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Meliaceae

Aglaia Lour.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 July 2016

Photos
  1. Aglaia aherniana Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 32; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 371; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 291. --Aglaia myriantha Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 295, EPFP 2 (1923) 377. --Aglaia irosinensis Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 371, in obs. pro syn. LUZON: Aurora (Mt Dingalan), Quezon, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), POLILLO, SIBUYAN, DINAGAT. Primary forests at low and medium elevation.
  2. Aglaia angustifolia Miq., Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 55; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 309. --Aglaia stenophylla Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 185; EPFP 2 (1923) 379. N and C Sumatra, S Peninsular Malaysia, Anambas & Natuna Isls, S and W Borneo, Philippines. SAMAR (Catubig River), MINDANAO: Agusan. Lowland forests.
  3. Aglaia argentea Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 170; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 237. --Aglaia multifoliola Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 280; EPFP 2 (1923) 377. --Aglaia iloilo var. ampla Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 533; EPFP 2 (1923) 375. Nicobar Isls, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Isls, Australia (Cape York Peninsula). LUZON: Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDORO, LEYTE, PANAY, NEGROS, CEBU, BASILAN, MINDANAO: Cotabato. Found in primary, secondary, riverine forest, evergreen or semi-evergreen, on granite, basalt, sandstone, coral sand, clay or limestone; sea-level up to 1200m; scattered to locally rather common. Aril eaten by monkeys, hornbills. Photos 
  4. Aglaia beccarii C.DC., Bull. Herb. Boiss. 2 (1894) 579; --Mabb. & Pannell, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 6 (2007) 38; --Type from Sarawak. --Aglaia brachybotrys Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 274; EPFP 2 (1923) 372; --Type: FB 15497 Bernardo, Luzon: Cagayan prov., San Vicente, in dense forest, c. 15m, 15-Apr-1910. Borneo (Sarawak; Sabah), N Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan (San Vicente). Lowland forest. Note by L.L.Co: Definitely known only in the Philippines from the type collection of A. brachybotrys Merr.
  5. Aglaia costata Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 146; EPFP 2 (1923) 372; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 248; --Type: Clemens 568, Mindanao: Lanao (Camp Keithley). --Aglaia umbrina Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3317, not validly published, no Latin diagnosis; --Type: Elmer 13770 (NY, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta. LUZON: Camarines, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Lanao (Camp Keithley), Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Forests at low and medium elevation. 
  6. Aglaia crassinervia Kurz ex Hiern in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1875) 556; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 267. Nicobar Isls, Burma, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the Philippines. 
  7. Aglaia cucullata (Roxb.) Pellegr., Fl. Indo-Chine 1 (1911) 771; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 213. --Amoora aherniana Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 24; EPFP 2 (1923) 370. --Amoora conduplifolia Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3324, not validly published, no Latin diagnosis. Bangladesh, Thailand, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines, New Guinea. LUZON: Bataan (Mt Mariveles), Laguna, SIBUYAN, CEBU. 
  8. Aglaia cumingiana Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 31, 2 (1858) 409; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 372; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 293. --Aglaia tarangisi Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3314, not validly published, no Latin diagnosis. Borneo (Sarawak; Sabah) and the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela (Palanan), Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Rizal, BANCALAN, PANAY, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo, Todaya). In primary, secondary and gallery forests, along seashore, on sandy soil; sea level to 1330m. Photos 
  9. Aglaia edulis (Roxb.) Wall., Calc. Gard. Rep. (1840) 26; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 272. --Aglaia curranii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 276; EPFP 2 (1923) 373. --Aglaia diffusa Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 277; EPFP 2 (1923) 373. --Aglaia samarensis Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 378. India, Bhutan, Nicobar Isls, Burma, S China, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Sarawak; Sabah; Kalimantan), Java, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali; Lombok), Moluccas and the Philippines (widespread). LUZON: Cagayan to Sorsogon, MINDORO, MASBATE, BURIAS, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur (Mt Apo), BASILAN. Low and medium elevation forests. Photos 
  10. Aglaia elaeagnoidea (A.Juss.) Benth., Fl. Austral. 1 (1863) 383; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 373; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 243. --Aglaia pallens (Merr.) Merr., PJS 13 (1918) 297; --Aglaia elaeagnoidea var. pallens Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) 413. --Aglaia parvifolia Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 21; EPFP 2 (1923) 378. --Aglaia cupreolepidota Merr. (‘cupreo-lepidota’), PJS 20 (1922) 393; EPFP 2 (1923) 373. --Aglaia formosana Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formos. 3 (1913) 52; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 374. India, Sri Lanka, Taiwan (S tip), Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, Bali, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, Australia (W Australia, Queensland), Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Samoa. CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, PALAWAN, BANCALAN, BALABAC, MALAMAUI, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, BASILAN, JOLO. Photos
  11. Aglaia elliptica Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 171; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 288. --Aglaia davaoensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3289, not validly published, no Latin diagnosis. --Aglaia querciflorescens Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3303, not validly published, no Latin diagnosis. --Aglaia robinsonii Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 291; EPFP 2 (1923) 378. --Aglaia harmsiana Perkins, Notizbl. Kgl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 32 (1903) 78; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 374. --Aglaia pauciflora Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 31. --Aglaia longipetiolata Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3295, not validly published, no Latin diagnosis. --Aglaia trunciflora Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 303; EPFP 2 (1923) 379. --Aglaia langlassei C.DC.., Ann. Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 10 (1907) 151. --Aglaia tayabensis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 292. --Aglaia palawanensis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 235; EPFP 2 (1923) 377. --Aglaia urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3319, not validly published, no Latin diagnosis. --Aglaia negrosensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3306, not validly published, no Latin diagnosis. --Aglaia sorsogonensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3319, not validly published, no Latin diagnosis. --Aglaia micrantha Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 22; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 376. --Aglaia mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3306, not validly published, no Latin diagnosis. --Aglaia caulobotrys Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 156. --Aglaia antonii Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3278, not validly published, no Latin diagnosis. --Aglaia apoana Merr., Govt. Lab Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 30; EPFP 2 (1923) 371. --Aglaia banahanensis Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 373, pro syn.; Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3281, not validly published, no Latin diagnosis. Burma, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali, Flores), Philippines, Borneo, Sulawesi. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela (Palanan), Aurora (Mt Dingalan), Quezon (Mt Tulaog; Mt Binuang, Mt Banahaw), Bataan (Lamao), Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna (Mt Makiling), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), CATANDUANES, MINDORO, PALAWAN (Victoria Peak; Addison Peak), PANAY, GUIMARAS, NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), LEYTE (Dagami, Mt Ibuni), MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta), Davao del Sur (Mt Apo), BASILAN. In evergreen and semi-evergreen primary and secondary forests, not infrequently along rivers and streams, along trails, on various soils ranging from sandy, clay to waterlogged, on limestone and ultramafics, scattered to locally common, from sea-level to 1400 m. Photos 
  12. Aglaia eximia Miq., Fl. Ind. Suppl. 1 (1861) 197, 506; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 236. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas.
  13. Aglaia existipulata (Griff.) W Theob. Photos
  14. Aglaia grandis Korth. ex Miq., Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 56; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 232. --Aglaia bernardoi Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 302; EPFP 2 (1923) 372. --Aglaia stellatotomentosa Merr. (‘stellato-tomentosa’), PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 535; EPFP 2 (1923) 379. --Aglaia perfulva Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3302, not validly published, no Latin descr. Thailand, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Cagayan (Gattaran), Cavite, Rizal, LANGEN, PALAWAN (Roxas: Langugan Zigzag; Mt Beaufort; Irawan River Valley; Victoria Mtns; Quezon: Lipuun; Addison Peak), MINDANAO: Cotabato, BASILAN. Low to medium elevation primary forest, sometimes on ultrabasic rock and limestone.
  15. Aglaia foveolata Pannell, Taxon. Monog. Gen. Aglaia, Kew Bull. Addit. Ser., 16 (1992) 211. Photos
  16. Aglaia korthalsii Miq., Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 42; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 251. NE India (Assam), Bhutan, Nicobar Isls, Burma, Vietnam, S Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumbawa, Flores), Borneo (Sarawak; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines, Sulawesi. Photos
  17. Aglaia lancilimba Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 294; EPFP 2 (1923) 375; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 242; --Type: BS 26509 de Mesa & Magistrado (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto), Luzon: Camarines Norte prov., Paracale, on low hills, 20m. Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali, Sumbawa, Flores), Borneo (Bumbun Is off Sabah), Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Camarines Norte. Primary forests at low elevation.
  18. Aglaia lawii (Wight) Saldanha & Ramamoorthy in Saldanha & Nicolson, Fl. Hassan Distr. (1976) 392, pl. 76; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 228. --Aglaia alternifoliola Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 532; EPFP 2 (1923) 371. --Aglaia grandifoliola Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 293; EPFP 2 (1923) 374. --Aglaia cagayanensis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 275; EPFP 2 (1923) 372. --Aglaia sibuyanensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3308, not validly published, no Latin descr. India, Bhutan, Burma, Andaman Isls, Great Cocos Is, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Islands, Moluccas, New Guinea, New Britain, Solomon Islands. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Aurora, Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon, ALABAT, MINDORO, PALAWAN, ROMBLON, SIBUYAN, TICAO, PANAY, GUIMARAS, NEGROS, SIBUTU, BASILAN, MINDANAO: Davao, Agusan. Common in primary lowland and medium elevation forests, riverine forests as well as forests near the seashore in both everwet and seasonal regions, on a wide range of soil types including limestone. Photos 
  19. Aglaia leptantha Miq., Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 51; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 261. --Aglaia multiflora Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 73; EPFP 2 (1923) 377. --Aglaia laevigata Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 31; EPFP 2 (1923) 375. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Lesser Sunda Isls (Flores), Borneo (Sarawak; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Bataan (Lamao), Bulacan, Rizal (Bosoboso), Laguna, MINDORO, NEGROS. Primary forests at low and medium elevation.
  20. Aglaia leucophylla King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 64, 2 (1895) 66; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 271. --?Aglaia pallida Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 147; EPFP 2 (1923) 377. --Aglaia mirandae Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 295; EPFP 2 (1923) 376. --Aglaia agusanensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3275, not validly published, no Latin diagnosis. S Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines, Sulawesi. BASILAN, MALAMAUI, MINDANAO: Lanao, Davao, Agusan del Norte. Primary riverine and mossy forests but usually in secondary forests from sea-level to 1300m. 
  21. Aglaia luzoniensis (Vidal) Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 105; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 376; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 277. --Aglaia brevipetiolata Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 14; EPFP 2 (1923) 372. --Aglaia rizalensis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 289. Borneo (Sarawak; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines and Sulawesi. LUZON (Cagayan to Sorsogon), southward to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. Common in primary forests from near sea-level to 800m, on various soil types including limestone. Photos 
  22. Aglaia macrocarpa (Miq.) Pannell, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 16 (1992) 65, f. 6; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 215. Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; Kalimantan), SW Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Halmahera; Seram). PALAWAN. Photos
  23. Aglaia malaccensis (Ridl.) Pannell, Mal. For. 45 (1982) 455; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 216. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Sarawak; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines. LUZON: Bataan. Low to medium elevation primary and secondary forests.
  24. Aglaia odoratissima Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 171; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 276. --Aglaia affinis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 235; EPFP 2 (1923) 371. --Aglaia luzoniensis (Vidal) Merr. & Rolfe var. trifoliata Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 105; EPFP 2 (1923) 376; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 385. Nicobar Isls, Burma, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines, Sulawesi. Photos 
  25. Aglaia oligophylla Miq., Fl. Ind. Suppl. 1 (1861) 507; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 297. --Aglaia oligantha C.DC., Monog. Phan. 1 (1878) 603; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 377. Andaman Isls, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines. LUZON (widespread), ALABAT, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao, Cotabato, Agusan. Primary forests on various soil types including limestone-derived, 0-850m. Photos
