguidon, forest near summit, 27-Nov-1917. LUZON: Tayabas east coast, CATANDUANES. Mossy forests, probably at or above 900m.
  6. Actinodaphne multiflora Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 230. --Neolitsea vidalii Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 56; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 191; --Litsea verticillata S.Vidal, Revis. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 226, non Hance (1883); --Type: Vidal 1688 (K MA, isosyn), Marinduque; Vidal 1689 (K, isosyn), Luzon: Morong, Bosoboso. As N. vidalii: LUZON: Cagayan, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon, MINDORO, GUIMARAS, BASILAN, MINDANAO. Primary forests at low and medium elevation.
  7. Actinodaphne samarensis (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 190; --Litsea samarensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 138; --Type: BS 17541 Ramos. LUZON: Cagayan, CATANDUANES, SAMAR. Low or medium elevation forests.
  8. Actinodaphne tayabensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 191; --Litsea tayabensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 380; ibid. (1909) 716; --Type: Elmer 9144. --Actinodaphne conferta (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 190; --Litsea conferta Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 259; --Type: BS 23348 Ramos. --Actinodaphne copelandii Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3750; --Based on Elmer 15994 (L, MO, NY, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, in moist humus covered soil of steep wooded mountain flanks, 1500ft, May-1916. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon (Mt. Banahaw), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), MINDORO, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Davao, Surigao. Low and medium elevation forests.

Alseodaphne Nees

Photos
  1. Alseodaphne longipes Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 146; --Type: Elmer 13962 (UC, holo; MO, U, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, on steep slopes, c. 1000m, Oct-1912. LUZON: Benguet (Tania), Isabela (Mt Moises), Nueva Vizcaya (Caraballo Mtns), Quirino (Mt Alzapan), Benguet), MINDANAO (Agusan del Norte). Forests, sometimes along streams, 970-1700m.
  2. Alseodaphne philippinensis (Elmer) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 344, t. 3; --Iteadaphne philippinensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 713; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 204; --Type: Elmer 11493. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Primary forest, c. 1800m.
  3. Alseodaphne ramosii Kosterm., Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 21, Fig. 1; --Type: BS 80426 (BO, holo; NY, SING, iso), Batan Is. Note by L.L.Co: Known only from the type. Related to A. philippinensis (Elmer) Kosterm., but the leaves resemble those of Dehaasia cairocan (Vidal) CK Allen.

Check occurrence in the Philippines

  1. Alseodaphne elongata (Blume) Kosterm., J. Sci. Res., Indonesia 1 (1952) 120, in obs. Sumatra
  2. Alseodaphne oblanceolata (Merr.) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 292; --Beilschmiedia oblanceolata Merr., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 15 (1929) 84; --Syntypes: Elmer 20894, 20931. Borneo.

Beilschmiedia Nees

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 September 2016

Photos
  1. Beilschmiedia gemmiflora (Blume) Kosterm., J. Sc. Res., Indonesia 1 (1952) 115, in adnot. --Beilschmiedia glomerata Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 29 (1905) 15; EPFP 2 (1923) 198. As B. glomerata: Indochina, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Bataan, Laguna. Lowland primary and secondary forests.
  2. Beilschmiedia gitingensis (Elmer) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 156, t. 3; --Endiandra gitingensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 712; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 203. SIBUYAN. Forests, c. 550m.
  3. Beilschmiedia lucidula (Miq.) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 23; --Cryptocarya lucidula Miq.; --Type from Java. --Beilschmiedia nervosa (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 271; EPFP 2 (1923) 198; --Linociera nervosa Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1652; --Type: Elmer 11833 (PNH, holo, lost? A, BM, BO, E, K, L, NY, UC, US), Mindanao: Mt Apo, Todaya. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Langkawi Isls, Borneo, Java (extreme E part), Philippines. --Beilschmiedia leytensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) 357 --Syntypes: Wenzel 501 (A, BM, US), Leyte: Dagami; Wenzel 183, Leyte: Dagami. LUZON: Sorsogon, PALAWAN (Lake Manguao), NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo, Todaya), Agusan del Norte. Photos
  4. Beilschmiedia maingayi Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5(13) (1886) 123; --Type from Malaysia. Borneo, Java, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Philippines.

Caryodaphnopsis Airy Shaw

Photos
  1. Caryodaphnopsis tonkinensis (Lecomte) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. (1940) 74; --Persea tonkinensis (Lecomte) Kosterm., J. Sci. Res. Indonesia 1 (1952) 151. --Nothaphoebe pyriformis (Elmer) Merr., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 15 (1929) 77; --Persea pyriformis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2727; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 188; --Type: Elmer 13311 (BISH, NA, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, among dense woods in gravelly soil along Catangan Creek, 1000ft, Jul-1912. SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte. Lowland forests to 300m. Photos

Cassytha L.

