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Moraceae

Antiaris Lesch.

Photos
  1. Antiaris toxicaria (Pers.) Lesch., Ann. Mus. Paris 16 (1810) 478, t. 22; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 44. Photos

Artocarpus J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 May 2015

Photos
  1. Artocarpus altilis (Park.) Fosb., J. Wash. Ac. Sci. 31 (1941) 95; --Zerega et al., Syst. Bot. 30 (2005) 611; --Sitodium altile Park. Jour. Voy. Endeavour. (1773) 45; --Artocarpus communis J.R.Forst. & G.Forst., Char. Gen. (1776) 101, t. 51; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 176; EPFP 2 (1923) 40; --Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 40 (1959) 307; --Lectotype: Forster s.n. (BM). --Radermachia incisa Thunb. Handl. Vet-Akad. Stockh. 37 (1776) 253; --Artocarpus incisus (Thunb.) L.f. Suppl. (1781) 411; --Type from Java: Thunberg s.n. (UPS, holo; L, iso). --Artocarpus rima Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 671. --Artocarpus laevis Hassk. Flora 25 (2), Beibl. (1842) 18; --Type from Java: Hasskarl s.n. (L). Said to originate from Polynesia. Cultivated in most tropical countries. N LUZON to MINDANAO, at low elevation. Photos 
  2. Artocarpus anisophyllus Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. 3 (1861) 422. --Artocarpus superbus Becc., Nelle Foreste di Borneo (1902) 625; --Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 51; EPFP 2 (1923) 43; --Type from Sarawak. Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo SW Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, PALAWAN. Berg et al. (2006) mention that specimens of this species from the Philippines (as A. superbus) could not be located and that these were possibly specimens of A. altilis misidentified as A. superbus. Photos
  3. Artocarpus blancoi (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 40; --Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 40 (1959) 301. BATAN, LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN, NEGROS, CEBU, MINDANAO. Thickets and forests at low and medium elevation. Considered a synonym of Artocarpus altilis by Berg et al. 2006. Photos 
  4. Artocarpus camansi Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 670; --Zerega et al., Syst. Bot. 30 (2005) 611; --Neotype: Merrill Species Blancoanae 830 (US, No. 00904515), designated by Merrill in Sp. Blanco. (1918) 124. --Artocarpus incisa L.f. var. muricata Becc. For. Borneo. 628; --Type: New Guinea, Beccari PP25 (FI). --Artocarpus leeuwenii Diels, Bot Jahrb. 67 (1935) 175; --Type from New Guinea: Docters van Leeuwen 11163 (B, holo; BO, L, U, iso). Considered a synonym of Artocarpus altilis by Berg et al. 2006. Photos
  5. Artocarpus fretessii Teijsm. & Binn. in Hassk., Abh. Naturf. Ges. Halle 9 (1866) 189; --Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 41 (1960) 103. --Artocarpus leytensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 279; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 42. E Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea (Irian Jaya). PALAWAN, PANAY, BILIRAN, LEYTE, CAMIGUIN DE MINDANAO, MINDANAO: Surigao. Low elevation forests up to 660m.
  6. Artocarpus gomezianus Wall. ex Trécul, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 3, 8 (1847) 118; --Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 41 (1960) 88.
  7. Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., Encycl. Meth. 3 (1789) 210; --Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 40 (1959) 334. --Artocarpus integra sensu Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 176; EPFP 2 (1923) 41, non (Thunb.) Merr. Possibly indigenous to the W Ghats of India, of prehistoric introduction to the Philippines where it is cultivated and thoroughly naturalized throughout the archipelago at low to medium elevation. Photos
  8. Artocarpus limpato Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. 3 (1861) 421; --Prainea limpato (Miq.) Beumee ex K.Heyne, Nutt. Pl. Ned.-Ind., ed. 2 1 (1927) 579. Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. PALAWAN. Photos
  9. Artocarpus multifidus Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 40 (1959) 324; --Type: PNH 6462 Sulit. (PNH, holo; A, iso), Samar: Eastern Samar prov., Taft, Mt Calbiga, vicinity of Km 66, in dipterocarp forest, 250m, 25-May-1948. SAMAR: Eastern Samar (Mt Calbiga), MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte (Mt Kabatuan). Forests, 250-650m. Considered a synonym of Artocarpus altilis by Berg et al. 2006. Photos
  10. Artocarpus nitidus Trec.. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 3, 8 (1847) 119; --Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 41 (1960) 123; --Type: Cuming 1078 (P, lecto; P, MO, NY, SING, iso); Cuming 1081 (P, syntype), Luzon: Albay prov. --Artocarpus lanceolatus Trec., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 3, 8 (1847) 121; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 42, excl. syn. Artocarpus xanthocarpa; --Type: Callery 60 (P, holo; P, iso).
  11. Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco, Fl. Filip (1837) 671; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 42; --Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 1019 (BM, neo; L, MO, NY, US, isoneo), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Calapan, May-1916. Borneo and the Philippines. MINDORO, MINDANAO, BASILAN. Apparently always planted, 0-800m. Photos 
  12. Artocarpus ovatus Blanco, Fl. Filip (1837) 666; --Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 41 (1960) 84. --Artocarpus acuminatissimus Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 49; EPFP 2 (1923) 40; --Type: FB 22777 de Mesa & Rosario (US, iso). --Artocarpus cumingianus Trec., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 3, 8 (1847) 119; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 40. LUZON: Abra (Manabo), Kalinga (Lubuagan), Benguet, Isabela (San Mariano), Nueva Vizcaya (near Dupax), Nueva Ecija, Zambales (Mt Pinatubo), Bataan (Lamao), Pampanga, Bulacan (Angat), Rizal (Mt Angilog; Montalban; Antipolo; Bosoboso), Laguna (Los Baños; Mt Makiling; Sta Maria; Mabitac), Quezon (Laguimanoc =Padre Burgos; Lucban), Camarines Sur (Mt Bagacay; Mt Isarog), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), CATANDUANES, MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mansalay, Manaul & Mt Yagaw), PALAWAN (Irawan), BALABAC (Cape Melville), MARINDUQUE, SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting), MASBATE, TICAO, PANAY: Iloilo, NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Danao; Cadiz), Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), CEBU. In forests to 760m, often common. Considered a synonym of Artocarpus lacucha by Berg et al. 2006. Photos
  13. Artocarpus pinnatisectus Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 50; EPFP 2 (1923) 43; --Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 40 (1959) 323. LUZON: Quezon (Mt Cadig), Camarines Norte (Paracale), MINDANAO: Davao. Lowland forests. Considered a synonym of Artocarpus altilis by Berg et al. 2006.
  14. Artocarpus rubrovenius Warb. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1905) 166; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 43; --Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 41 (1960) 114; --Type: Warburg 12949 (B). BATAN (Basco), LUZON: Isabela (Palanan), Aurora (Casiguran; Baler), Bataan (Lamao; Mt Mariveles), Pampanga (Mt Pinatubo), Rizal (San Mateo; Bosoboso), Laguna (Mt Makiling), Batangas, Quezon (Laguimanoc =Padre Burgos; Lucban; Sampaloc), Camarines, Albay (Guinobatan, Banao), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), MINDORO(?). Lowland forests to 360m. Photos 
  15. Artocarpus sericicarpus Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 40 (1959) 350; --Type: Merrill 2024 (US, holo; NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Guinayangan, Jan/Apr-1903. --Artocarpus elastica auctt. non Reinw. ex Blume; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 41. Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas. LUZON: Quezon to Sorsogon, MINDORO, BILIRAN, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation forests. A. sericicarpus was formerly regarded as identical with A. elasticus but differs in eg. the scabrid upper leaf surface and the long hairs on the syncarp. Photos
  16. Artocarpus subrotundifolius Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 281; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 43; --Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 41 (1960) 108; --Type: Elmer 7265 (PNH, holo, lost; K, lecto; A, BO, K, NY, iso). LUZON: Zambales (Mt Pinatubo), Camarines, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), LEYTE (near Gacao; Palo), SAMAR, MINDANAO: Surigao. Lowland forests to 300m.
  17. Artocarpus treculianus Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 617; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 43; --Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 40 (1959) 302. --Artocarpus nigrescens Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 614; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923 42. --Artocarpus ovatifolius Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 268; EPFP 2 (1923) 42, incl. var. dolichostachys Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 43. BATANES, BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Quezon, Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN, TICAO, PANAY, GUIMARAS, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Surigao. Low and medium elevation forests, up to 850m. Photos 
  18. Artocarpus vrieseanus Miq., Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 212; --Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 41 (1960) 350.
  19. Artocarpus xanthocarpus Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 10; EPFP 2 (1923) 42, in synonymy of A. lanceolatus Trec.; --Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 41 (1960) 102; --Type: Whitford 367 (PNH, holo, lost; K, P, US, iso; P, lecto). --Artocarpus lamellosa Blanco, Fl. Filip (1837) 667; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 41, excl. syn. A. nitidus. Mangsi (off Borneo) and the Philippines. BATAN (Mt Iraya), LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Bataan (Lamao River; Mt Mariveles), Laguna (Majayjay), Quezon, Camarines Sur (Mt Bagacay; Iriga), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mansalay, Mt Yagaw), SIQUIJOR, BOHOL.