  26. Aglaia pachyphylla Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 57; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 234. --?Aglaia clarkii Merr., Govt Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 21; EPFP 2 (1923) 372. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo (Sarawak; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Zambales, Quezon, CEBU. Primary and secondary forests on clay, sandstone, limestone at low to medium elevation.
  27. Aglaia palembanica Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 1 (1861) 197, 507; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 304. S Sumatra, S Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines. PALAWAN (Taytay; Irawan River Valley), LANGEN. Lowland primary and secondary forests, on flood plains, clay, limestone, etc., 0-450m. Photos
  28. Aglaia pyriformis Merr., PJS 13 (1918) 290; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 294; --Type: BS 26604 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; A, lecto; NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Aurora prov., Mt Dingalan, in forest, c. 300m, 9-Sep-1916. --Aglaia puncticulata Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 290; --Type: BS 26306 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto). LUZON: Aurora (Mt Dingalan), Nueva Ecija (Mt Umingan =Mingan). Primary forests, 300-400m. Photos 
  29. Aglaia rimosa (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 212; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 246. --Aglaia denticulata Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 31, 1 (1858) 410; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 373. --Aglaia reticulata Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3306, not validly published, no Latin diagnosis. --Aglaia macrobotrys Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 31, 1 (1858) 409; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 376. --Aglaia elliptifolia Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 413; EPFP 2 (1923) 374. --Aglaia subviridis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3312, not validly published, no Latin diagnosis. --Aglaia diffusiflora Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 410; EPFP 2 (1923) 373. --Aglaia lanceolata Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 184; EPFP 2 (1923) 375. --Aglaia loheri Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 533; EPFP 2 (1923) 376. --Aglaia llanosiana C.DC., Monog. Phan. 1 (1878) 623; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 375. --Aglaia bulusanensis Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 373, pro syn. --Aglaia subviridis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3312, not validly published, no Latin diagnosis. --Aglaia reticulata Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3312, not validly published, no Latin diagnosis. Taiwan, the Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, New Britain, New Ireland. Y’AMI, BATAN, BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Benguet, Pangasinan, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Aurora, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Cavite, Batangas, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, ALABAT, MINDORO, PALAWAN, ROMBLON, SIBUYAN, TICAO, PANAY, GUIMARAS, NEGROS, SIBUTU, MINDANAO (Davao, Agusan). Common in primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1350m. Also in thickets and secondary forests along rivers, sometimes along the seashore on limestone. Photos
  30. Aglaia rugulosa Pannell, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 16 (1992) 73; --Mabb. & Pannell, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 6 (2007) 88; --Type from Peninsular Malaysia (Pahang). Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Sarawak; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines.
  31. Aglaia sexipetala Griff., Notul. 4 (1854) 505; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 268. --Aglaia aspera Teijsm. & Binn., Natuurk. Tijdschr. Ned. Ind. 27 (1864) 42. --Aglaia calelanensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3283, not validly published, no Latin descr.; --Type: Elmer 11804 (PNH, holo, lost; L, MO, SING, U, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Calelan, Jul-1909. Peninsular Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines, New Guinea. MINDANAO: Davao (Apo Range: Mt Calelan). Forested ridge, c. 914m. Note by L.L.Co: Only known in the Philippines from the type collection of A. calelanensis Elmer. 
  32. Aglaia silvestris (M. Roem.) Merr., Interp. Rumph. Amb. (1917) 210; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 259. --Aglaia acuminata Merr., PJS 9 c (1915) 531; EPFP 2 (1923) 371; --Type: Merrill 9306 (F, GH, US, iso), Palawan: Taytay, 31-May-1913. --Aglaia copelandii Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3286, not validly published, no Latin descr.; --Type: Elmer 14070 (L, MO, NY, U, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, humid forested slopes, c. 4750ft. Andaman Isls, Nicobar Isls, S Vietnam, Cambodia, Peninsular Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, New Britain, Solomon Isls. throughout Malesia except Lesser Sunda Isls towards the Solomons. LANGEN, PALAWAN (Taytay; Irawan; Mt Mantalingahan), PANAY, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Primary forests, low elevation to 1450m. Photos
  33. Aglaia smithii Koord., Minah. (1898) 383, 635; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 245. --Aglaia ramosii Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 326, t. 6; --Type: Clemens 7406a (UC). --Aglaia bicolor Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 270; EPFP 2 (1923) 372. --Aglaia badia Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 270; EPFP 2 (1923) 372. Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas (Tanimbar Is), and New Guinea (Adi Is). LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan, Cagayan, Pampanga, Aurora, Rizal, PALAWAN, NEGROS, LEYTE, BASILAN, MINDANAO. In primary and coastal forests on clay, from sea level to low and medium elevation. 
  34. Aglaia spectabilis (Miq.) Jain & Bennet, Ind. J. For. 9 (1987) 271; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 221. India (Sikkim), Burma, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, China, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumba), Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, New Guinea, New Britain, Solomon Isls, Sta Cruz Isls, NE Australia (Cape York Peninsula). 
  35. Aglaia squamulosa King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 64, 2 (1895) 68; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 239. --Aglaia cuprea Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3287, not validly published, no Latin descr.; --Type: Elmer 16058 (PNH, holo, lost; NA, NY, U, US, isolecto), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan, 2000ft., May-1916. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumbawa), Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah), Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan). Forest, 600m.
  36. Aglaia tenuicaulis Hiern in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1875) 556; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 301.
  37. Aglaia teysmanniana (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 48; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 231. China, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi. In Malesia recorded to occur in primary and secondary forests, 0-1670m. Photos
  38. Aglaia tomentosa Teijsm. & Binn., Nat. Tijdr. Ned.-Indië 27 (1864) 43; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 57; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 306. --Aglaia glomerata Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 30; EPFP 2 (1923) 374. S India, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Lesser Sunda Isls (Flores), Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, New Guinea, Australia (Cape York Peninsula). LUZON: Isabela to Albay, ALABAT, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, BASILAN, MINDANAO. Common in primary forests at low and medium elevation. Photos 