Photos
  1. Cassytha filiformis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 35; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 211; EPFP 2 (1923) 204. Pantropic. Throughout the Philippines. In thickets especially near the sea, parasitic on various coarse grasses, shrubs, etc., also in peat swamps (Agusan Marsh). Sometime found inland up to 500m in dry regions. Photos

Cinnamomum Schaeff.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 September 2015

Photos
  1. Cinnamomum anacardium Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 37; --Type: FB 26682 Peñas (L, US, iso), Luzon: Cagayan prov., May-1917. LUZON: Cagayan
  2. Cinnamomum burmanni (Nees & T.Nees) Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 569; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 187; --Kosterm., Bibl. Laur. (1964) 258; Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 33; --Laurus burmanni Nees & T.Nees, Cinnam. Disp. (1823) 57; --Type from W Java. --Cinnamomum mindanaense Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 705; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 187; --Kosterm., Bibl. Laur. (1964) 291; --Type: Elmer 11105 (BO, L, LE, NA, NY, U, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya. Mauritius, S China, Hainan, Hong Kong, Indo-China, Japan, Nusa Tenggara, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, W Flores, Philippines. Although the “typical” form was mentioned by Merrill (1923) as an introduced but rarely cultivated species, wild forms formerly known as C. mindanaense are known to occur in JOLO (Mt Dajo), MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao (Mt Apo), and Surigao. In low and medium elevation thickets and forests. 
  3. Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J Presl, Prir. Rostlin 2 (1825) 36 (47-56, t.8); --Nees & Eberm., Handb. Med. Pharm. Bot. 2 (1831) 430. Introduced in some parts of the Philippines but not persisting. Photos
  4. Cinnamomum cebuense Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 56; --Type: Univ. of San Carlos 45 (L, holo), Cebu: Cantipla. Mountain forest, 800m. CEBU: Cantipla. Mountain forest, 800m. Photos
  5. Cinnamomum celebicum Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1851) 264; --Kosterm., Bibl. Laur. (1964) 281; Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 36; --Type presumably from Sulawesi. Sulawesi and the Philippines. PALAWAN (Mt Pulgar), MINDANAO: Lanao (Camp Keithley), Davao (Mt Apo).
  6. Cinnamomum ebaloi Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 50; --Type: Ebalo 1198 (PNH, iso), Mindanao: Lanao del Norte prov., Maria Cristina Falls, 25-Feb.- 30-Mar-1941. MINDANAO: Lanao del Norte.
  7. Cinnamomum iners Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 570; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 187; --Type from Java. India, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines. PALAWAN, TAWI-TAWI, MINDANAO: Lanao. Forests, up to 700m. Note by L.L.Co: I don’t know how this differs from C. utile Kosterm., some Philippine exsiccates cited by Merrill (1923) as C. iners could be C. utile. Check Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 55.
  8. Cinnamomum lanaoense Kosterm., Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 49, Fig. 19; --Type LE Ebalo 1041 (BO, holo; A, L, MICH, iso), Mindanao: Lanao, Mt Parain. MINDANAO: Lanao. Note by L.L.Co: Known only from the type collection.
  9. Cinnamomum loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 23; EPFP 4 (1925) 252; --Type: Loher 14469, Luzon: Rizal prov., Mabiluang. LUZON: Rizal.
  10. Cinnamomum mercadoi Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 224; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 187. BABUYAN ISLS and N LUZON to MINDANAO. Common in lowland and medium elevation forests, with some forms ascending to 2000m. Photos
  11. Cinnamomum mendozai Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 58; --Type: PNH 42428 Mendoza (US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Butuan, Barrio San Mateo, Sitio Tungao, 30-May to 26-Jun-1961. MINDANAO
  12. Cinnamomum myrianthum Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 125; EPFP 2 (1923) 188; --Type: BS 27485 Ramos (A, L, US), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Bangui, Feb/Mar-1917. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Low elevation forests.
  13. Cinnamomum nanophyllum Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 45; --Cinnamomum microphyllum Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 148, non Ridl. (1925); --Type: BS 45692 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Aurora prov., Mt Alzapan, mossy forest, c. 1900m, 7-Jun-1925. LUZON: Aurora (Mt Alzapan).
  14. Cinnamomum oblongum Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 59; --Type: BS 24455 Ramos (L, holo; L, MO, NY, US, iso), Samar: Catubig River, Feb/Mar-1916. SAMAR (Catubig River).
  15. Cinnamomum oroi Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 40; --Type: FB 30880 Oro (NY, iso), Luzon: Tayabas prov., Kagascas, forested slopes, c. 300m, 1-Apr-1929. LUZON: Tayabas. Forest, c. 300m. Note by L.L.Co: Known only from the type. Vegetatively similar to the montane C. sandkuhlii Merr., but with smaller leaves, shorter inflorescence and more slender peduncles, smaller flowers, and obovoid ovaries.
  16. Cinnamomum perglabrum Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 45; --Type: PNH 80419 Conklin & Buwaya (L, holo), Luzon: Ifugao prov., Banawe, Bayninan, in forest, 6000ft, 16-Apr-1963. LUZON: Ifugao (Banawe), in forest, c. 1820m.
  17. Cinnamomum rupestre Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 35; --Type: PNH 12391 Sulit (L, holo), Palawan: Mt Victoria, SE slopes, depauperate forest on rocky ridge, c. 1000m, 18-May-1950. PALAWAN: Mt Beaufort, Malasgao, Victoria Peaks (type locality). Note by L.L.Co: Known from 5 collections.
  18. Cinnamomum sancticaroli Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 38; --Type: Univ. San Carlos 680 (L, holo), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Mainit, Kulan, montane forest, 1200-1600m, 27-May-1974. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Montane forest, 1200-1600m.
  19. Cinnamomum sandkuhlii Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 126; EPFP 2 (1923) 188; --Type: FB 21289 Sandkuhl (L, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, a single tree in Forbes Park, c. 1400m, Apr-1914. LUZON: Ifugao, Benguet. Forest, 1400-2000m.
  20. Cinnamomum subcuneatum Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1 (1858) 895; --Type from Sumatra. --Cinnamomum griffithii Meissn. in DC, Prodr. 15 (1864) 19; --Soejarto et al. (1995) Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan; --Type from Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Thailand, Philippines. PALAWAN (Central part, based on 8 collections according to L.L.Co). Photos
  21. Cinnamomum trichophyllum Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 148; --Type: BS 49530 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; L, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao Oriental prov., Limot, Mt Mayo, on slopes in primary forest, c. 700m, 26-May-1927. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental (Mt Mayo). Forest, c. 700m.
  22. Cinnamomum utile Kosterm., Ginkgoana 6 (1986) 55; --Type: Elmer 10473 (L, holo; MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, May-1909. MINDANAO Note by L.L.Co: I don’t know how this differs from C. iners Reinw. ex Blume.
  23. Cinnamomum verum J.Presl, Prir. Rostlin 2 (1825) 36; --Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 568; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 188; --Type from Java. Native of Sri Lanka or India. Occasionally planted in the Philippines. Photos