Cultivated

  1. Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr., Interp. Rumph. Herb. Amb. (1917) 190; --Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 40 (1959) 329. Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, Moluccas and New Guinea.

Check occurrence in the Philippines

  1. Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 481; --Jarrett, J. Arnold Arb. 40 (1959) 346. Now regarded as distinct from A. sericicarpus, still occurring in the Philippines?

Broussonetia L’Her. ex Vent.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 October 2013

Photos
  1. Broussonetia luzonica (Blanco) Bureau in DC., Prodr. 17 (1873) 224; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 19 (1962) 235; --Allaeanthus luzonicus (Blanco) Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 198; -- Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 37; --Morus luzonica Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 703. --Broussonetia luzoniensis Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 488; ed. 3, 3 (1879) 107, t. 278. --Broussonetia luzonica (Blanco) Bureau var. glabra (Warb.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 19 (1962) 235; --Allaeanthus luzonicus var. glaber (Warb.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 37; --Allaeanthus glaber Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 166. Philippines and Sulawesi. N LUZON to MINDANAO, BASILAN. Low and medium altitude thickets and secondary forests. Photos

Non-naturalized cultivated species

  1. Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) in Vent., Tabl. Regn. 3 (1799) 547; --Pancho, Fl. Mt Makiling 1 (1983) 110. Native to India, China, Taiwan, Japan, Myanmar, Thailand, Polynesia. Introduced in Malesia, incl. Philippines. Photos

 Cudrania Trecul = Maclura

Fatoua Gaudich.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 October 2013

Photos
  1. Fatoua villosa (Thunb. ex Murray) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 41 (1927) 516; --Urtica villosa Thunb. ex Murray, Syst. Veg., ed. 14 (1784) 851. --Fatoua pilosa Gaudich., Bot. Freycinet’s Voy. (1826) 509; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 179; EPFP 2 (1923) 36. Japan, China, southward to Australia, Philippines. N LUZON to MINDANAO. Low elevation, in dry thickets, on walls, cliffs, etc. Photos