 Uncertain identity

  1. Aglaia everettii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 271; EPFP 2 (1923) 374; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 384; --Type: FB 7319 Everett (PNH, holo, lost; apparently no extant iso), Negros: Negros Occidental prov., Painguion River. NEGROS: Negros Occidental, CEBU, LEYTE, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Davao, Agusan, Surigao. Primary forests at low and medium elevation. 
  2. Aglaia villamilii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 536; EPFP 2 (1923) 379; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 385; --Type: FB 21866 Villamil (PNH, holo, lost; apparently no extant iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur prov., Margosatubig. Slopes in forest, alt. 60m. LUZON: Laguna, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Sur (Margosatubig). Forests at low elevation. Note by L.L.Co: A post-war material, PNH 6527 Castro from POLILLO was determined to this species by Merrill.

Excluded species

  1. Aglaia iloilo (Blanco) Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 533; EPFP 2 (1923) 375, excluding all specimens cited which are =A. argentea Blume; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 388; --Melia iloilo Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 241. Note by L.L.Co: Merrill’s referral of Blanco’s binomial to Aglaia is untenable because the plant being described by Blanco has opposite winged leaves, a character alien to the genus. Pannell suggests that this is possibly a member of Rutaceae.

Non-naturalized

  1. Aglaia odorata Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 173; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 275; EPFP 2 (1923) 377; --Pannell in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 383. Native of continental SE Asia. Commonly cultivated as an ornamental plant, male trees more often than females. Strongly perfumed flowers used for scenting tea or clothes. Photos 

Anthocarapa Pierre

No Photos
  1. Anthocarapa nitidula (Benth.) TD Penn. ex Mabb. Note by L.L.Co: The Philippine record, based on Loher 255 (K, LE, M, P, US) from LUZON (Mt Arayat), was tentatively assigned by Mabberley [Fl. Males. ser. 1 12 (1995) 135-136] to this species. The vegetative parts and overall floral morphology including pollen features fit Anthocarapa, though the (male) flowers are 4-petalled. It may well represent a second species, resembling certain species of Dysoxylum. 

Aphanamixis Blume

Photos
  1. Aphanamixis borneensis (Miq.) Harms in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, 4 (1896) 296; --Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 138. --Aphanamixis pulgarensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3336, not validly published, no Latin descr.; --Type: Elmer 13104a (MO, NY, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (=Thumb Peak), wooded flats, 250ft, Apr-1911. Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; Kalimantan), SW Philippines, Moluccas (Halmahera). PALAWAN.
  2. Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) RN Parker, Ind. For. 57 (1931) 486; --Aphanamixis davaoensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3331, not validly published, no Latin descr.; --Type: Elmer 11087 (MO, NY, iso), Mindanao: Mt Apo (Todaya). Forest, 1500ft, Jul-1909.  --Aphanamixis velutina Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3338, not validly published, no Latin descr.; --Type: Elmer 13379 (MO, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, dense woods along Catangan Creek, 1000ft, Aug-1912. --Aphanamixis polillensis (C.B.Rob.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 370; --Amoora polillensis C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 206; --Type: BS 3639 Robinson. --Aphanamixis cumingiana (C.DC.) Harms in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 34 (1896) 296; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 369; --Amoora cumingiana C.DC., Monog. Phan. 1 (1878) 580. --Aphanamixis coriacea Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 14; EPFP 2 (1923) 369; --Type: BS 23576 Ramos, Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Pocdal, damp forest, 10-Sep-1915. --Aphanamixis perrottetiana A.Juss., Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 19 (1830) 244, 260, t. 14, Fig.. 9a; --Merr., EPFP 2 1923) 369. --Aphanamixis pinatubensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3328, not validly published, no Latin descr.; --Type: Elmer 22179 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Pampanga prov., Mt Pinatubo, very damp woods among other shrubs and low trees, c. 4000ft, May-1927. --Aphanamixis tripetala (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 211; EPFP 2 (1923) 370; --Trichilia tripetala Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 354. --Aphanamixis agusanensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3328, not validly published, no Latin descr.; --Type: Elmer 13447, Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, wooded banks of Catangan stream, 750ft, Aug-1912. --Aphanamixis apoensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3326, not validly published, no Latin descr.; --Type: Elmer 11732, Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, humid forest S of the Baruring River, 3500ft., Jul-1909. --Aphanamixis obliquifolia Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3333, not validly published, no Latin descr.; --Type: Elmer 8924, Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, wooded ravines W of the Sablan falls, Mar-1907. Sri Lanka and India to Bhutan, S China and Indochina, throughout Malesia to the Solomon Islands. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Benguet (Sablan), Cagayan, Isabela, Pampanga (Mt Pinatubo), Bataan (Lamao), Laguna (Mt Makiling), Sorsogon (Mt Pocdal), POLILLO, MINDORO, PALAWAN (Irawan), LEYTE, SAMAR, BASILAN, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur (Mt Apo, Todaya), Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta), Surigao. In primary forests, usually at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1220m. Photos

Azadirachta A.Juss.

Photos
  1. Azadirachta excelsa (Jack) Jacobs, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1961) 75; --Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 233. --Azadirachta integrifoliola Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 272; EPFP 2 (1923) 361. Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (where also a village tree), Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Aru), W New Guinea. PALAWAN, MASBATE, BASILAN. Lowland forests. Photos 
  2. Azadirachta indica A.Juss., Mém. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris 19 (1832) 221; --Mabb., et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 341; --Melia indica (A.Juss.) Brandis, For. Fl. NW & C India (1874) 67, nom. illeg. --Melia azadirachta L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 385. Possibly native in Myanmar. Widely cultivated in warm countries throughout the world and naturalized in some of them. Photos

Cedrela P.Browne [Not native, not naturalized]

Photos
  1. Cedrela odorata L. From tropical America. Source of valuable timber, wood fragrant (cedar); source of antimalarial gedunin; planted throughout the tropics. Invasive in tropical Africa and Galapagos. Non-naturalized. Photos

