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Malvaceae

Alternative classification: Malvaceae s.l. subfam. Malvoideae

Abelmoschus Medik.

Photos
  1. Abelmoschus crinitus Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 1 (1830) 39, t. 44; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 103, Fig. 3. India, Pakistan, Myanmar, Indochina, Hainan, S China and Malesia: E Java, Madura, and the Philippines. MINDORO.
  2. Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench., Meth. Pl. (1794) 617; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 321; EPFP 3 (1923) 40; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 100. Native of tropical Asia. Photos
  3. Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malv. (1787) 46. Tropical Asia.
  4. Abelmoschus moschatus Medic., Malv. (1787) 46; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 321; EPFP 3 (1923) 40; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 91. --Abelmoschus moschatus var. haenkeanus (C Presl) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 40. Tropical Asia. Photos

Abutilon Mill.

Photos
  1. Abutilon auritum (Wall.) Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 1 (1826) 53; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 32; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 164.
  2. Abutilon hirtum (Lam.) Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 1 (1826) 53; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 32; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 168.
  3. Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 1 (1826) 54; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 318; EPFP 3 (1923) 32; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 170, Fig. 19-d. Photos

Althaea L. [Not native, not naturalized]

Photos

  1. Althaea rosea Cav., Diss. 2 (1785) 91, t. 29, Fig. 3; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 44; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 151.

Azanza Alef.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 May 2016

Photos
  1. Azanza lampas (Cav.) Alef., Bot. Zeitung 19 (1861) 298; --Thespesia lampas (Cav.) Dalz. & Gibs., Bombay Fl. (1861) 19; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 324; EPFP 3 (1923) 41; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 116; --Hibiscus lampas Cav., Diss. 3 (1787) 154; --Type: Sonnerat s.n. (P-JU, holo; NY, holo fragment), 7-Mar-1786, Philippines. --Thespesia sublobata Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 382; --Type: Merrill Spec. Blanc. 561 (GH, neo; BO, K, L, MO, NY, P, US, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal Prov., Antipolo, 13-Oct-1913. India to S. China and Indochina, Indonesia, Philippines. Photos

Bombycidendron Zoll. = Hibiscus

Gossypium L.

Photos
  1. Gossypium arboreum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 693; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 43; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 121. Wild and cultivated forms in the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia.
  2. Gossypium barbadense L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 693; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 128. --Gossypium microcarpum Tod., Hort. Bot. Pan. 1 (1876) 63, t. 14; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 44 ‘macrocarpum’. South America, introduced to C America, Africa, India, Philippines. Photos
  3. Gossypium hirsutum L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 975; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 324; EPFP 3 (1923) 43; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 124. --Gossypium punctatum Schumach., Kongl. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. 4 (1829) 83; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 44. --Gossypium paniculatum Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 539; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 44. --Gossypium taitense Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 44, non Parl. (1866). Native of Central America and S North America, W Indies; cultivated in Philippines.

Hibiscus L.