Ficus L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 September 2013

Photos


  1. Ficus allutacea Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 457; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 58; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 492. --Ficus areolata Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1252; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 45; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 339; --Type: Elmer 10475 (L, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo (Todaya), humid woods, 4000 ft., May-1909. Peninsular Malaysia (Perak), Sumatra, Java, Natuna Isls, Borneo, S Philippines, Sulawesi (Minahassa), Moluccas (Buru). MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Davao del Sur (Mt Apo). Forests, up to c. 1220m.
  2. Ficus altissima Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 444; --Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat.3 (1867) 262, 285; --King, Sp. Ficus 1 (1887) 30, t.30; --Merr., Bull. Bur. For. Philip. 1 (1903) 17; --Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1243; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 44; --Burkill, Dict. (1935) 1003; --Sata, Monogr. (1944) 209; --Backer, Bekn. Fl. Java (emerg. ed.) 6 (1948) fam. 129, p.43. India (Sikkim eastwards), Burma, Yunnan, Hainan, Indo-China, Upper Thailand, Andaman Is, Malesia: Sumatra: Java, Sulawesi, Philippines (Luzon, Mindoro, Mindanao). Ecol. Lowland and mountain forest, up to 1700 m. Photos
  3. Ficus ampelas Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 226; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 44; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 288; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 459; ibid. 21 (1965) 67; -- CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 210, Map 3. --Ficus irisana Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 45; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 55; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 243; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 69. --Ficus validicaudata Merr., PJS 1 suppl. (1906) 45; EPFP 2 (1923) 53 (sub F. guyeri); --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 290; --Ficus guyeri var. validicaudata (Merr.) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 290; --Ficus irisana var. validicaudata (Merr.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 464. --Ficus fastigiata Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 44; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 52; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 244. --Ficus todayensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1261; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 67; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 243; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 68. --Ficus guyeri sensu Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 53, non Elmer (1906). --Ficus guyeri Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 194; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 53, excl. syn.; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 288; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 460. --Ficus guyeri Elmer var. sibuyanensis (Elmer) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 460; --Ficus sibuyanensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1319; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 65 (excl. Elmer 13719 =F. guyeri Elmer); --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 288. --Ficus tenuicuspidata Corner var. major Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 465. Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Sumatra (W coasts and isls), Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Timor), Moluccas, New Guinea, New Britain. BATANES, LUZON: Abra, Ifugao (Mt Polis), Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, Albay, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN, PANAY, LEYTE, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN DE MINDANAO, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur (Mt Apo), Agusan. Thickets and forests at low and medium elevation, in the Cordillera Highlands of N Luzon ascending to 2400m. Photos
  4. Ficus annulata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 448; --Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 261, 262, 285, incl. var. biverucella Miq., et var. elliptica Miq.; --King, Sp. Ficus 1 (1887) 25 t.22, incl. var. flavescens (Blume) King et var. validae (Blume) King, loc. cit. 26, t. 23; --Burkill, Dict. (1935) 1004; --Corner, Wayside Trees (1940) 674, f.251; Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 12; --Backer, Bekn. Fl. Java (em. ed.) 6 (1948) fam. 129, p.42; -- Urostigma annulata (Blume) Miq., in Zoll., Syst. Verz. 2 (1854) 90; Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 352; Suppl. (1861) 440; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 625, Map 16. --Ficus balabacensis Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 316, t. 1; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 211; --Type: BS 49863 Ramos & Edaño (NY, iso). Balabac: in forest along streams at low altitude, 1 Dec. 1927. Burma, Indo-China, Yunnan, Thailand, Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Banka, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, SW Philippines. BALABAC. Lowland streamside forests.
  5. Ficus aurata Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 291; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 49; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 127. --Ficus aurata var. palawanensis Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 437. --Ficus chrysocarpa auct. non Reinw. in Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 462; --Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 317. –Voucher: BS 77382 Edaño (SING). Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Riouw Archipelago, Banka, Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN, BALABAC (Mt Apadapad). Forests, and particularly common in secondary growth, alt. up to 1400m. Forest near stream at low alt. in Balabac. According to CC Berg and Corner (2005), the entity described as var. palawanensis may lead to the recognition of a distinct (infraspecific) taxon as more materials are available for examination. Photos
  6. Ficus aurita Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 462; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 77; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 266. --Ficus hispidulosa Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2401; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 54; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 234. --Ficus aurita var. auriculifera (Merr.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 480; --Ficus auriculifera Merr., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 15 (1929) 46. Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Morotai, Halmahera, Buru, Ambon, Nusa Laut, Aru Isls), New Guinea (W Irian). LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Agusan. Forests at medium elevation.
  7. Ficus bakeri Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2402; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 45; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 348; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 59; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 549. LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDORO, NEGROS, MINDANAO. Lowland and montane forests, up to 1100m.
  8. Ficus balete Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 55; EPFP 2 (1923) 45; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 187; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 23; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 628, Fig. 111. LUZON: Cagayan, Zambales, Quezon, Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, MINDORO, PANAY. Low and medium altitude forests.
  9. Ficus banahaensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 252; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 46; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 266, 369; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 104. --Ficus glandulifera var. camiguinensis (Merr.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 433; --Ficus banahaensis Elmer var. camiguinensis (Merr.) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 267, 370; --Ficus camiguinensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 276. LUZON: Quezon (Mt Banahaw), CATANDUANES, LEYTE, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN DE MINDANAO, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, BUCAS GRANDE. Forests at medium elevation, ascending to 1200m.
  10. Ficus bataanensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 46; EPFP 2 (1923) 46; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 190; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 30; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 164, Map 2. --Ficus bataanensis forma minima Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 190. --Ficus bataanensis forma sorsogensis Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 190. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Nueva Vizcaya, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon, PALAWAN, NEGROS. Forests at medium elevation, but more often on exposed forested ridges up to 1500m.