Chisocheton Blume

Photos
  1. Chisocheton cauliflorus Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 188; EPFP 2 (1923) 366. SAMAR, MINDANAO. Lowland primary forests.
  2. Chisocheton ceramicus (Miq.) C.DC. --Amoora mindorensis Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 459; EPFP 4 (1925) 248. --Amoora caesifolia Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3321, not validly published, no Latin descr.; --Type: Elmer 13487, Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, densely wooded ravine near a stream, alt. 750 ft., Aug-1912. --Amoora cupulifera Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 145; EPFP 2 (1923) 367. --Amoora conduplifolia Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3324, not validly published, no Latin descr.; --Type: Elmer 12195, Sibuyan: Magallanes (=Magdiwang, N slopes of Mt Giting-giting), along Sinubang creek, alt. 750 ft, Apr-1910. --Chisocheton clementis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 145; EPFP 2 (1923) 367. --Dysoxylum grandifolium Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3368, non Merr. Thailand, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines, Moluccas (Morotai; Buru; Seram), New Guinea, and New Britain. LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, Isabela, Sorsogon, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Primary and secondary forests, usually from 0-700m. Photos 
  3. Chisocheton cumingianus (C.DC.) Harms in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, 4 (1896) 296; --Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 164.
  4. Chisocheton curranii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 234; EPFP 2 (1923) 367; --Type: FB 4865 Curran. LUZON: Benguet. Thickets in limestone region, c. 1500m.
  5. Chisocheton erythrocarpus Hiern in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1875) 550; --Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 183. Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah, Kalimantan), Philippines. 
  6. Chisocheton macranthus (Merr.) Airy Shaw in Hook. Icon. Pl. 34 (1937) t. 3333; --Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 141. --Clemensia macrantha Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 144. Borneo (Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah, Kalimantan), Philippines. 
  7. Chisocheton maxilla-pisticis Mabb., Gard. Bull. Sing. 55 (2003) 189; --Mabb. & Pannell, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 6 (2007) 128, Fig. 14; --Type from Sabah. Borneo (Sabah, Kalimantan), SW Philippines. PALAWAN. 
  8. Chisocheton mendozae Hildebr. ex Steen., PJS 91 (1963) 509, as ‘mendozai’. --Amoora fulva Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 187; --Type: BS 24497 Ramos. SAMAR
  9. Chisocheton patens Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 169; --Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 167. --Chisocheton fulvus Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 146; EPFP 2 (1923) 367. --Chisocheton tetrapetalus (Turcz.) C.DC., Monog. Phan. 1 (1878) 530; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 368. --Chisocheton apoensis Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 368, nom. in syn. --Chisocheton urdanetensis Elmer ex Merr., ibid., nom. in syn.; Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3341, not validly published, no Latin descr. Peninsular Thailand; Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Banka, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Cagayan to Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, MASBATE, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Common in lowland primary rainforest to 500m. Photos
  10. Chisocheton pentandrus (Blanco) Merr., Bur. Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 210; --Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 180. --Chisocheton parvifoliolus Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 297; EPFP 2 (1923) 367; --Type: FB 25467 Paraiso. --Chisocheton sorsogonensis Elmer ex Merr., PJS 13 (1918) 297, nom. in syn. --Chisocheton curranii Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3346, non Merr. Photos   

Cipadessa Blume

Photos
  1. Cipadessa baccifera (Roth) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 6; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 358. --Cipadessa warburgii Perkins, Notibl. Kgl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 3 (1903) 79; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 359. Tropical and subtropical Asia from Nepal, India and Sri Lanka to S China, Indochina, Thailand and Malesia: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (Kedah), Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumbawa, Timor). LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, PANAY, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao. In forest edges and thickets at low and medium elevation, ascending to 2200 m. A common treelet with apparently continuous flowering and fruiting typical of early successional forest-edge plants. Photos