Cryptocarya R.Br.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 April 2016

Photos
  1. Cryptocarya acuminata Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 192; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 199; --Kosterm., Bibl. 383 (1964) no. 16; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 297; --Type: FB 4342 Merritt (US), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Mt Halcon. LUZON: Isabela, Pampanga, MINDORO: Mt Halcon, type locality; Bongabong River. In primary forests at low elevation, ascending to 500m.
  2. Cryptocarya ampla Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 258; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 199; --Kosterm., Bibl. 384 (1964) no. 8; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 299; --Syntypes: Ahern’s Collector 463 (NY, US), 397 (NY, US) and 2438 (NY, US), all from Luzon: Rizal prov., Antipolo. --Cryptocarya calelanensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 707; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 200; --Type: Elmer 11610 (L, 2 sheets, LE, MO, NY, U, 2 sheets, US, iso), Mindanao: Mt Apo, Todaya. --Cryptocarya elliptifolia Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 396; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 200; --Type: BS 30330 Ramos (K, L, US, iso), Catanduanes. --Cryptocarya pacifica Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3753; --Type: Elmer 16758 (L, MO, NA, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin (Mt Bulusan). LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga (Mt Arayat), Rizal (Antipolo), Laguna (Mt Makiling), Camarines Norte (Paracale), Camarines Sur (Pasacao), Sorsogon, CATANDUANES; PANAY: Aklan (Libacao), MINDANAO: Davao: Mt Apo, Davao del Sur (Sta Cruz). Primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1000m.
  3. Cryptocarya beilschmidiifolia Kosterm., Reinwardtia 10 (1988) 455; --Type: SMHI 586 Podzorski (A, iso), Palawan, Mt Beaufort. PALAWAN: Mt Beaufort. Note by L.L.Co: Known only from the type locality, 2 collections.
  4. Cryptocarya cagayanensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 385; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 200; --Kosterm., Bibl. 390 (1964) no. 47; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 303; --Type: FB 28440 Ponce (A, K, L, US, iso). New Guinea Papua, Moluccas, Sulawesi, Borneo (Kalimantan, Sarawak, Sabah) and the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela (Palanan). Primary lowland forests. Photos
  5. Cryptocarya crassinervia Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1 (1858) 924; --Kosterm., Bibl. 394 (1964) no. 66a; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 305; --Type from Sumatra. --Cryptocarya edanoi Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 384; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 200; --Type: BS 36706 Ramos & Edaño (A, K, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Mt Tubuan. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the Philippines. MINDANAO (Zamboanga). Primary lowland forests.
  6. Cryptocarya densiflora Blume, Bijdr. 11 (1826) 556; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 200; --Type from Indonesia. --Cryptocarya laevigata Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2720, non Blume; --Type: Elmer
    13604 (BM, BM, BISH, CAS, E, HBG, GH, K, L, NY, MO, P, US), Mindanao: Agusan Province, Cabadbaran (Mt Urdaneta), Aug-1912. --Cryptocarya affinis Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 9; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 199; --Type: BS 23338 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost?; BO, K, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Pocdal, in damp forest, 10-Sep-1915. Australia, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, New Guinea, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. DINAGAT, LUZON, PANAY, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao, Agusan. Low and medium elevation primary forests, ascending to 1050m. Conservation status: LC (De Kok 2016).
  7. Cryptocarya erectinervia Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 307; --Type from Kalimantan. Borneo (Sabah, Sarawak, Kalimantan), Philippines. LUZON: Tarlac (W of Capas, Patling, Cabatuan), Quezon (Real), PALAWAN: Victoria Mtns.
  8. Cryptocarya euphlebia Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 396; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 200; --Kosterm., Bibl. 398 (1964) no. 88a; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 307; --Type: BS 30576 Ramos (US, iso), Catanduanes. --Cryptocarya foxworthyi Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3752; --Type: Elmer 17330 (L, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan (Irosin). --Cryptocarya loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 28; --Type: Loher 12349 (A, K, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov. LUZON: Rizal (Montalban), Laguna (Dahican River), CATANDUANES, PALAWAN. Low and medium elevation primary forests.
  9. Cryptocarya ferrea Blume, Bijdr. 11 (1826) 557; --Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 134; --Type from Indonesia. --Cryptocarya glauca Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 258; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 201; --Type: FB 2981 Ahern’s Collector (MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., Bosoboso, Apr-1905. --Cryptocarya glauciphylla Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 710; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 201; --Type: Elmer 12287 (L, MO, NY, US, iso), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, on reddish soil with a gravelly subsoil of wooded bank along the Pauala river, 750ft, Apr-1910. Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Pampanga, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, SIBUYAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Low and medium elevation primary forests. Conservation status: LC (De Kok 2016).
  10. Cryptocarya griffithiana Wight, Icon. (1852) t. 1830; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 201; --Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 134, Fig. 6. Myanmar, Thailand, Tenasserim, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo, Indonesia and the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao. Low and medium elevation forests.
  11. Cryptocarya infectoria (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 11 (1855) 924; --Kosterm., Bibl. 408 (1964) no. 136a; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 317; --Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 135. --Cryptocarya villarii Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 222; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 203, except Elmer 8531 (=C tomentosa Blume); --Type: Vidal 520 (A, K, L), Luzon: Pampanga prov. (Mt Arayat) Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines. LUZON: La Union, Pampanga, Rizal. Medium elevation forests.
  12. Cryptocarya intermedia Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2719; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 201; --Kosterm., Bibl. 408 (1964) no. 138; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 312; --Type: Elmer 13948 (L, LE, US), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta. --Cryptocarya lanceolata Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 127; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 201; --Kosterm., Bibl. 411 (1964) no. 149b; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 312, non (P & S) Guil., which antedates Merrill’s binomial by two years; --Type: FB 25098 Paraiso (US), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Apayao, La Union, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Zamboanga (Tetuan), Lanao, Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Low elevation primary forests, ascending to c. 1200m.
  13. Cryptocarya kurzii Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1886) 119; --Type from Indonesia. --Cryptocarya bicolor Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 255; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 199; --Type: FB 6578 (or 6548 fide De Kok 2016?) Hutchinson (MO, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Mar-1907. Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, TAWI-TAWI. Conservation status: LC (De Kok 2016).
  14. Cryptocarya laevigata Blume, Bijdr. 11 (1826) 556; --Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 136; --Type from Indonesia. --Cryptocarya cinnamomifolia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 128, non Benth.; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 200; --Cryptocarya merrillii C.T.White, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1933: 46; --Type: BS 26317 Ramos & Edaño (US, holo; K, P, iso), Luzon: Nueva Ecija Province, Mt Umingan, 6-Aug-1916. --Cryptocarya trinervia Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 200, in obs., pro syn; --Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3754, no Latin descr. Australia, Madagascar?, New Guinea, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Solomon Isls., Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija, Sorsogon, PANAY, NEGROS, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao, Agusan. Low and medium elevation primary forests, ascending to 1050m. Conservation status: LC (De Kok 2016).