  11. Ficus benguetensis Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 10; EPFP 2 (1923) 46; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 268; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 89; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 400, Fig. 79, Map 2. --Ficus benguetensis forma leytensis (Elmer) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 269; --Ficus benguetensis var. leytensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 194; --Type: Elmer 7456. --Ficus benguetensis forma negrosensis (Elmer) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 269; --Ficus benguetensis var. negrosensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 542; --Type: Elmer 9730. Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, April 1908. --Ficus benguetensis forma urdanetensis (Elmer) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 269; --Ficus urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2413. --Ficus maquilingensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3094. --Ficus cuernosensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 545; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 50; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 313. --Ficus peabodyi Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1267; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 61; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 312. --Ficus wenzelii Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 367; EPFP 2 (1923) 68; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 270. --Ficus fistulosa forma benguetensis (Merr.) TS Liu & JC Liao, Bull. Exp. Forest, National Taiwan Univ. 114 (1974) 68.  Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Laguna (Mt Makiling), Quezon (Lucban), Camarines, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PANAY, NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), BILIRAN, LEYTE (Palo), SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao del Sur (Mt Apo), Agusan del Norte (Butuan; Mt Urdaneta), SIARGAO. Lowland forests and thickets from near sea-level to montane forests up to 1800m. Common. Photos
  12. Ficus benjamina L., Mant. 1 (1767) 129; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 175; EPFP 2 (1923) 46; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 195; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 21; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 631. --Ficus benjamina var. bracteata Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 396; ibid. 21 (1965) 21. --Ficus benjamina var. nuda (Miq.) MFBarrett, Am. Midl. Nat. 45 (1951) 127, 128; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 21; --Ficus nuda (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 288; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 59; --Urostigma nudum Miq., London J. Bot. 6 (1847) 584. --Ficus xavieri Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 369; EPFP 2 (1923) 69; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 197. --Ficus umbrina Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 49. India, S China, Burma, Thailand, Indochina to Australia (Arnhem Land and Queensland). Throughout Malesia. BATAN, LUZON, MINDORO. Forests, up to 1300m. Often in secondary growth or planted. Photos
  13. Ficus botryocarpa Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 235, 297; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 86; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 404. Photos
  14. Ficus callophylla Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 445; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 22; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 637, Fig. 113a-I; Map 17. --Ficus clusioides (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 286; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 49; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 200; --Urostigma clusioides Miq., London J. Bot. 6 (1847) 579. --Ficus pachyphylla Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 365; EPFP 2 (1923) 60; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 201; --Ficus callophylla var. leytensis Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 396; --Type: Wenzel 209, Leyte. --Ficus everettii Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3459, non Elmer 1908 (=F. pellucidopunctata Griff.) Thailand, S China (Hongkong), Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumbawa), Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. Low altitude forests.
  15. Ficus callosa Willd., Mem. Acad. Berl. (1798) 102; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 29; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 166, Map 2. --Ficus malunuensis Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 196; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 56; --Curran, PJS 53 (1934) t. 3; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 189. --Ficus cordatifolia Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1250. Sri Lanka, India, Andaman Isls, Burma, Thailand, Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, N Borneo, Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali, Sumbawa, Sumba, Timor, Flores, Wetar, Alor), Sulawesi, Moluccas (Sula Isls). Forests at low elevation.
  16. Ficus carpenteriana Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 197; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 47; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 269; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 89; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 408, Map 10. --Ficus wenzelii Merr. var. weberi (Merr.) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 270; --Ficus weberi Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 274. --Ficus castanea Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3441; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 270. LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Forests, up to c. 1700m. Figs are eaten by civet cats. Photos
  17. Ficus cassidyana Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 200; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 48; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 318; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 86; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 409. --Ficus cassidyana var. casiguranensis (Quisumb. & Merr.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 86; --Ficus casiguranensis Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 141; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 306; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 86; --Type: BS 45343 Ramos & Edaño (iso in NY, US). Luzon: Aurora prov., Casiguran, along streams in forest, low altitude. LUZON: Aurora (Casiguran). Thickets and forests at low and medium elevation, up to 1000m.
  18. Ficus cataupi Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1251; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 48; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 10 (1939) 127, t. 17, 35; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 338; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 62; Blumea 20 (1972) 429; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 496. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Agusan del Norte. Exposed forested ridges and mossy forest, altitude c. 1350m.
  19. Ficus caulocarpa (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 268, 287 non Miq., loc. cit. 235; --Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 199; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 46; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 244; --Corner, Gard. Bull. S.S.10 (1939) 283; Wayside Trees (1940) 675, t.201; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 604;–Urostigma caulocarpum Miq. in Hook., London J. Bot. 6 (1847) 568; --Ficus infectoria var. caulocarpa (Miq.) King, Sp. Ficus 1 (1887) 63, t.79; --Merr., Bull. Bur. For. Philip. 1 (1903) 18; --Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1246, 1313; ibid. 7 (1914) 2409; --Type: Cuming 1930 (U, holo; BM, L, K, iso), Philippines. --Ficus stipulosa (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 287; --Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 199; --Vidal, Phan. Cuming. (1885) 146; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 254; --Merr., PJS 3 (1908) Bot. 402; Fl. Manila (1912) 175; EPFP 2 (1923) 65; --Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3454; --Sata, Monogr. (1944) 214; --Urostigma stipulosum Miq. in Hook., London J. Bot. 6 (1847) 568; Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 334; --Type: Cuming 1978 (K, holo; BM, K, iso). Sri Lanka, S Burma, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia (Langkawi; Perak; P Tioman), Lesser Sunda Is. (Lombok), Borneo, Philippines, N Sulawesi, Moluccas (Morotai; Ambon), and New Guinea. Ecol. Coastal and lowland forest; up to 1300m. Photos
  20. Ficus chrysolepis Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 215, 286; --King, Sp. Ficus 1 (1887) 24, t.20; --Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 11, incl. var. longepedunculata Merr. --Ficus longepedunculata (Merr.) Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 50, 244; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 55; --Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3450; --Sata, Monogr. (1944) 181. --Ficus hallieri Merr. ex Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 536; ibid. 4 (1911) 1243; --Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 54; EPFP 2 (1923) 53; --Sata, Monogr. (1944) 181. --Ficus magallanensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1315. Philippines, Sulawesi, and Moluccas (Ambon, Obi). Ecol. Lowland and mountain forest, up to 1700m. Photos