Clemensia Merr. = Chisocheton

Dysoxylum Blume

Photos
  1. Dysoxylum acutangulum Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat., Suppl. (1861) 196, 503; --Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 129.
  2. Dysoxylum alliaceum (Blume) Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 172; --Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 106. --Dysoxylum klemmei Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 273; EPFP 2 (1923) 364. --Dysoxylum platyphyllum Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 375; EPFP 2 (1923) 365. --Dysoxylum apoense Elmer. --Dysoxylum rostratum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 304; EPFP 2 (1923) 365. --Dysoxylum lanceolatum Elmer. --Dysoxylum euphlebium Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 305; EPFP 2 (1923) 363. Andaman Isls and Peninsular Thailand, throughout Malesia to the Solomon Isls and Australia (Queensland). LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Lanao, Davao, Surigao. Low and medium elevation primary rainforests, up to 1800m.
  3. Dysoxylum arborescens (Blume) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 24; --Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 103. --Dysoxylum sibuyanense Elmer. Nicobar Isls, Andaman Isls, Taiwan (Lanyu), throughout Malesia to Solomon Isls, Vanuatu, Australia (Queensland). N LUZON to PALAWAN, MINDANAO and SULU ARCHIPELAGO. A very common tree of primary and secondary forest including that on limestone, to 1500m. Photos
  4. Dysoxylum brachybotrys Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 461; EPFP 4 (1925) 248; --Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 128; --Type: BS 37012 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; A, K, L, P, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur prov., Malangas. Borneo (Sarawak, Brunei), SW Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Sur.
  5. Dysoxylum cauliflorum Hiern in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 1 (1875) 549; --Mabb., Fl Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 86. --Dysoxylum angustifoliolum Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 460; EPFP 4 (1925) 248; --Type: FB 28910 Cenabre, Baldemor, Aduviso, Palawan. Forests, apparently at low elevation. --Dysoxylum foxworthyi Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3363, not valdly published, no Latin descr.; --Type: Elmer 12823 (PNH, holo, possibly lost; F, NA, NY, U, US, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar [=Thumb Peak], forested ridge on dry, well-drained soil, alt. 1000 ft. ?Burma, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Banka, Borneo, SW Philippines. PALAWAN: Mt Beaufort; Pulgar; Irawan River Valley; Victoria Mtns (Trident Mines area). Forests, near sea-level to c. 300m.
  6. Dysoxylum cumingianum C.DC., Monog. Phan. 1 (1878) 498; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 362. --Epicharis pyriformis (Merr.) Harms. --Dysoxylum pyriforme Merr., PJS 3 c (1909) Bot. 149; EPFP 2 (1923) 365. --Epicharis cumingiana (C.DC.) Harms. --Epicharis siargaoensis (Merr.) Harms. --Dysoxylum siargaoense Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 269; EPFP 2 (1923) 365. --Dysoxylum testaceum Elmer. --Dysoxylum sulphureum Elmer. --Dysoxylum agusanense Elmer. --Epicharis triangularis (Merr.) Harms in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Aufl. 2, 19b. 1 (1940) 168, 177; --Dysoxylum triangulare Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 148; --Type: Clemens 981, Mindanao: Lanao del Sur prov., Camp Keithley. Taiwan (Lanyu), Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali), Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Bacan, Halmahera). LUZON: Cagayan to Camarines provinces, POLILLO, MINDORO, TABLAS, PANAY, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Lanao, Cotabato, SIARGAO. Lowland to medium elevation forests to c. 800m. Rather common. Photos
  7. Dysoxylum cyrtobotryum Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat., Suppl. 1 (1861) 196, 504; --Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 123. --Amoora macrocarpa Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 24; EPFP 2 (1923) 370. --Dysoxylum grandifolium Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 24; EPFP 2 (1923) 363. --Dysoxylum hexandrum Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 297; EPFP 2 (1923) 363. --Dysoxylum panayense Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 299; EPFP 2 (1923) 364. --Dysoxylum oblongifolium Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 157. --Dysoxylum bakeri Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3358, invalid name, English descr. only. --Dysoxylum aurantiacum Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3357, invalid name, English descr. only. --Dysoxylum benguetense Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3360, invalid name, English descr. only. --Dysoxylum irigense Merr., ined.; voucher: BS 42138 Ramos (A), Luzon: Rizal prov., Mt Irig [=Mt Irid], Apr-1923. SE Asia to Malesia: Nicobars, Andamans, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali; Flores), Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Isabela, Bataan (Mt Mariveles), Rizal, Quezon, Sorsogon, CATANDUANES, PANAY: Capiz, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur (Mt Apo). Primary and secondary forest, including that on limestone, usually at low elevation to 900m. Common to very common. Photos
  8. Dysoxylum excelsum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 176. --Dysoxylum pallidum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 366; EPFP 2 (1923) 364. --Dysoxylum altissimum Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 25; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 362. Sri Lanka (Sinharaja Forest), Nepal and NE India, S China and Indochina, throughout Malesia to Solomon Isls. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, Quezon, Bataan, Laguna, Camarines, POLILLO, PALAWAN, PANAY, LEYTE, SAMAR. In primary and secondary forests, including swamps and limestone forests, to 1000m. Photos
  9. Dysoxylum gaudichaudianum (A.Juss.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1865) 15. --Dysoxylum decandrum (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 30; Fl. Manila (1912) 276; EPFP 2 (1923) 363. Samoa, Australia (Queensland), New Hebrides, Solomon Isls, Bismarck Arch., New Guinea, Moluccas (Seram, Tanimbar, Aru Isls), Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumbawa, Flores, Timor), Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Christmas Is. LUZON: Cagayan to Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, MASBATE, NEGROS, CEBU, LEYTE, BASILAN, MINDANAO. Primary and secondary lowland forests, thickets. A common tree, the seeds taken by pigeons. Photos
  10. Dysoxylum macrocarpum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 175; --Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 116. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo (Sarawak; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines, Sulawesi. 
  11. Dysoxylum mollissimum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 175; --Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 90.
  12. Dysoxylum oppositifolium F Muell., Fragm. 5 (1866) 177; --Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 122. --Dysoxylum palawanense Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 538; EPFP 2 (1923) 364. --?Dysoxylum ramosii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 539; EPFP 2 (1923) 365. --Dysoxylum ilocanum Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 298; EPFP 2 (1923) 363; --Type: FB 25091 Paraiso. --Dysoxylum capizense Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 268; EPFP 2 (1923) 362. --Dysoxylum wenzelii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 367; EPFP 2 (1923) 366; --Type: Wenzel 642 (A, L, US, iso), Leyte. --Dysoxylum turczaninowii C.DC., Monog. Phan. 1 (1878) 501; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 365. --?Dysoxylum venosum Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 185; EPFP 2 (1923) 366. Borneo (Sabah), Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls (?), New Guinea, NE Australia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Zambales, Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, POLILLO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, MINDANAO. Lowland forests, to 650m. Photos
  13. Dysoxylum parasiticum (Osbeck) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1966) 247, in obs.. --Dysoxylum fragrans Elmer. --Epicharis longiflora (Merr.) Harms; --Dysoxylum longiflorum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 538; EPFP 2 (1923) 364. --Epicharis leytensis (Merr.) Harms; --Dysoxylum leytense Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 376; EPFP 2 (1923) 364. --Epicharis loheri (Merr.) Harms; --Dysoxylum loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 30; EPFP 4 (1925) 252; --Type: Loher 14181, Luzon: Rizal prov., Angilo, Mar 1914. --Epicharis robinsonii (Merr.) Harms; --Dysoxylum robinsonii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 540; EPFP 2 (1923) 365. Lanyu, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Lombok, Sumba, Sumbawa, Flores, Tanimbar, Timor), E Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Ambon, Bacan, Buru, Seram, Halmahera, Kai and Sulu Islands), New Guinea, Bismarck Arch., Solomon Isls. LUZON: Apayao, Sierra Madre Range from Cagayan to Quezon, Laguna, Sorsogon, PALAWAN, LEYTE, SAMAR, SIARGAO, MINDANAO: Davao, Agusan, Surigao. Usually in lowland primary forests, ascending to 1000m. Pollinated by butterflies. Photos
  14. Dysoxylum pauciflorum Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 32; EPFP 2 (1923) 365. --Dysoxylum biflorum Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 185; EPFP 2 (1923) 362. --Dysoxylum laxum Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 279; EPFP 2 (1923) 364. LUZON: Isabela, Rizal, Quezon, BOHOL, MINDANAO. Lowland primary forests, usually on ridges and riverbanks, 30-1000m. Photos

Insufficiently known

  1. Dysoxylum verruculosum Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) 377; EPFP 2 (1923) 366 LEYTE, Wenzel 28. Note by L.L.Co: Possibly conspecific with Dysoxylum grande Hiern. which is so far not known to occur in the Philippines.
  2. Dysoxylum sp. 1 (sect.?), Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 131. --Dysoxylum revolutum Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3373, not validly published, no Latin descr. --Dysoxylum alternifolium Elmer, op. cit., 3352, not validly published, no Latin descr. LEYTE; PALAWAN; possibly MINDANAO.
  3. Dysoxylum sp. 2 (sect. Cyrtochiton). --?Dysoxylum ramosii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 539; EPFP 2 (1923) 365. LUZON: Sierra Madre Mtns, PNH 78064 (L), PNH 78289 (L)
  4. Dysoxylum sp. 3 (sect. Cyrtochiton). Sabah. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, BS 37095 (L). 

Notes by L.L.Co:

  1. Dysoxylum angustifolia (Merr.) Harms; --Epicharis angustifolia (Merr.) Harms. This name is unaccounted for in the FM revision; is probably = D. angustifoliolum Merr. which is a synonym of D. cauliflorum 
  2. Dysoxylum rizalense Merr. Souce of name uncertain. 