  15. Cryptocarya lancilimba Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 314; --Type PNH 39947 Lagrimas (L, holo), Luzon: Cagayan prov., Claveria, Sta Monica, forest, 70m, 19-Nov-1959. LUZON: Cagayan. Note by L.L.Co: Known only from the type collection.
  16. Cryptocarya laurifolia (Blanco) Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 254; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 201. --Cryptocarya luzoniensis Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 222; --Type: Vidal 1680 (AAU, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., Cardona. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga (Mt Arayat), Bataan (Mt Mariveles), Rizal (Cardona; Bosoboso), Laguna, Batangas, Quezon, Camarines Sur (Pasacao), MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR.
  17. Cryptocarya loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 24; EPFP 4 (1925) 252; --Type: Loher 12349 (not seen), Luzon: Rizal prov., Montalban, Oct-1909. LUZON: Rizal. Note by L.L.Co: Allied to C. oblongata Merr., differing especially in its fewer nerves.
  18. Cryptocarya lucida Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1851) 335 ; --Kosterm., Bibl. 413 (1964) no. 168a; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 316; --Type from Borneo. --Cryptocarya ramosii Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 395; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202; --Type: BS 33071 (A, K, US), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Bangui to Claveria. Borneo and the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Bangui to Claveria; Mt Palimlim), Laguna (Mt Makiling), MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (Paluan).
  19. Cryptocarya mackinnoniana F.Muell., Fragm. 5 (1865) 169. Australia, Philippines. BASILAN: BS 16150 Reillo (GH).
  20. Cryptocarya mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2721; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202; --Kosterm., Bibl. 418 (1964) no. 195; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 318; --Type: Elmer 13269 (A, G, L, LE, MO, NY, U, US), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta. LUZON: Nueva Ecija (San Miguel de Mayumo), MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta), Surigao del Norte.
  21. Cryptocarya oblongata Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 129; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202; --Type: Merrill 1033 (leg. Garcia), Aurora: Baler, Aug-1902. LUZON: Aurora, Laguna. Lowland primary forests.
  22. Cryptocarya oligocarpa Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 257; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202; --Kosterm., Bibl. 425 (1964) no. 229; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 321; --Type: BS 34716 (A, US, iso), Mindanao: Surigao prov. LUZON: Bataan, Laguna (Mt Makiling), PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Surigao (type locality). Lowland forests.
  23. Cryptocarya palawanensis Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 256; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202; --Soejarto et al. (1995) Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan; --Type: FB 4141 Curran (iso in US). Palawan: near Iwahig Penal Settlement, lowland forest behind mangrove, Apr 1906. PALAWAN: Taytay; Mt Pulgar; Irawan River Valley. Lowland forests. Known from seven collections. 
  24. Cryptocarya parvifolia Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 271; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202; --Type: Wenzel 998 (A, NY, US, iso). Leyte: Leyte prov., Buenavista near Jaro, in forest, Jul 1914. LEYTE. Primary forest, c. 900m.
  25. Cryptocarya samarensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 130; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202; --Kosterm., Bibl. 433 (1964) no. 275; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 330; --Type: BS 17531 Ramos (K, US). Samar: Cauayan Valley, in forests along small streams, 27 Mar 1914. PANAY, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga (Mt Tubuan), Agusan del Norte (Tungao). Lowland primary forests.
  26. Cryptocarya subvelutina Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 707; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202; --Kosterm., Bibl. 435 (1964) no. 290; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 335; --Type: Elmer 11737 (iso in L, LE, MO, NY, 2 sheets, U, US). Mindanao: Mt Apo, Todaya. Cryptocarya oligophlebia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 128; EPFP 2 (1923) 202; --Kosterm., Bibl. 425 (1964) no. 230; --Type: BS Reillo 16155 (K). Basilan. Replicates of this number of the same locality and date in A and US represents C. ilocana Vidal (=C. triplinervis R. Br.) ?Cryptocarya pallida Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 256; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202; --Kosterm., Bibl. 426 (1964) no. 238a; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 335, under synonymy of C subvelutina Elmer; --Type: Ahern 594, ‘294’ in Merr. (1923), loc. cit., 566 (both numbers not seen by Kostermans). Mindanao: Zamboanga, Tetuan, Feb-Jun 1901. Sulawesi, Halmahera (Bacan), records based on sterile specimens, fide Kostermans (loc. cit.), and the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: ?Zamboanga (type locality of C. pallida Merr.), Zamboanga del Norte, Davao (Mt Apo), Surigao. Primary forests, from lowland to 1050m.
  27. Cryptocarya teysmanniana Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1860) 360; --Kosterm., Bibl. 436 (1964) no. 298; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 318; --Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 137; --Type from Sumatra (Palembang). --Cryptocarya everettii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 257; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 200; --Syntypes: FB 4236 Everett (MO, US) and FB 4311 Everett (US), Negros: Negros Occidental prov. --Cryptocarya everettii Merr. var. navesii Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 706; --Type: Elmer 12505 (PNH, holo, lost; L, MO, NY, iso). Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Kalimantan; Sarawak; Sabah), Philippines. POLILLO, SIBUYAN, PANAY, NEGROS: Negros Occidental, BUCAS GRANDE, MINDANAO: Surigao. Low and medium elevation primary forests. Conservation status: LC (De Kok 2016).
  28. Cryptocarya todayensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 709; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202. --Syntypes: Elmer 10713 (L, NY, US), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, May-1909; --Elmer 11919 (L, NY, US), Same locality, Oct-1909. MINDANAO: Davao. Primary forests, c. 1000m.
  29. Cryptocarya tomentosa Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1851) 335; --Kosterm., Bibl. 436 (1964) no. 301a; Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 338; --Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 137; --Type from Borneo. --Cryptocarya fuliginosa Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3807, not validly published (no Latin description); --Kosterm., Bibl. 402 (1964) no. 102; --Type: Elmer 8531 (L, LE, iso), Luzon: Baguio. Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Baguio), OLUTANGA. Lowland forests generally.
  30. Cryptocarya triplinervis R Br., Prodr. (1810) 402. Cryptocarya ilocana Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 223; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 201; --Type: Vidal 1684 (iso in AAU, L). Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov. --Cryptocarya oligophlebia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 128; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 202; --Type: BS 16155 Reillo (A, US, iso), Basilan. In forest, 20-200m, 19-Aug-1912. Australia, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Laguna, Sorsogon, NEGROS, BASILAN, MALAMAUI. Low elevation primary forests. Photos
  31. Cryptocarya vidalii (Elmer) Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 130; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 203; --Endiandra vidalii Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 711; --Type: Elmer 12131 (GH, L, MO, NY, 2 sheets, US, iso), Sibuyan: Magallanes (=Magdiwang), moist clay soil on a wooded Pauala river bank at 750ft, Mar-1910. SIBUYAN. Primary forests, c. 225m.
  32. Cryptocarya zamboangensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 130; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 203; --Type: FB 13395 Foxworthy, de Mesa & Villamil (not seen), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Siay River, 29-May-1912. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao. Lowland forests.