  21. Ficus concinna (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 286; --Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1879) f.382; --Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 199; --Vidal, Phan.Cuming. (1885) 146; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 251; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 176; EPFP 2 (1923) 49; --Sata, Monogr. (1944) 188; --Urostigma concinnum Miq. in Hook., London J. Bot. 6 (1847) 570; Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 343; --Type: Cuming 1940 (U, holo; BM, E, L, K, iso), Philippines. --Ficus parvifolia (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 286 non Oken; --Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 199; --Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 146; Rev. Pl.Vasc. Filip. (1886) 251; --Urostigma parvifolium Miq., London J. Bot. 6 (1847) 568; --Type: Cuming 1935 (U, holo; BM, E, L, K, iso), Philippines. --Ficus arayatensis Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 3 (1905) 196; --Syntypes: Warburg 14035 (B, K?), Warburg 14036 (B, K?), Warburg 14037 (B, K?), Luzon,
    Pampanga, Mt. Arayat. India, Bhutan, Myanmar, S China, Indo-China, Thailand, Vietnam, Andaman Is, Malay Peninsula (Kota Glanggi, Pahang), N Borneo (Bod Goya Is), Sumatra, Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, MARINDUQUE, PALAWAN. Lowland and montane forest, up to 1900 m; sometimes planted in the Philippines.
  22. Ficus congesta Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 66, nomen; Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 560; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 51; ibid. 21 (1965) 88; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 411, Map 11. Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Buru, Seram, Ambon, Tanimbar Isls), New Guinea (incl. New Britain). LUZON: Isabela, Aurora, Quezon, Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO, BASILAN. Forest, often near streams, mostly at low elevation. Photos 
  23. Ficus cordatula Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 131; EPFP 2 (1923) 50; --Sata, Monogr. (1944) 210, --Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 210; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 14; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 642. --Ficus strangularis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1382; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 66; --Sata, Monogr. (1944) 206. --Ficus camarinensis Merr., PJS 9 (1914) Bot. 269; EPFP 2 (1923) 47; --Sata, Monogr. (1944) 212. --Ficus silvestrei Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3462; --Sata, Monogr. (1944) 212. --Ficus cordatula Merr. var. sericea (C.B.Rob.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 381; --Ficus sericea C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 319; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 65; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 210. Philippines (Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao), NE Sulawesi (Minahassa). Lowland and submontane forest.
  24. Ficus crassiramea (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 286; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 384. --Urostigma crassirameum Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1851) 48; Fl. Ind. Bat. 1 (1857) 339. --Ficus procera (non Reinw. ex Blume) King, Sp. Ficus 1 (1887) 35, t.40; --Corner, Wayside Trees (1940) 678, f.251; Backer, Bekn. Fl. Java (emerg. ed.) 6 (1948) fam.129, p.49. --Ficus crassicalyx Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3457; --Sata, Monogr. (1944) 203. Photos
  25. Ficus cucurbitina King, Sp. Ficus 1 (1887) 22, t.17; Merr., En.Born. (1921) 222. --Ficus elliptifolia Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 55; EPFP 2 (1923) 51; --Sata, Monogr. (1944) 209. Malay Peninsula (SE Johore), Borneo (Pontianak, Sandakan, Nunukan I.), Philippines (Mindanao). Ecol. Lowland swampy forest, rare.
  26. Ficus cumingii Miq. in Hook., London J. Bot. 7 (1848) 232; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 174; EPFP 2 (1923) 50; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 29, t. 30, 31, 238, 284; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 66; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 221, Map 3. --Ficus cumingii var. angustissima (Merr.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 458; --Ficus angustissima Merr., Publ. Govt. Lab. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 11; EPFP 2 (1923) 45. --Ficus multiramea Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1259. --Ficus cumingii var. terminalifolia (Elmer) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 239, 285; --Ficus terminalifolia Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1318. --Ficus celtoides Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1388; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 49; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 28. --?Ficus euphlebia Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 364; EPFP 2 (1923) 51. --Ficus producta Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 270; EPFP 2 (1923) 62; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 287. --Ficus cumingii var. worcesteri (Merr.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 458; --Ficus worcesteri Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 274; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 68; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 267. Taiwan, Philippines, Borneo (Sabah), Sulawesi. Forest and secondary growth, 0-1400m. Photos 
  27. Ficus cuneiformis C.C.Berg, Blumea 56 (2011) 164; --Ficus cuneata (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 297, non Blume 1825; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 415; --Ficus ribes Reinw. ex Blume var. cuneata (Miq.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 44; ibid. 21 (1965) 85; --Covellia cuneata Miq., London J. Bot. 7 (1848) 466, t. 8B; --Type: Cuming 1938 (L, holo), Philippines. --Ficus ribes Reinw. ex Blume var. cuneata (Miq.) Corner forma stenophylla Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 44. LUZON, MINDORO, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Forests at low elevation. Photos 
  28. Ficus deltoidea Jack, Mal. Misc. 2 (1822) 71; --Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 37; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 420; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 90, Fig. 24a-h. Photos
  29. Ficus depressa Blume, Cat. (1823) 35; Bijdr. (1825) 450; --Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 286; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing 17 (1960) 380. Urostigma depressum (Blume) Miq. in Hook. Lond.J. Bot. 6 (1847) 576; Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 351. --Ficus prunniformis Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 451; --Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 266, 286; --King, Sp. Ficus 1 (1887) 24, t.21; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 62; --Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3453; --Corner, Wayside Trees (1940) 678; --Sata, Monogr. (1944) 182, 251; --Backer, Bekn. Fl. Java (emerg. ed.) 6 (1948) fam. 129, p.42; --Urostigma pruniforme (Blume) Miq. in Zoll., Syst. Verz. 2 (1854) 91, 97; Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 352; Suppl. (1861) 440. --Ficus johnsoni Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 190. --Ficus iwahigensis Elmer ibid. 4 (1912) 1381 (pr.p. foliorum, alt.p. F. forstenii Miq.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 55; --Sata, Monogr. (1944) 252. – Fig. 27, 38. Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java, Lesser Sunda Is. (Bali, Sumbawa, Sumba), Borneo, Philippines. Lowland forest, up to 1000 m.
  30. Ficus disticha Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 458; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 51; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 337; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 58; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 499, Fig. 93a, b.
  31. Ficus drupacea Thunb., Diss. Fic. (1786) 6, 11; Miq., Ann. Mus.Bot.Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 286; Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 380. --Urostigma drupaceum (Thunb.) Miq. in Hook., London J. Bot. 6 (1847) 581. --Ficus pilosa Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 446; --Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 260, 285; -- Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1880) 200, t. 203; --King, Sp. Ficus 1 in Hook. (1887) 21, t.16; --Burkill, Dict. (1935) 1012; --Corner, Wayside Trees (1940) 678; --Backer, Blumea 6 (1948) 305; Bekn. Fl. Java (em.ed.) 6 (1948) fam.129, p.43. --Ficus payapa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 683; ibid. ed. 2 (1845) 475; ibid. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 86, t. 203; --Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 79; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 125; EPFP 2 (1923) 60; --Sata, Monogr. (1944) 207. --Ficus vidaliana Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 3 (1905) 197. Photos
  32. Ficus edanoi Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 62; EPFP 2 (1923) 51; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 352; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 43; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 94, Map 1. LUZON. Coastal forests and on rocks near sea.