Epicharis Blume = Dysoxylum

Heynea Roxb.

No Photos
  1. Heynea trijuga Roxb., Bot. Mag. 41 (1815) t. 1738; --Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 41. --Heynea sumatrana Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1861) 197, 505; --Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 273; EPFP 2 (1923) 380. --Trichilia connaroides (Wight & Arn.) Bentv. forma glabra Bentv., Act. Bot. Néerl. 11 (1962) 17. S India to S China, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Camarines, BAGUAN (in the Turtle Islands); BASILAN, MINDANAO: Agusan. Lowland and mid-elevation forests

Lansium Correa

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 November 2014

Photos
  1. Lansium parasiticum (Osbeck) Sahni & Bennet, Indian Forester 100 (1974) 202; --Melia parasitica Osbeck, Dagb. Ostind. Resa (1757) 278. --Lansium domesticum Correa, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10 (1807) 157; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 275; EPFP 2 (1923) 368. Peninsular Thailand; ‘wild’, cultivated and naturalized in Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, W New Guinea. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, etc., planted, CAMIGUIN, BASILAN, MINDANAO. Photos

Melia L.

Photos
  1. Melia azedarach L. --Melia dubia Cav. Note by L.L.Co: The species is a complex of wild and cultivated forms [see Mabberley, Gard. Bull. Sing. 37 (1984) 53]. The former is commonly known here by the vernacular name ‘bagalunga’ and its cognates ‘bagalnga’, etc. (M. dubia), and is the white cedar of commerce. Cultivated ones are primarily Indian cultivars with sweetly scented lilac to pink (occasionally white) flowers and is commonly known as ‘paraiso’. Photos

Munronia Wight

Photos
  1. Munronia humilis (Blanco) Harms, Ber. Deutsch.. Bot. Ges. 35 (1917) 80; --Turraea humilis (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 30; Fl. Manila (1912) 274; EPFP 2 (1923) 359. --Turraea palawanensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 307; EPFP 2 (1923) 359; --Type: BS 15563 Fenix. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, PALAWAN. Lowland thickets and ravines, near the seashore. Photos

Pseudoclausena T.P.Clark

No Photos
  1. Pseudoclausena chrysogyne (Miq.) T.P.Clark, Blumea 38 (1994) 291, Fig. 20; --Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 55; --Mabb. & Pannell, Tree Flora Sabah & Sarawak 6 (2007) 183, Fig. 26. --Walsura brachybotrys Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) 378; EPFP 2 (1923) 379. --Walsura multijuga King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 64 (1895) 83; --Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 148; EPFP 2 (1923) 379. --Walsura palawanensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3393, not validly published; no Latin description. --Pseudoclausena chrysogyne forma velutina (Ridl.) TP Clark, Blumea 38 (1994) 294; --Type from Sarawak. Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas; New Guinea (W Irian). PALAWAN, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Lanao, Bukidnon. Lowland primary forests, ascending to 800m. 

Reinwardtiodendron Koord.

Photos
  1. Reinwardtiodendron celebicum Koord., Meded. Lands Plant. 19 (1898) 389; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 369; --Mabb., Blumea 31 (1985) 145; Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 328. --Aglaia reinwardtiana Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1966) 230, t. 1 Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Laguna, MINDORO, LEYTE, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO. Lowland and medium elevation primary forests, locally common.
  2. Reinwardtiodendron humile (Hassk.) Mabb. --Aglaia dubia (Merr.) Kosterm.; --Lansium dubium Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 23; EPFP 2 (1923) 368. Hainan, Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Aurora (photos by Pelser & Barcelona) Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Bulacan, Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon, ALABAT, TICAO, MASBATE, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, BASILAN, MINDANAO. Lowland and medium elevation rainforests. Locally common. Photos

Sandoricum Cav.

Photos
  1. Sandoricum koetjape (Burm.f.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 237; Fl. Manila (1912) 274; EPFP 2 (1923) 361. --Sandoricum vidalii Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 8; EPFP 2 (1923) 361; --Type: Merrill 1824 (PNH, holo, lost; B, iso, lost; G, K, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., Bosoboso. Native and naturalized in the primary and secondary forests of Malesia to 1200m, or more. The wild form extends from Sumatra eastwards across Malesia to New Guinea. The cultivated forms in the Philippines falls mainly in the ‘kechapi’ category described by Mabberley in Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 349-350. Cultivars of this include the ‘native’ santol, corresponding to the Red Sentol of Corner (1940), ‘Manila’, a robust form now cultivated outside Malesia, and ‘Bangkok’, introduced here from Thailand in 1949. Planted and semi-cultivated throughout the settled areas of the Philippines, abundant in some second-growth forests. The wild forms known as S. vidalii is reported from LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Nueva Ecija, Aurora, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, NEGROS, SAMAR, MINDANAO. In primary forests at low and medium elevation where it occurs in low densities. Photos 

Swietenia Jacq.

Photos
  1. Swietenia macrophylla King. Introduced from tropical America Source of valuable timber (mahogany).
  2. Swietenia mahogoni (L.) Jacq. Introduced from tropical America. Similar to S. macrophylla but leaves with 2-4 pairs of leaflets which are also much smaller. Source of mahogany lumber. Photos

Toona (Endl.) M.Roem.

Photos
  1. Toona ciliata M.Roem., Synops. Monogr. 1 (1846) 139; --JM Edmonds in Mabb., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 366. Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, S China, Burma, Thailand, across Malesia: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Banka, Lesser Sunda Isls, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, New Britain, E Australia. LUZON, MINDORO. Primary and disturbed, often riparian, rainforests, 0-1500m, occasionally higher. 
  2. Toona calantas Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 105; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 357; --JM Edmonds in Mabb., Fl. Males. Ser. 1, 12 (1995) 370. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, Philippines and New Guinea. BATANES, LUZON: Cagayan to Sorsogon, MINDORO, NEGROS, CEBU, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Primary forests at low and medium elevation. Note by L.L.Co: Correct status of this species has yet to be determined against the widely-distributed T. ciliata M. Roemer and T. sureni (Blume) Merr. The distribution of T. ciliata largely overlap with that of T. sureni. T. calantas may be a good morphologically distinct species, or simply a large-fruited geographical variant. Photos
  3. Toona sureni (Blume) Merr., Interp. Rump. Herb. Amb. (1917) 305; --JM Edmonds in Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 363. India, Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, S China, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (incl. Penang and Langkawi), Borneo (Sabah, Sarawak, Kalimantan), Philippines, Sulawesi, Java (W & E), Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali, Sumba, Timor), Moluccas (Halmahera, Tanimbar), New Guinea (Irian Jaya; Papua). BATANES, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Zambales, Sorsogon, MINDORO, NEGROS, CEBU, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Common to rare in primary and secondary forests, often in logged and disturbed areas, usually on riparian hillsides or slopes, from sea-level to 1700m. May be a mere geographical variant of T. ciliata M Roem. 