Photos
  1. Hibiscus bicalyculatus Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1905) 39; EPFP 3 (1923) 37; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 69, Fig. 10; --Type: FB 2450 Ahern’s collector (BO, K, NY, P, SING, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., Montalban. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Benguet, Rizal. Low and medium altitudes, in forested ravines along streams. Liane!
  2. Hibiscus campylopsiphon Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. 31, 1 (1858) 193; --Borssum, Blumea   14 (1966) 55; --Bombycidendron campylosiphon (Turcz.) Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 110; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 42. Photos
  3. Hibiscus decaspermus Koord. & Valeton, Bijdr. Booms. Java 2 (1895) 115; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 51. Tenasserim, S Thailand, W Java, Sumbawa, Timor, Sulawesi and the Philippines. BABUYAN, MINDORO. Lowland secondary vegetation, along or near the coast.
  4. Hibiscus diversifolius Jacq., Coll. Bot. 2 (1789) 307; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 65. --Hibiscus paludosus Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 151; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 38; --Type: MS Clemens s.n. (BO, G, L, iso), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur prov., Lake Lanao. Old World tropics, including Pacific islands and Australia. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (Lanao Lake). Photos
  5. Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. [Hort. Beng. (1814) 51, nom. nud.] ex Hornem., Hort. Hafn. Suppl. (1819) 149; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 47. Peninsular India, Bangladesh, Assam, Thailand, Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia,  Java, SE Borneo. Introduced in Hawaii and the Philippines. Cultivated as an ornamental in PALAWAN.
  6. Hibiscus mutabilis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 694; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 322; EPFP 3 (1923) 38; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 66. Native of S China and Taiwan. Widely cultivated.  
  7. Hibiscus radiatus Cav., Diss. 3 (1787) 150, t. 54, Fig. 2; --Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 24; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 60. --Hibiscus cannabinus Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 244; EPFP 3 (1923) 37, non L. (1759).  S & SE Asia. Widely grown as a vegetable or medicinal in Malesia and escaping cultivation. LUZON: Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Manila.
  8. Hibiscus rosasinensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 694; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 323; EPFP 3 (1923) 38; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 72.
  9. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 695; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 322; EPFP 3 (1923) 38; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 64. Origin not known. Cultivated in all tropical regions, mostly as vegetable and for fiber.
  10. Hibiscus schizopetalus (Mast.) Hook.f. in Curtis, Bot. Mag. iii, 36 (1880) t. 6524; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 323; EPFP 3 (1923) 38; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 73. Native to E Africa (Tanzania and Kenya). Elsewhere cultivated as an ornamental or used for living fences.
  11. Hibiscus surattensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 696; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 38; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 57; --Type from India. Widespread in the Old World tropics. Common throughout Malesia except for New Guinea where the species has never been collected. Early secondary growths and waste places near human settlements in the lowlands. Photos
  12. Hibiscus syriacus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 695; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 39; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 75. China and Taiwan. Cultivated elsewhere in the temperate, subtropical, and rarely 
  13. Hibiscus tiliaceus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 694; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 323; EPFP 3 (1923) 39; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 29.
  14. Hibiscus vitifolius L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 696; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 39; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 79.

Doubtfully occurring in the Philippines

  1. Hibiscus panduriformis Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 151, t. 47, Fig. 2; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 82. Note by L.L.Co: Sole Philippine record is a Perrottet collection from ‘Manila’ (in L). Borssum doubts if this is correctly localized.

Kosteletzkya C.Presl

No Photos
  1. Kosteletzkya batacensis (Blanco) Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 24; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 320; EPFP 3 (1923) 41; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 87, Fig. 12; --Hibiscus batacensis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 544; ed. 2 (1845) 380; ed. 3, 2 (1879) 334; --Type: Not extant, neotype: BS 41647 Ramos (US; L, WU, isoneo), Luzon: Pampanga prov., Apalit, Jan-1923. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Rizal. Waste places in the lowland, under seasonal climatic conditions, apparently of local occurrence. Note by L.L.co: Unfortunately, the neotype designated by Borssum (Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 877, US) for Blanco’s basionym do not represent this taxon. It is Modiola caroliniana (L.) G Don.

Malachra L.

Photos
  1. Malachra capitata (L.) L., Syst. ed. 12 (1767) 458; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 319; EPFP 3 (1923) 36; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 146. Photos
  2. Malachra fasciata Jacq., Coll. 2 (1789) 552; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 319; EPFP 3 (1923) 36; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 147.

Malvastrum A.Gray

Photos
  1. Malvastrum americanum (L.) Torr., Rep. US Mex. Bound. Surv. 2 (1859) 38; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 154. --Malvastrum spicatum (L.) A Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. Sci. 2, 4 (Pl. Fendl.) (1849) 22; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923)   33.
  2. Malvastrum coromandelinum (L.) Garcke, Bonplandia 5 (1857) 297; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 316; EPFP 3 (1923) 33; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 152. Photos

Malvaviscus Cav.

Photos
  1. Malvaviscus arboreus Cav., Diss. 3 (1787) 131, t. 48, Fig. 1; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 132. --Malvaviscus pilosus (Sw.) DC, Prodr. 1 (1824) 445; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 320; EPFP 3 (1923) 37. Photos

Modiola Moench

Photos
  1. Modiola caroliniana (L.) G Don, Gen. Syst. 1 (1831) 465; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 148. Native of N America, elsewhere cultivated and occasionally running wild. In Malesia: E Java (Mt Tengger) and LUZON: Manila (Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 877, US). Note by L.L.co: According to Blouchard (in annot.) the US specimen was previously misidentified and unfortunately designated neotype of Hibiscus batacensis Blanco (=Kosteletzkya batacensis).  Photos

Sida L.