  33. Ficus elmeri Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 9; EPFP 2 (1923) 51; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 278; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 465; ibid. 21 (1965) 69; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 223. --Ficus subintegra (Merr.) Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 56; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 66; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 277; --Ficus elmeri var. subintegra Merr., Publ. Govt. Lab. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 10. --Ficus kamelii Merr. ex Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 276; --Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3487. N & W Sulawesi and the Philippines. LUZON, POLILLO, CEBU, BOHOL, SAMAR. Forests, elevation up to 1500m. Reportedly cultivated because of the good taste of the figs. 
  34. Ficus fiskei Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 195; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 52; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 280; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 67; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 227. --Ficus fiskei var. cebuensis Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 68; EPFP 2 (1923) 52; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 281. --Ficus fiskei var. laevifolia Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 69; EPFP 2 (1923) 52; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 281. --Ficus fiskei var. multinervia Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 459. --Ficus hemicardia Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 275; EPFP 2 (1923) 54; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 279. LUZON to MINDANAO (not in Palawan?). Forest (in rocky places), up to c. 1300m. Photos
  35. Ficus fistulosa Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 470; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 93; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 418, Map 12. Photos
  36. Ficus forstenii Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 214 285; --King, Sp. Ficus 1 (1887) 29, t.29. --Ficus palawanensis Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 11; --Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1244; ibid. 4 (1912) 1380; ibid. 7 (1914) 2393; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 60; PJS 29 (1926) 364; --Sata, Monogr. (1944) 205. --Ficus iwahigensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1381 (pr.p. receptac.; alt.p. = F.depressa Blume). Photos
  37. Ficus gigantifolia Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 9; EPFP 2 (1923) 52; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 211; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 31; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 147. LUZON, BOHOL, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Forests, up to 1200m. Photos
  38. Ficus glaberrima Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 451. var. bracteata Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 388. --Ficus lawesii King, J. As. Soc. Beng. 55, ii (1887) 403; Sp. Ficus App. (1888) 4, t.228A; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 663, Fig. 118b-f; Map 18. --Ficus adamii Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1258, as ‘adamsii’, 1521; ibid. 7 (1914) 2410; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 44; --Sata, Monogr. (1944) 184. --Ficus villamilii Merr. ex Sata, loc. cit. 183. Peninsular India, in Malesia: Borneo (E Kalimantan: Kutai; Sarawak), Philippines, Moluccas (Halmahera), New Guinea. Lowland and mountain forest, to 1000 m; common in New Guinea. The figs are sweet and juicy.
  39. Ficus glandulifera (Wall. ex Miq.) King, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 2 (1888) 143, t. 180; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 433; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 109. Thailand, Sumatra, Riouw Archipelago, Banka, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Morotai, Sula Isls, Seram, Ambon, Aru Isls), New Guinea. LUZON, PALAWAN. Forests, alt. to 1500m.
  40. Ficus glareosa Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1393; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 53; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 356; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 44; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 95, Map 1. PALAWAN. Lowland and submontane forests, up to 900m.
  41. Ficus gul Lauterb. & K Schum., Fl. Schutzgeb. Sudsee (1901) 278; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 452; ibid. 21 (1965) 63; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 229. --Ficus manilensis Warb. in Perkins Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 199; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 56; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 265. --Ficus rudis Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat.32 (1867) 222, 291, non Pers. 1807; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 64; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 264; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 63. Borneo (N & E), Philippines (except Palawan, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (Flores), Moluccas (Talaud Isls, Halmahera, Buru, Seram, Tanimbar Isls, Kei Isls), New Guinea, Admiralty Isls, New Britain. Forest and secondary growth, 0-1500 (-2000)m. Photos
  42. Ficus heteropleura Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 466; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 480; ibid. 21 (1965) 77; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 274. --Ficus caudatifolia Warb. in Perkins Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 194; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 48; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 231. --Ficus caudatifolia var. eucaudata Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 231; --Ficus eucaudata Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 40. --Ficus heteropleura var. mindanaensis (Warb.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 480; --Ficus mindanaensis Warb. in Perkins Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 195; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 58; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 233. NE India, Bhutan, Burma, China (Hainan), Indochina, and Thailand to Malesia: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (Flores), Moluccas (Buru, Seram, Ambon, Bacan). Forest or secondary growth, up to 1500m.
  43. Ficus heteropoda Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 232; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 54; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 275; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21(1965) 65; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 232, Map 5. --Ficus decussata Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 3 (1905) 198. --Ficus anomala Merr., PJS 1 suppl. (1906) 183. Philippines, Sulawesi (incl. Sangi Isls), Moluccas (Talaud Isls, Halmahera, Ambon). Throughout the Philippines. Low altitude forests and secondary growth.
  44. Ficus inaequifolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 242; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 66; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 229;--Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 477; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 276. --Ficus subulata Blume forma inaequifolia (Elmer) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 231. --Ficus caudatolongifolia Sata, J. Jap. Bot. (1934) 550; Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 49, t. 42. LUZON, MINDORO, NEGROS, MINDANAO. Lowland forests and secondary growth.
  45. Ficus involucrata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 447; --Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 286; --King, Sp. Ficus 1 (1887) 34, t.38; --Backer, Bekn. Fl. Java (emerg. ed.) 6 (1948) fam.129, p.49, 50; -- Urostigma involucratum (Blume) Miq., Fl. lnd. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 334. Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali), Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO. Mountain forest, 800-1700 m, not uncommon in Java but rare elsewhere.
  46. Ficus kerkhovenii Val. in Koord. & Val., Bijdr. 11 (1906) 84; --Corner, Wayside Trees (1940) 680, f.251, t.200 ("Johore Fig"); --Backer, Bekn.Fl.Java (em.ed. 6 (1948) fam. 129, p. 43 (sub. F. altissima Blume ). --Ficus lanaoensis Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 56; EPFP 2 (1923) 55; --Sata, Monogr. (194) 203. Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Banka, W. Java, E. Borneo, Philippines (Luzon). Lowland forest, often left in forest clearings.
  47. Ficus laevicarpa Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1395; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 55; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 271; --Type: Elmer 12776
    (L, iso), Palawan, Puerto Princesa, (Mt Pulgar). PALAWAN (endemic).
  48. Ficus lepicarpa Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 459; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 90; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 430, Map 10; --?Ficus lepicarpa Blume var. suluensis Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 54. Lower Burma, Peninsular Thailand, Sumatra (and adjacent isls), Peninsular Malaysia (excl. Singapore), Java, Anambas Isls, Natuna Isls, Borneo (Sabah, Sarawak), Philippines, Sulawesi (Minahassa, S part), Moluccas (Halmahera, Bacan, Obi, Buru, Seram, Ambon). Forest and secondary growth, often along streams, up to 1500m.