Additional ined. new species at PNH 

  1. Cryptocarya crebrinervia Merr. ex Kosterm., ined. Based on Merrill Philip. Pl. 1416 (NY, holo). Luzon: Laguna prov., Feb 1913.
  2. Cryptocarya hypsineura Merr. & Quisumb., ined. Based on PNH 6353 Sulit & Conese (PNH). Samar: Concord, Bagacay, Km 59.5, dipterocarp forest, 250m, 25 May 1948. SAMAR.

Dehaasia Blume

Photos
  1. Dehaasia cairocan (Vidal) CK Allen, J. Arn. Arb. 23 (1942) 445; --Beilschmiedia cairocan Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 223; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 198; --Type: Vidal 519 (L, iso). Luzon: Bataan prov. Beilschmiedia nigrifolia Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1797; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 198; --Type: Elmer 12834 (L, MO, NY, U, US, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, gravelly wooded river bank, 1000ft. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Cagayan, Isabela, Bataan, Rizal, Quezon, Camarines, MINDORO, PALAWAN, MASBATE, TICAO, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Zamboanga peninsula. Low and medium elevation primary forests. Photos
  2. Dehaasia incrassata (Jack) Kosterm., J. Sc. Res. Indonesia 1 (1952) 91; --Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 139. Dehaasia triandra Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 193; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 199. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, New Guinea. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, MINDORO, MASBATE, SIBUYAN, NEGROS, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation primary forests. Photos
  3. Dehaasia purpurea (Elmer) Kosterm., This name is not in IPNI. Beilschmiedia purpurea Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 703; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 199; --Type: Elmer 11288 (L, MO, NY, US). Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya. Wooded bench bordering open grassy glens, 2750ft, Aug-1909. MINDANAO: Davao. Ravines, forest edges, c. 800m.

