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Menispermaceae

Anamirta Colebr.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 August 2017

Photos
  1. Anamirta cocculus (L.) Wight & Arn., Prodr. 1 (1834) 446; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 145; --Forman, Kew Bull. 32 (1978) 329; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 213, Fig. 10h-j, 11; --Menispermum cocculus L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 340. Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Indochina, N Sumatra, E Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumba, Flores, Alor, Timor, Wetar, Damar, Babar), Philippines, Moluccas (Tanimbar, Kai Isls, Seram, Sula Isls, Halmahera), New Guinea (incl. Aru Isls). LUZON, MINDORO, BASILAN, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation thickets,  apparently with preference to seasonal conditions. Photos

Arcangelisia Becc.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 August 2017

No Photos
  1. Arcangelisia flava (L.) Merr., Interp. Herb. Amb. (1917) 222; EPFP 2 (1923) 145; --Forman, Kew Bull. 32 (1978) 334; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 209; --Menispermum flavum L., Herb. Amb. (1754) 18. Hainan, Indochina, S Peninsular Thailand, N & C Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Langkawi Is, C Java, Borneo, Philippines, C & N Sulawesi, N Moluccas (Talaud Isls, Halmahera), New Guinea.  BATANES to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation thickets and forests.

Batania Hatus. = Pycnarrhena

Cissampelos L.

Photos
  1. Cissampelos pareira L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1031; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 204; EPFP 2 (1923) 150.

Cocculus DC.

Photos
  1. Cocculus laurifolius DC., Syst. 1 (1818) 530; --Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 81; EPFP 2 (1923) 149; --Forman, Kew Bull. 29 1974) 479, Fig. 15A-G; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 233, Fig. 16k-p. S China, Japan, Taiwan, India to Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Sumatra, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Open forests and thickets, 700-1200m. Photos
  2. Cocculus orbiculatus (L.) DC., Syst. 1 (1817) 522; --Forman, Kew Bull. 22 (1968) 374; ibid. 29 (1974) 479, t. 15A-G; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1986) 233, Fig. 16a-j; --Menispermum orbiculatum L., p. Pl. (1753) 341. --Cocculus sarmentosus (Lour.) Diels in Engl. Planzenreich 46 (1910) 233; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 149; --Nephroia sarmentosa Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 692. --Cocculus sarmentosus var. stenophyllus Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 10; EPFP 2 (1923) 149; --Type: BS 7231 Ramos (NY, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Burgos, Feb/Mar-1917. --Cocculus trilobus (Thunb.) DC., Syst. 1 (1818) 232; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 149; --Menispermum trilobum Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 194. --Cocculus cynanchoides C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2 (1835) 79; --Type: Haenke s.n. (MO, iso), Luzon. E Himalayas, east to China, Japan, Taiwan and Hawaii, NE Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (also Penang and Singapore), W-C Java, Philippines. Possibly introduced in Mauritius and Réunion. BATAN, BABUYAN ISLS, N LUZON, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Coastal and lowland thickets. Photos

Cyclea Arn. ex Wight

Photos
  1. Cyclea cauliflora Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 452; EPFP 4 (1924) 248; --Forman, Kew Bull. 14 (1960) 74; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1986) 241; --Type: BS 41512 Ramos (K, US, iso), Leyte: Leyte prov., Cabalian, in damp ravines and deserted clearings, c. 300m. 7-Dec-1922. LUZON: MINDORO, CATANDUANES, NEGROS, LEYTE. Damp ravines and deserted clearings, also recorded from a forested ridge, 300-460m. Photos
  2. Cyclea insularis (Makino) Hatus., Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 29; --Forman, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1986) 240; --Cissampelos insularis Makino, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 24 (1910) 227. --Cyclea insularis var. luxurians Hatus., Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 29. Japan, Philippines. BATAN (Mt Iraya). Thickets and forest slopes, 100-300m. Fl. and fr. in May.
  3. Cyclea merrillii Diels in Engl. Planzenreich 46 (1910) 312; --Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1167; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 151; --Forman, Kew Bull. 14 (1960) 72; --Pancho, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling (1986) 286; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 240; --Type: Merrill 2527 (K, US, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, 11 to 14-Jun-1903. Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, PANAY. Lowland and medium elevation thickets. Photos 

Diploclisia Miers

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 August 2017

Photos
  1. Diploclisia glaucescens (Blume) Diels in Engl. Planzenreich 46 (1910) 225, Fig. 77, A-L; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 148; --Forman, Kew Bull. 22 (1968) 363, pro parte (excl. D. kunstleri); Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 230; --Cocculus glaucescens Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 25. Sri Lanka, India, S China, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, ?Moluccas (Halmahera, Sula Isls, Seram), ?W New Guinea, Philippines. TAWI-TAWI (Bongao), MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao del Sur. Lowland and medium elevation open forests. Photos

Fibraurea Lour.