  49. Ficus linearifolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 257; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 55; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 306; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 432. --Ficus botryocarpa var. linearifolia (Elmer) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 44. --Ficus cervina Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 543; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 49; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 306. --Ficus merrillii Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 282; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 57; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 311. --Ficus olivacea Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3437, invalid name, no Latin descr.; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 312. LUZON, NEGROS, LEYTE. Forest, up to 900m. Photos
  50. Ficus magnoliifolia Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 448; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 31, as ‘magnoliaefolia’; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 153. --Ficus nervosa auct. non B Heyne ex Roth (1821); --Merr. EPFP 2 (1923) 58; --Elmer LPB 9 (1937) 3475; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 184. --Ficus nervosa var. apoensis (Elmer) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 186; --Ficus apoensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1249; ibid. 7 (1914) 2414. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls. LUZON, LEYTE, MINDANAO. Forests, alt. up to 1800m. Photos
  51. Ficus melinocarpa Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 460; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 68; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 236, Map 6. --Ficus haggeri Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 62; EPFP 2 (1923) 53; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 360. --Ficus melinocarpa var. hololampra (Diels) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1905) 462; --Ficus hololampra Diels, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 67 (1937) 201. --Ficus collinsii Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3468; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 361. --Ficus irosinensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3473; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 360. Sumatra, Java, Borneo (N & E), Philippines, Sulawesi (Minahassa), Moluccas (Morotai, Halmahera, Obi Isls, Sula Isls, Seram, Ambon, Aru Isls), New Guinea (New Britain). Forests and secondary growth, up to 800m. Photos
  52. Ficus microcarpa L.f., Suppl. (1782) 442; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 397; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 666, Fig. 108j-q, 123, 124a-g. --Ficus retusa auctt. non L., 1767; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 63; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 198. Sri Lanka, through India and China to S Japan and the Ryukyu Isls, and through Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java (incl. Christmas Isls), Lesser Sunda Isls (Alor, Bali, Flores, Sumbawa), Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sangi Isls, Talaud Isls, Moluccas (Morotai, Halmahera, Ternate, Buru, Seram, Ambon, Kai Isls), New Guinea, New Britain, New Ireland, Australia (Queensland). Forests, along rivers, on cliffs, and in coastal vegetation, up to c. 1200m.
  53. Ficus microsphaera Warb. in Perkins Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 199; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 57; (as ‘microsphaeria’). --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 286; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 78; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 280. MINDORO, PANAY, BOHOL, MINDANAO. Forests, up to 1900m.
  54. Ficus minahassae (Teijsm. & Vriese) Miq., Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 231; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 57; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 302; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 73; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 373, Fig. 70; Map 9; --Bosscheria minahassae Teijsm. & Vriese, Natuurk. Tijdrschr. Ned.-Indië 23 (1861) 212. --Ficus glomerata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 683, non Roxb. 1798. N Borneo, NE Sulawesi and the Philippines. Widespread from LUZON to MINDANAO and BASILAN. Forest at low elevation. Photos
  55. Ficus multistipularis Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 66; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 58; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 325; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 89; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 435, Fig. 85; Map 10. LUZON, CATANDUANES, SAMAR. Forest, often along streams, at low elevation. Photos
  56. Ficus nervosa Roth in Roemer & Schultes, Syst. Veg. 1 (1817) 513; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 31; --CC Berg, Blumea 48 (2003) 298.
  57. Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 10; Fl. Manila (1912) 174; EPFP 2 (1923) 52; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 304; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 88; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 435. Map 10. --Ficus merrittii Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1376, non Merr. 1909. N Borneo and the Philippines. Lowland and montane forest, often along stream, up to 1300m. Photos
  58. Ficus obscura Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 474; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 78; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 281. Sumatra, Java, Borneo, S Philippines. MINDANAO. Forests, up to 1500m. Photos
  59. Ficus odorata (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 15; Fl. Manila (1912) 174; EPFP 2 (1923) 59; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 278, 359; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 69; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 240. BATANES, LUZON, PANAY, NEGROS, BOHOL, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Lowland forests, often in secondary growths, near streams, and on rocks. Leaves aromatic on drying. Photos
  60. Ficus oleifolia King, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calc. 2 (1888) 160, t. 204b; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 38; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 97, Fig. 25. Photos
  61. Ficus parietalis Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 462; --Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 317; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 77; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 283. Vietnam, Thailand and Malesia: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Moluccas (Seram). PALAWAN, BALABAC (Katakupan). On tree trunk in lowland forest near stream; forests or secondary growth, up to 1300 (-2000)m.
  62. Ficus pedunculosa Miq. in Hook., London J. Bot. 7 (1848) 442; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 61; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 352; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 39; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 101, Fig. 26a-f; Map 1. --Ficus luzonensis Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 8; EPFP 2 (1923) 56; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 351. --Ficus pedunculosa var. confertifolia (Merr.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 426; --Ficus confertifolia Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 59; EPFP 2 (1923) 50; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 353. --Ficus pedunculosa var. imberbis (Elmer) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 426; --Ficus imberbis (Elmer) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 351; --Ficus luzonensis Merr. var. imberbis Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1323; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 56. --Ficus pedunculosa var. macropoda (Miq.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 426; --Ficus macropoda Miq. in Hook., London J. Bot. 7 (1848) 442; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 56; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 350. --Ficus pedunculosa var. mearnsii (Merr.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 427; --Ficus mearnsii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 402; EPFP 2 (1923) 57; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 353, t. 53, Fig. 3. Taiwan, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Sula Isls, Buru, Seram, Aru Isls), W New Guinea. Forests, thickets, coastal vegetation, and secondary growth, 0-2000m. Photos
  63. Ficus pellucidopunctata Griff., Notul. 4 (1854) 394; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 394; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 230, Map 15. --Ficus indica L. var. gelderi (Miq.) King, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 1 (1887) 39, t. 45; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 54; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 199; --Ficus gelderi Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 216, 287. --Ficus everettii Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 538; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 202. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, SW Philippines. PALAWAN. Forests, up to 1500m. Photos