Endiandra R.Br.

Photos
  1. Endiandra coriacea Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 14; EPFP 2 (1923) 203. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, La Union, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Bataan, Cavite, Quezon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Primary forests at low and medium elevation. Photos
  2. Endiandra laxiflora Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 182; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 204; --Type: FB 25416 Labitag (US, iso). Luzon: Quezon prov., Sampaloc, in semi-open forest, 300-400m, April 1916. LUZON: Apayao, Quezon, SAMAR (Catubig River), MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Low and medium elevation primary forests.

Eusideroxylon Teijsmann & Binnendijk

No Photos
  1. Eusideroxylon zwageri Teijsm. & Binnend., Nat. Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind. 25 (1863) 292, 2 plates; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 190. Sumatra, Banka, Billiton, Borneo. TAWI-TAWI. Lowland primary forests.

 Iteadaphne philippinensis Elmer =Alseodaphne philippinensis

Lindera Thunb.

Photos
  1. Lindera apoensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 714; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 204; --Kosterm., Bibl. Laur. (1964) 740; Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 83; --Type: Elmer 11640 (BO, L, LE, MO, NA, NY, U, US). Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya. Sulawesi and the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao, Davao (Mt Apo), Agusan. Lowland to medium elevation primary forests.

Possible ined.

  1. Lindera cymosa Elmer [name not in IPNI]; Soejarto et al. (1995) Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan. PALAWAN: Victoria Peaks (4 collections since 1950).

Litsea Lam.