No Photos
  1. Fibraurea tinctoria Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 626; --Forman, Kew Bull. 40 (1985) 544; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1986) 207, Fig. 9a-h. --Fibraurea chloroleuca Miers, Ann. Nat. Hist. 3, 13 (1864) 489; --Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 249; EPFP 2 (1923) 146. NE India, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Sumatra (incl. Enggano Is), Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, NE Sulawesi. DINAGAT. Along streams in lowland forest.

Haematocarpus Miers

Photos
  1. Haematocarpus subpeltatus Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 383; EPFP 2 (1923) 145; --Forman, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 421; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 184, Fig. 3j-o; --Type: BS 33750 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte prov., Paracale. Forest along stream at low elevation, 22-Dec-1918. Borneo (Sarawak, E Borneo), Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte (Paracale). Lowland forest to 100m. Photos

Hypserpa Miers

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 August 2017

No Photos
  1. Hypserpa nitida Miers in Hook., Kew J. Bot. 3 (1851) 258; --Forman, Kew Bull. 12 (1958) 453; ibid. 22 (1968) 361; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 219, Fig. 12a-f. --Hypserpa cuspidata (Hook.f. & Thomson) Miers, Ann. Nat. Hist. 2, 7 (1851) 40; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 147; --Limacia cuspidata Hook.f. & Thomson, Fl. Ind. 1 (1855) 189. --Hypserpa jagorii Diels in Engl. Planzenreich 46 (1910) 211; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 148. --Phytocrene loheri Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 293; EPFP 2 (1923) 492, pro parte, leaves only. Sri Lanka, India, S Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, S Sumatra (incl. Banka and Riouw), Peninsular Malaysia (incl. Langkawi, Penang and Singapore), Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Nueva Vizcaya, Bataan, Rizal, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN, NEGROS, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation thickets and forests.

Legnephora Miers

No Photos
  1. Legnephora philippinensis Forman, Kew Bull. 27 (1972) 278, Fig. 1c; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986)   226, Fig. 14c; --Type: PNH 10020 Sulit (L, 2 sheets), Mindanao: Bukidnon prov., Mt Kitanglad, S slope of S peak, Barrio Kibangay, Sitio Katiwayan, semi-open forest, 1800m, 10-Mar-1949. MINDANAO: Bukidnon (Mt Kitanglad). Known only from the type collection.

Limacia Lour.

No Photos
  1. Limacia blumei (Boerl.) Diels in Engl. Planzenreich 46 (1910) 215; --Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 266; EPFP 2 (1923) 148; --Forman, Kew Bull. 12 (1958) 448; ibid. 22 (1968) 362; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 223, Fig. 13; --Cocculus blumei Boerl., Cat. Hort. Bog. 1 (1899) 40. Peninsular Thailand, Java, Borneo (Sabah), Philippines, SE Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumba, Timor). BANCALAN, MINDANAO: Davao. Lowland thickets and forests.
  2. Limacia scandens Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 620; --Forman, Kew Bull. 12 (1958) 449; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 223, Fig. 12j-r. --Limacia velutina (Wall.) Miers, Ann. Nat. Hist. 2, 7 (1851) 43; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 148. Lower Myanmar, Peninsular Thailand, C Vietnam, S Indochina, C & S Sumatra, Lingga, W Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo (SW Sarawak, Brunei), ?Java, Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao. Low elevation second-growth forests and open habitats.