Photos
  1. Sida acuta Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 147; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 318; EPFP 3 (1923) 33; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 186. Photos
  2. Sida ciliaris L., Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 1145; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 179. --Sida longistipula Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 30; EPFP 3 (1923) 33.
  3. Sida cordata (Burm.f.) Borss., Blumea 14 (1966) 182. --Sida veronicifolia Lam., Encycl. 1 (1783) 5; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 36 ‘veronicaefolia’, excl. syn. S. supina L’Herit.
  4. Sida cordifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 684; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 317; EPFP 3 (1923) 33; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 199. Photos
  5. Sida insularis Hatusima, J. Jap. Bot. 35 (1960) 351, Fig. 1; Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 40. Ryukyus, Taiwan and the Philippines: BATAN. Wayside on littoral rocky cliff. Hatusima 28568, 28737 and 28853.
  6. Sida javensis Cav., Diss. 5 (1788) 10, t. 134, Fig. 2; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 317; EPFP 3 (1923) 34, ‘javanensis’, excl. syn. S. humilis Cav.; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 184.
  7. Sida mysorensis Wight & Arn., Prodr. (1834) 59; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 317; EPFP 3 (1923) 35; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 180.
  8. Sida rhombifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 684; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 318; EPFP 3 (1923) 35; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 195, Fig. 21a-d. Photos
  9. Sida spinosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 683; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 191.
  10. Sida subcordata Span., Linnaea 15 (1841) 172; Blumea 14 (1966) 201. --Sida puberula Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 90; EPFP 3 (1923) 35. --Sida corylifolia Wall., Cat. (1829) No. 1805, nom. nud.; --Mast. in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1874) 342; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 34. Photos

Talipariti Fryxell = Hibiscus

Thespesia Sol. ex Correa

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 May 2016

Photos
  1. Thespesia populnea (L.) Soland. ex Correa, Ann. Mus. Paris 9 (1807) 290, t. 8; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 324; EPFP 3 (1932) 42; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 106; --Fosb. & Sachet, Smithsonian Contr. Bot. No. 7 (1972) 8, Fig. 1, 2, 5. Pantropical. Widespread throughout the Philippines along seashores. Occasionally found a few km inland, whether intentionally planted or not. Photos
  2. Thespesia populneoides (Roxb.) Kostel., Allg. Med. Pharm. Fl. 5 (1836) 1861; --Fosb. & Sachet, Smithsonian Contr. Bot. No. 7 (1972) 10; --Aragones et al., Bot. ident. Handb. Philip. Mangrove Trees (1998) 57, Fig. 24. Indian Ocean coasts and islands, Indochina, Hainan, across Malesia to Australia. Cultivated in some parts of the neotropics.  LUZON: Bulacan, Bataan (Lamao River, Mt Mariveles), Manila, Cavite, APO IS (in Mindoro Straits), MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (vicinity of San Jose), PANAY: Iloilo.

Urena Dill. ex L.

Photos
  1. Urena lobata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 692; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 319; EPFP 3 (1932) 36; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 138. Photos

Acknowledgments

Matt Walters kindly provided some of the photos on this webpage.

Literature

Areces-Berazain, F & JD Ackerman. 2016. Phylogenetics, delimitation and historical biogeography of the pantropical tree genus Thespesia (Malvaceae, Gossypieae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 171-198.

Bates, DM. 1968. Notes on the Cultivated Malvaceae. 2. Abelmoschus. Baileya 16: 99-113; 3 fig.

Borssum Waalkes, J van. 1956. Notes on Malaysian Malvaceae I. Reinwardtia 4: 41-68, Fig. 1-13.

Borssum Waalkes, J. van. 1966. Malesian Malvaceae revised. Blumea 14: 1-213


Fryxell, PA. 2001. Talipariti (Malvaceae), a segregate from Hibiscus. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium 23: 225-270

Pfeil, BE & MD Crisp. 2005. What to do with Hibiscus? A proposed nomenclatural resolution for a large and well known genus of Malvaceae and comments on paraphyly. Australian Systematic Botany 18: 49-90.

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 14 May 2016