Photos
  1. Litsea albayana Vidal, Rev. Fl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 227; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 192; --Type: LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Camarines, Albay, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 900m. Photos
  2. Litsea anomala Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 12; EPFP 2 (1923) 193; --Type: BS 23652 Ramos LUZON: Sorsogon. Primary forests at medium elevation.
  3. Litsea baruringensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 719; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 193; --Type: Elmer 11736. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Forested slopes, c. 1050m.
  4. Litsea catubigensis Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 500; --Type: BS 24555 Ramos (US, holo; iso L, NY). Samar: Catubig River, Feb-Mar 1916. SAMAR.
  5. Litsea collina S Moore, J. Bot. 61 (1923) Suppl. 43. --Soejarto et al. (1995) Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan. Extra-Philippine distribution? New Guinea PALAWAN, no exact locality, based on FB 27884 Cenabre.
  6. Litsea cordata (Jack) JD Hook., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1886) 177; --Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 154. Litsea mappacea (Blume) Boerl., Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 3 (1900) 143. Litsea perrottetii (Blume) Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 180; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 210; EPFP 2 (1923) 196; --Type: Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, and Moluccas. N LUZON Cagayan) to PALAWAN and MINDANAO, in most or all islands and provinces. Chiefly in secondary forests at low and medium elevation. Photos
  7. Litsea diospyrifolia Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 41; --Type: BS 76459 Edaño (A, iso). Luzon: Camarines Sur prov., Her-it River, c. 800m. LUZON: Camarines Sur (Her-it River; Mt Isarog). Forests, alt. 800-1300m.
  8. Litsea elliptica Blume, Bijdr. 11 (1826) 563; --Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 155. Litsea odorifera Valeton, Icon. Bogor. 3 (1909) t. 276; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 196. Peninsular Thailand and Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines, Java, Sulawesi, Moluccas, and New Guinea. PALAWAN, on forested ridges, 150m.
  9. Litsea firma (Blume) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1886) 162; --Kosterm., Bibl. Laur. (1964) 817; Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 99; --Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 156. --Syntypes from W Java, Sulawesi, Borneo etc. Litsea sibuyanensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 724; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 197; --Soejarto et al. (1995) Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan, as L. aff. sibuyanensis Elmer; --Type: Elmer 12536 (MO, NY, iso). Sibuyan: Magallanes (=Magdiwang), moist rocky densely wooded bank of the Sinuban creek, 750ft, May 1910. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. PALAWAN (Narra and Victoria Peaks), SIBUYAN (Magallanes, forests along stream, c. 225m).
  10. Litsea fulva (Blume) Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 181; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 193; --Tetranthera fulva Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1851) 377; --Type: Cuming 1620. Sumatra, Java and probably other parts of Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, Sorsogon, MINDORO, SIBUYAN, PALAWAN, NEGROS, LEYTE, MINDANAO. Primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 900m. Photos
  11. Litsea garciae Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 228; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 194; --Type: LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, MINDORO, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Davao, Agusan del Norte. Primary and secondary forests at low and medium elevation. Endemic to the Philippines, unless referable to the Malayan L. sebifera Blume. Photos
  12. Litsea globifera Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 504. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela (Palanan).
  13. Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C Robinson, PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 321; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 210; EPFP 2 (1923) 194; --Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 157; --Sebifera glutinosa Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 638. Litsea baracatanensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 720; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 193; --Type: Elmer 10993 India to S China through Malesia to tropical Australia. Throughout the Philippines, in secondary and primary forests at low and medium elevation. L. baracatanensis Elmer is possibly but a nearly glabrous form. Photos
  14. Litsea grandis (Wall. ex Nees) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1886) 162; --Kosterm., Bibl. Laur. (1964) 828; Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 100; --Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 158; --Type of basionym Tetranthera grandis from W Java. Litsea ampla Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 133; EPFP 2 (1923) 193; --Type: Merrill 1654 (iso in BO, GH, L, MO, US). Samar, Apr 1914. Myanmar, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo and the Philippines: LUZON: Isabela, Aurora, Quezon, Camarines, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Misamis, Lanao. Primary forest at low and medium elevation. Photos
  15. Litsea hutchinsonii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 259; EPFP 2 (1923) 195; --Type: FB 9148 Hutchinson LUZON: Bataan, MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon), PALAWAN, BALABAC, NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Katugasan), BASILAN, MINDANAO. Low elevation forests.
  16. Litsea ilocana Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 132; EPFP 2 (1923) 195; --Type: FB 25485 Paraiso. Luzon: Ilocos Sur prov., Talinaaden, on slopes, c. 450m. LUZON: Ilocos Sur. Forests, c. 450m.
  17. Litsea leytensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 272; EPFP 2 (1923) 195. LUZON: Bataan, Quezon, Sorsogon, NEGROS, LEYTE. Lowland forests.
  18. Litsea luzonica (Blume) Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 181; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 195; --Tetranthera luzonica Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1851) 377. N LUZON (Cagayan) to PALAWAN and MINDANAO, in most or all islands and provinces. “This interpretation is largely based on Cuming 1585 and 1486, referred here by Meisner. Blume’s actual type was a specimen collected by Perrottet; Foxworthy, who examined it, notes that Elmer 7699 and 9133 agree with it; they do not very closely match Cuming’s specimens, so that perhaps more than one species is represented”. –Merrill, 1923, loc. cit. Fernandez-Villar’s combination is antedated by Litsea luzonica Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 284 [=Symphorema luzonicum (Blanco) Fern.-Villar, Verbenaceae].
  19. Litsea macgregorii Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 136; EPFP 2 (1923) 195. BILIRAN. Primary forests, c. 200m.
  20. Litsea micrantha Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 136; EPFP 2 (1923) 195. SAMAR, MINDANAO: Misamis, Lanao, Davao Oriental (Mt Mayo). Forests at low and medium elevation.
  21. Litsea microphylla (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 196; --Actinodaphne microphylla Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 375. NEGROS. Exposed ridges, c. 1000m.
  22. Litsea oblongifolia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 137; EPFP 2 (1923) 196. LUZON: Cagayan. Forests at low elevation.
  23. Litsea perfulva Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 723; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 196. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Primary forests, c. 1100m.
  24. Litsea philippinensis Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 260; EPFP 2 (1923) 196. LUZON: Bataan (Lamao River), Rizal (Bosoboso), Quezon, MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Bongabong River), SIBUYAN, CATANDUANES, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR. Primary forests at low and medium elevation.
  25. Litsea plateaefolia Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 377; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 196. Litsea abraensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 132; EPFP 2 (1923) 192; --Type: BS 27048 Ramos. Luzon: Abra prov., Mt Posuey, on damp forested slope, 4 Feb 1917. LUZON: Abra, NEGROS. Medium elevation forested slopes and along streams, c. 750m in Negros.
  26. Litsea quadrangularis Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 507; Soejarto et al. (1995) Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan; --Type: BS 7877 Ramos (US, holo). LUZON: Cagayan (type locality), PALAWAN, no exact locality, FB 30182 Cenabre. Photos
  27. Litsea quercoides Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 378; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 197; --Type: Elmer 16329. Litsea euphlebia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 135; EPFP 2 (1923) 193; --Type: BS 13523 Ramos. LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, NEGROS, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao. Primary forests, low elevation to 1200m.
  28. Litsea rubicunda Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 351; --Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 164. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Pulau Tioman, Borneo and the Philippines (check where?)
  29. Litsea segregata Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 721; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 197. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Primary forests, c. 1000m.
  30. Litsea tomentosa Blume, Bijdr. 11 (1826) 566; --Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 165. Litsea membranacea Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 380; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 195. Myanmar(?), Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, New Guinea. LUZON: Benguet, Isabela, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao. Primary forests at low and medium elevation.
  31. Litsea urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2724; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 197; --Type: LUZON: Isabela, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta), Surigao. Photos
  32. Litsea vanoverberghii Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 139; EPFP 2 (1923) 197; --Type: LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province. Forests, up to 1700m.
  33. Litsea varians (Blume) Boerl., Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 3 (1900) 143. Litsea cinerea (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 193; --Actinodaphne cinerea Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1795; --Type: Elmer 12947 (iso in L, MO, NA, NY, U, US). Palawan Litsea wenzelii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 358; EPFP 2 (1923) 197; --Type: Wenzel 626 (iso in MO, US). Leyte: Sumatra, Philippines. PALAWAN, LEYTE. Forests, forested ridges, 500-600m. (habitat notes as in L. cinerea (Elmer) Merr., and L. wenzelii Merr., sec. Merr., 1923); L. wenzelii “…is perhaps too close to L. luzonica (Blume) Fern.-Villar”. Photos
  34. Litsea velutina Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2726; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 197; --Type: MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta), Forests, c. 1500m.
  35. Litsea whitfordii Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 197; --Type: MINDORO, LEYTE. Forests at low elevation.

Ined. Names

  1. Litsea sulitii Kosterm., ined. Based on PNH 6436 Sulit & Conese (L). Samar: Mt Kanrangan, vicinity of km post 67 near road, c. 200m, 20 May 1948. This name is not in IPNI

Machilus Nees = Persea

Neolitsea (Benth.) Merr.