Parabaena Miers

No Photos
  1. Parabaena denudata Diels in Engl. Planzenreich 46 (1910) 147; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 147; --Forman, Kew Bull. 39 (1984) 108, Fig. 1H; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 203, Fig. 5h; --Type: RS Williams 2137 (US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River, 13-Feb-1905. LUZON, NEGROS, BOHOL, BILIRAN, SAMAR, BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Low and medium elevation thickets and forests. In Negros along rivers and in thickets in damp ravines at 700-750m. Fl. Feb-May, fr. Aug.
  2. Parabaena echinocarpa Diels, PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 157; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 147; --Forman, Kew Bull. 39 (1984) 110, Fig. 1I; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 204, Fig. 5l; --Type: BS 14722 Ramos (US, iso), Camiguin de Mindanao, male flowers & fruits, Mar/Apr-1912. LUZON: Sorsogon, POLILLO, LEYTE, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation thickets and forests, up to c. 500m. Fl. Apr-Jun, Nov; fr. Apr, Nov-Dec.
  3. Parabaena elmeri Diels in Engl., Planzenreich 46 (1910) 147; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 147; --Forman, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 389, Fig. 1G; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 202, Fig. 5g; --Type: Elmer 5633, Luzon: La Union prov. --Parabaena philippinensis Merr. ex Diels in Engl. Planzenreich 46 (1910) 148; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 147; --Type: BS 1024 Ramos. LUZON: La Union, Cagayan, Batangas, MINDORO. Low to medium elevation thickets and forests. Fl. Feb, May-Jul; fr. Feb, Jul-Oct.

Pericampylus Miers

Photos
  1. Pericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 219; EPFP 2 (1923) 148; --Forman, Kew Bull. 22 (1968) 366; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 229, Fig. 15a-f; --Menispermum glaucum Lam., Encycl. 4 (1797) 100. Tropical and subtropical Asia. Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation open thickets and secondary forests. Photos

Pycnarrhena Miers

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Pycnarrhena insignis (Hatus.) Forman, Kew Bull. 33 (1979) 568; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 174; --Batania insignis Hatus., Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 29, 70, Fig. 1. BATAN: Mahatao. In thickets, 100m.
  2. Pycnarrhena manillensis Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 45; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 144; --Forman, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 411; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 175. --Pycnarrhena elliptica Diels in Engl. Planzenreich 46 (1910) 54; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 144. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, ALABAT, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, CAMOTES, SAMAR, BASILAN, MINDANAO. Thickets and forests, up to 1600m. Fl. May-Nov; fr. Jul-Mar. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  3. Pycnarrhena tumefacta Miers [Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, 20 (1867) 12, nomen.], Contr. Bot. 3 (1871) 353; --Forman, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 414; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 175, Fig. 1a-k. --Pycnarrhena membranifolia Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 382; EPFP 2 (1923) 144; --Type: BS 37356 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur prov., Malangas. Low elevation forest, 26-Oct-1919. --Pycnarrhena celebica (Boerl.) Diels in Engl. Planzenreich 46 (1910) 53; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 144; --Cocculus celebicus Boerl., Cat. Pl. Phan. (1899) 40. --Pycnarrhena merrillii Diels in Engl., Planzenreich 46 (1910) 52; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 144; --Type: Merrill 1201, Mindoro. --Pycnarrhena balabacensis Yamam., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 34 (1944) 224, t. 1. --Pycnarrhena batanensis Yamam., loc. cit. 226, t. 3. Kangean Isls, Java, Borneo, Banguey, Philippines, Sangihe, Moluccas (Obi, Kai Isls, Halmahera), New Guinea (W and ?E), Solomon Isls. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Apayao, Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, POLILLO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, BALABAC, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Low and medium elevation forests up to 400m. Photos

Stephania Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 August 2017

Photos
  1. Stephania corymbosa (?Blume) Walp., Rep. 1 (1842) 96; --Forman, Kew Bull. 11 (1956) 63, Fig. 4; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 249, Fig. 19k-n; --Type from Indonesia. --Stephania catosepala Diels in Engl. Planzenreich 46 (1910) 268; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 149; --Type: Elmer 5851 (P, lecto; B, K, US, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet Prov., Baguio, Mar-1904. --Stephania ramosii Diels ex Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 265; EPFP 2 (1923) 150; --Type: BS 13487 Ramos (B, holo), Luzon: Benguet prov., near Baguio, May-1911. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon). Thickets, forests, limestone ledges and boulders, 1300-2000m. Photos
  2. Stephania japonica (Thunb.) Miers, Ann. Nat. Hist. 3, 18 (1866) 14; --Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 406; EPFP 2 (1923) 149; --Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1166; --Forman, Kew Bull. 11 (1956) 49; Fl.  Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 245, Fig. 19a-l; --Menispermum japonicum Thunb., Syst. Veg. (ed. 14) (1784) 892; --Type from Japan. Photos
  3. Stephania merrillii Diels in Engl. Planzenreich 46 (1910) 268; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 150; --Type: Merrill 5701 (B, holo; US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Mt Halcon. Nov-1906. China, Philippines. MINDORO.
  4. Stephania psilophylla (C.Presl) Forman, Kew Bull. 11 (1956) 63; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 251; --Cissampelos psilophylla C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2 (1835) 80; --Type: Haenke s.n. (PRC, lecto; BM, HAL, isolecto), Luzon. --Stephania japonica (non Thunb.) Merr. (1923) 149, pro parte. --Stephania catosepala (non Diels) Merr. (1923) 149, pro parte. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Primary forests and forest edges, 100-1300m. Photos
  5. Stephania venosa (Blume) Sprengel, Syst. Veg. 4 (1827) 316; --Forman, Kew Bull. 11 (1956) 58;   ibid. 22 (1968) 352; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 248, Fig. 19j; --Clypea venosa Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 27; --Type from Java. Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines.