Turraea L.

Photos
  1. Turraea pubescens Hell., Kon. Vet. Acad. Nya Handl. 9 (1788) 308, t. 10, Fig. 3. --Turraea membranacea Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 306; EPFP 2 (1923) 359; –-Type: BS 977 Ramos (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., Bosoboso, Jun-1906. LUZON: Pampanga, Rizal. Forested slopes, ascending to 700m; rare and local.

Vavaea Benth.

Photos
  1. Vavea amicorum Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 212; --Merr., PJS 13 (1918) Bot. 301; EPFP 2 (1923) 359; --Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 35. --Vavea ardisioides Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2676; --Merr., PJS 13 (1918) Bot. 301; EPFP 2 (1923) 359. --Vavea surigaoensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2768; --Merr., PJS 13 (1918) Bot. 301; EPFP 2 (1923) 360. Vavea retusa Merr., PJS 13 (1918) Bot. 301; EPFP 2 (1923) 360. Vavea pilosa Merr., PJS 13 (1918) Bot. 302; EPFP 2 (1923) 360. --Vavea heterophylla Merr., PJS 13 (1918) Bot. 303; EPFP 2 (1923) 360. --Vavea pachyphylla Merr., PJS 13 (1918) Bot. 304; EPFP 2 (1923) 360. --Vavea sorsogonensis Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 359, nom. in syn. Sumatra (C part?), W Java, Borneo (N & E), Philippines, SW Sulawesi, Moluccas (Seram; Talaud; Tanimbar), New Guinea, New Ireland, New Britain, Solomon Isls, Vanuatu, tropical Australia (Northern Territory; Queensland), Caroline Isls, Tonga, Fiji. BATANES, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Apayao, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Aurora, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Bulacan, Rizal, Cavite, Batangas, Camarines, Sorsogon, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, PALAWAN, MASBATE, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, SULU ARCHIPELAGO (SIBUTU), BASILAN, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur. Primary and secondary lowland forests, on various soil types including limestone and ultramafics, mossy forests on exposed ridges and peaks, to 1300m. Photos 

Walsura Roxb.

Photos
  1. Walsura monophylla Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3391 (invalid name, English description only) ex Merr., J. Arnold Arb. 35 (1954) 138; --TP Clark, Blumea 38 (1994) 285, f. 17; --Soejarto et al. (1995). Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan; --Type: Elmer 12903 (PNH, holo, lost; F, G, NY, iso), Palawan: Brooke’s Point, Addison Peak. PALAWAN: Puerto Princesa (Mt Bloomfield; Langogan; Bacungan), Aborlan (Malasgao River; Mt Victoria), Brooke’s Point. Often in stunted ultramafic forests. Photos
  2. Walsura pinnata Hassk., Retzia 1 (1855) 147; --Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 48, pro parte. --Walsura aherniana Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 34; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 379. SW China (Yunnan), Burma, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines, Moluccas (Halmahera; Aru), New Guinea (Irian Jaya, extreme W). LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Aurora, Rizal, Camarines, Sorsogon, PALAWAN, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Locally common in forests at low and medium elevation. Photos 

Xylocarpus Koen.

Photos
  1. Xylocarpus granatum Koen., Naturf. 20 (1784) 2; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 358; --Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 378. Old World Tropics from E Africa and continetal Asia throughout Malesia to Tonga. N LUZON (Cagayan) to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. In mangrove swamps bordering tidal streams, often associated with Nypa and Sonneratia. Photos
  2. Xylocarpus rumphii (Kostel.) Mabb., Malaysian Forester 45 (1982) 450; --Mabb. et al., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 12 (1995) 375. --Xylocarpus moluccensis Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 358, non M. Roem. Old World Tropics from E Africa to Tonga. Throughout Malesia but so far unrecorded from the Bornean (or New Caledonian mainland) and rare in Sumatra. LUZON: Bataan, Quezon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY (Aklan, Capiz), SULU ARCHIPELAGO, MINDANAO. Photos

Acknowledgements

Mina Labuguen, Greg Rule and Benigno Resurreccion kindly provided a number of photographs found on this webpage. Caroline Pannell provided many of the identifications of our photographs.

Literature 

Clark, TP. 1994. The species of Walsura and Pseudoclausena genus novum (Meliaceae). Blumea 38: 291-295 (257-291?).

Grudinski, M, CM Pannell, MW Chase, JA Ahmad & AN Muellner-Riehl. 2014. An evaluation of taxonomic concepts of the widespread plant genus Aglaia and its allies across Wallace’s Line (tribe Aglaieae, Meliaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 73: 65-76.

Mabberley, DJ & CM Pannell. 1989. Meliaceae. Tree Flora of Malaya 4: 199-260.

Mabberley, DJ, CM Pannell, & AM Sing. 1995. Meliaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 12: 1-407

Mabberley, DJ. 1979. The species of Chisocheton (Meliaceae). Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Botany) 6: 301-386.

Muellner, AN, R Samuel, MW Chase, CM Pannell, H Greger. 2005. Aglaia (Meliaceae): an evaluation of taxonomic concepts based on DNA data and secondary metabolites. American Journal of Botany 92: 534-543.

Muellner, AN, R Samuel, MW Chase, A Coleman, TF Stuessy. 2008. An evaluation of tribes and generic relationships in Melioideae (Meliaceae) based on nuclear ITS ribosomal DNA. Taxon 57: 98-108. 

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Last updated 1 November 2016