Edited by Fabian Brambach & Pieter B. Pelser, 21 May 2015

Photos
  1. Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm., J. Sci. Res., Indonesia 1 (1952) 85; --Laurus cassia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 369. --Neolitsea zeylanica (Nees) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 57; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 192; --Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 169, Fig. 10; --Litsea zeylanica Nees, Amoen. Bot. Bonn. 1 (1823) 58, t. 5. India, S. China, SE Asia, Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Zambales, Batangas, LEYTE. Medium elevation forests. Photos
  2. Neolitsea incana Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1794; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 191; --Type: Elmer 13184 (BM, E, L, NY, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa (summit Mt. Pulgar), May-1911. PALAWAN (Mt Pulgar =Thumb Peak). Dense thicket at the summit, c.1300m.
  3. Neolitsea megacarpa Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 349; EPFP 2 (1923) 191; --Type: Curran, Merritt & Zschokke FB 18110 (K, US, isosyn), Curran, Merritt & Zschokke FB 18144 (isosyn). LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Mossy forests, 2200-2400m.
  4. Neolitsea microphylla Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 57; EPFP 2 (1923) 191; --Type: Elmer 6905 (E, K, NY, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Mt. Mariveles, Nov-1904. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Bataan, MINDORO. Mossy forests, 1200-2400m. Photos
  5. Neolitsea paucinervia Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 398; EPFP 2 (1923) 191; --Type: BS 23316 Ramos (A US), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Kililibong, mossy forest, 17-Aug-1915. LUZON: Camarines, Sorsogon. Mossy forests at or above 1000m.
  6. Neolitsea villosa (Blume) Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 261; EPFP 2 (1923) 192; --Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 168; --Litsea villosa Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1851) 349; --Type from Indonesia. --Neolitsea vulcanica Elmer, ined. Based on Elmer 15752. Peninsular Malaysia to the Moluccas. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Benguet, Zambales, Bataan, Pampanga, Laguna, Quezon, Batangas, MINDORO, LEYTE, MINDANAO. Mossy forests, 900-2000m. Photos

Nothaphoebe Blume

Photos
  1. Nothaphoebe leytensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 190; --Persea leytensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 383. --Nothaphoebe surigaoensis (Elmer) Kosterm., name not in IPNI, possibly ined. --Persea surigaoensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2728. PANAY, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Surigao, DINAGAT. Lowland forests.
  2. Nothaphoebe umbelliflora (Blume) Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1851) 328; --Kochummen, Tree Fl. Mal. 4 (1989) 172; --Soejarto et al. (1995) Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan. --Nothophoebe malabonga (Blanco) Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 358; EPFP 2 (1923) 189; --Alseodaphne malabonga (Blanco) Kosterm., J. Sc. Res., Indonesia 1 (1952) 125; --Ajovea malabonga Blanco. Fl. Filip. (1837) 233. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Banka, Java, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Cagayan, Isabela (Palanan), Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation forest. Photos

Persea Gaertner

Photos
  1. Persea americana Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8 (1768); --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 211; EPFP 2 (1923) 188. Native of tropical America. Widely cultivated for its edible fruits. Photos
  2. Persea curranii (Merr.) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 6 (1962) 191; --Machilus curranii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 349; EPFP 2 (1923) 189; --Type: FB 18080 Curran. LUZON: Benguet (Mt Pulag). High montane cloud forest, 2400-2700m.
  3. Persea philippinensis (Merr.) Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 384; --Machilus philippinensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) suppl. 56; EPFP 2 (1923) 189. LUZON: Mountain Province, Cagayan, Bataan, Laguna, Batangas, Quezon, MINDORO. Ridge forests, 800-2300m. Photos
  4. Persea thunbergii (Sieb. & Zucc.) Kosterm., Comm. For. Res. Inst. Bogor 57 (1957) 35; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 30. Japan, Taiwan, extreme N Philippines. BATAN: Mt Iraya. In thickets, 300m

Phoebe Nees

Photos
  1. Phoebe glabrifolia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 140; EPFP 2 (1923) 189; --Type: BS 17552 Ramos. SAMAR, BASILAN. Low and medium elevation primary forests. Photos
  2. Phoebe sterculioides (Elmer) Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 262; EPFP 2 (1923) 189; --Soejarto et al. (1995) Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan. LUZON: Isabela, Aurora, Quezon, Laguna, MINDORO, PALAWAN (Taytay), PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Photos

Literature  

De Kok, RPJ. 2016. A revision of Cryptocarya R. Br. (Lauraceae) of Peninsular Malaysia. Kew Bulletin 71: 7.

De Kok, RPJ. 2016. A revision of Beilschmiedia (Lauraceae) of Peninsular Malaysia. Blumea 61: 147-164

Kostermans, AJGH. 1957. Communications from the Forest Research Institute of Indonesia 57.

Kostermans, AJGH. 1962. The Asiatic species of Persea Mill. (Lauraceae). Reinwardtia 6: 189-194.

Kostermans, AJGH. 1973. A synopsis of the genus Alseodaphne Nees (Lauraceae). Candollea 28: 93-136.

Kostermans, AJGH. 1973. A synopsis of the genus Dehaasia Blume (Lauraceae). In Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher 93: 424-480.

Kostermans AJGH. 1986. A monograph of the genus Cinnamomum Schaeff. (Lauraceae) I. Gingkoana 6: 1-171

Kochummen, KM. 1989. Lauraceae. Tree Flora of Malaya 4: 98-178.

Nishida, S. 2008. Taxonomic revision of Beilschmiedia (Lauraceae) in Borneo. Blumea 53: 345-383

Werff, H. van der. 2001. An annotated key to the genera of Lauraceae in the flora Malesiana region. Blumea 46: 125-140

Wuu-Kuang, S. 2011. Taxonomic revision of Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) in Borneo. Blumea 56: 241-264

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Last updated 23 April 2017