Doubtful occurrence in the Philippines:

  1. Stephania montana Diels, Bot. Jahrb. 52 (1915) 189; --Forman, Kew Bull. 11 (1956) 69; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1986) 250;; --Type from Papua New Guinea. ?Philippines, E New Guinea. LUZON (based on BS 23820, in fruit).

Tinomiscium Miers

Photos
  1. Tinomiscium petiolare Hook.f. & Thomson, Fl. Ind. (1855) 205; --Forman, Kew Bull. 40 (1985) 542; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 205, Fig. 8. --Tinomiscium molle Diels, PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 157; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 146; --Type: BS 11359 McGregor (US, iso), Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya prov., vicinity of Dupax, male flowers, Mar-Apr 1912. --Tinomiscium philippinense Diels in Engl., Pflanzenreich 46 (1910) 116; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 146; --Type: Elmer 9090. India, Nicobar Isls, Myanmar, Thailand, SW China (Yunnan), Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, W Java, Natuna Isls, Borneo, Philippines, New Guinea. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Laguna, Quezon, BILIRAN, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Davao. Low and medium elevation forests. Photos

Tinospora Miers

Photos
  1. Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook.f. & Thomson, Fl. Ind. 1 (1855) 183; --Forman, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 394, Fig. 3A-C; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 194, Fig. 7a-c. --Tinospora rumphii Boerl., Cat. Hort. Bogor (1901) 116, nom. illeg.; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 146. Bangladesh, Assam, Myanmar, Cambodia, SW China (Yunnan), Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, W Java, Christmas Is, (possibly introduced by immigrants in the past), Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumbawa), Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, CULION, BASILAN, MINDANAO. Usually found in thickets near human settlements, probably in most islands and provinces on account of being commonly planted for medicinal purposes. Also reported in primary forest in Mindanao and in dry forest in Mindoro Oriental prov. (Mt Yagaw, 1000m). According to Forman (1986) female flowers and fruits are as yet unknown from Malesia. Merrill (1923) hints at the possibility of this species as being an introduced plant in the Philippines.
  2. Tinospora glabra (Burm.f.) Merr., J. Arn. Arb. 19 (1938) 340; --Forman, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 414, Fig. 5J-M; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 199, Fig. 4f-l, 6j-m. --Tinospora reticulata Miers, Ann. Nat. Hist. 3, 13 (1864) 322; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 204; EPFP 2 (1923) 146. S Andamans and Hainan to the Solomon Isls, widespread across Malesia, throughout the Philippines. BATANES to MINDANAO. Lowland dry thickets, shrubberies and re-growth forests. Photos
  3. Tinospora merrilliana Diels in Engl. Pflanzenreich 46 (1910) 137; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 146; --Forman, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 389, Fig. 11l-k; Fl. Males., ser. 1, 10 (1986) 191; --Type: Clemens 525. --Tinospora negrotica Diels in Engl., Pflanzenreich 46 (1910) 137; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 146; --Type: Elmer 9468 (US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns. Mar-1908. --Tinospora hastata Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3760, not validly published, no Latin diagnosis; --Type: Elmer 16960 (NY, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan, Irosin, Aug-1916. Borneo, Philippines, NE Sulawesi (Minahassa). LUZON: Sorsogon, CATANDUANES, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental, Lanao del Sur, Bukidnon, Davao. Medium elevation thickets and forests, ascending to 1800m; in Luzon and Palawan on limestone. Photos

Acknowledgements

Mario Molave Maravilla Delmendo kindly provided some of the photos on this webpage.

Literature

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Forman, LL. 1986. Menispermaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 10: 157-253

Hul, S, C Dary, F Jacques, E Ollivier, S-S Bun, SK Cheng, S Kim, Y Peou & F Jabbour. 2017. The world checklist of Stephania (Menispermaceae), with notes on types. Phytotaxa 298: 101-118.


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Last updated 18 August 2017