  64. Ficus peninsula Elmer ex C.C.Berg, Blumea 56 (2011) 164; --Ficus peninsula Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3433 nom. inval., --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 250; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 60; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 505; --Type: Elmer 16116 (PNH, holo; L, iso), Luzon,
    Sorsogon, Irosin, May-1916. --Ficus apiocarpa Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 249; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 45, non Miq. 1867. LUZON: Batangas, Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon. Forests at medium elevation.
  65. Ficus perfulva Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 61; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 349; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 59; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 554. --Ficus fulva Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2407, non Reinw. ex Blume 1825. LUZON, MINDANAO. Forests, up to c. 1100m.
  66. Ficus pisifera Wall. ex Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calc. (1845) 285; --Miq. in Hook., London J. Bot. 7 (1848) 427; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 61; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 235; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 284. --Ficus obscura var. scaberrima (Blume) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 273; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 482; ibid. 21 (1965) 79; --Ficus scaberrima Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 474. --Ficus flavocortica Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1241; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 52; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 236. --Ficus viridifolia Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 366; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 68. --Ficus obscura var. borneensis (Miq.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 481; ibid. 21 (1965) 78; --Ficus microtus var. borneensis Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 273. --Ficus obscura var. kunstleri (King) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 481; --Ficus celebica Blume var. kunstleri King, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 1 (1887) 12, t. 10A. --Ficus celebica Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 187; ibid. 1 (1907) 239; ibid. 2 (1908) 534; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 48, auct. non Blume (1825). Peninsular Thailand and Malaysia, Sumatra (incl. Banka, Simalur, Lingga Archipelago, Mentawai Isls), Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi (Sangi Isls), Moluccas (Talaud Isls). LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, CEBU, SAMAR. Forests and secondary growth, up to 2000m. Photos
  67. Ficus pisocarpa Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 454; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 394; ibid. 21 (1965) 20; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 674, Map 15. --Urostigma tjiela Miq., London J. Bot. 6 (1847) 580, non Ficus tsiela Roxb., 1832; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 395; ibid. 21 (1965) 20. –Syntypes: Cuming 1931 (L), Philippines, without locality; Griffith 31 (not traced by CC Berg) from Burma. The former specimen, representing F. pisocarpa Blume, is designated by CC Berg (2005) as lecto. --Ficus episima Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 394; ibid. 21 (1965) 20; --Type: PNH 10269, Mindanao: Surigao prov. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, S Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur (Mt Apo), Bukidnon (Mt Kitanglad), Surigao. Forests, up to 1200 (-1700)m.
  68. Ficus polyantha Warb. in K. Schum. & Lauterb., Nachtr. Fl. Schutzgeb. Südsee (1905) 250; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 30; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 156. Philippines, Moluccas (Seram, Halmahera, Kai Isls, Sula), New Guinea, New Ireland. LUZON, BOHOL, LEYTE, MINDANAO. Forests, up to c. 1000m. Often common and gregarious.
  69. Ficus prasinicarpa Elmer ex C.C.Berg, Blumea 56 (2011) 164; --Ficus prasinicarpa Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3451, nom. inval.; --Sata, Monogr. (1944) 214; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 8; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 606, Fig. 104; Map 13; --Type: Elmer 16129 (PNH, holo; L, iso), Luzon, Sorsogon, Irosin, May-1916. Sulawesi, Moluccas (Morotai), Waigeo, Kei Isls, Aru Isls, New Guinea, Bougainville Isls., Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan, Quezon, Sorsogon, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, PALAWAN. Often in littoral vegetation on coral limestone, sometimes as hemi-epiphyte in secondary growth. 
  70. Ficus pseudopalma Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 680; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 379, Fig. 73. --Ficus palmifolia Usteri, Publ. Govt. Lab. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 9; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 173; EPFP 2 (1923) 62; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 321; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 36. LUZON: Pangasinan, Mountain Province, Benguet, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Albay, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PANAY, NEGROS, GUIMARAS, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Lowland and medium altitude thickets, forest and secondary growth, up to 1300m. Photos
  71. Ficus punctata Thunb., Diss. Ficus (1786) 9; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 10 (1939) 137, t. 8, 22-25, 33; ibid. 21 (1965) 61; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 507. --Ficus aurantiacea Griff. var. parvifolia (Corner) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 23; --Ficus callicarpa Miq. var. parvifolia Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 10 (1939) 116, t. 32. --Ficus megacarpa Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 14; EPFP 2 (1923) 57; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 248. --Ficus falcata Thunb., Ficus (1786) 8; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 51; --Type: Not accredited to the Philippines by Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 61. Nicobar Isls, Burma, Indochina, Thailand, Taiwan, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Alor, Timor), Moluccas (Morotai, Seram, Ambon). Forests, up to 1500m. Photos
  72. Ficus pungens Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 478; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 450; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 375, Fig. 71; Map 9. --Ficus kalingaensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 370; EPFP 2 (1923) 55; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp.  Univ. 32 (1944) 305. Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea (incl. New Britain). Forests and secondary growth, up to 1700m.
  73. Ficus pustulata Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1389; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 63; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 316, 354; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 43, incl. vars.; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 102, Fig. 26g-n. --Ficus cardinalicarpa Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1391; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 47; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 355, 356. --Ficus pustulata var. lanceifolia (Sata) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 429; --Ficus cardinalicarpa var. lanceifolia Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 356. LUZON?, PALAWAN, DUMARAN. Often along streams (sometimes rheophytic), cliffs or secondary growth, at low elevation. Photos
  74. Ficus recurva Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 457; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 63; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 348; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 56; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 537.
  75. Ficus rivularis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 272; EPFP 2 (1923) 64; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 339; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 35; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 381, Fig. 74. LUZON. Along streams at low elevation. Photos
  76. Ficus ruficaulis Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 13; EPFP 2 (1923) 64; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 316, 357, 368; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 47; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 121, Fig. 28g-k. Taiwan, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON, MINDANAO. Forests, up to 1200m. Photos
  77. Ficus sagittata J Koenig ex Vahl, Symb. Bot. 1 (1790) 83; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 11; ibid. 19 (1962) 390, t. 3; ibid. 21 (1965) 55; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 543. --Ficus ramentacea Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 103, nom. nud., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 547. --Ficus bordenii Merr., Publ. Govt. Lab. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 11; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 250; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 97; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 544; --Type: FB 1211 Borden (K, iso). Luzon: Bataan prov., Lamao River, June 1904. Type specimen is a mixture of leaves of F. sagittata Vahl and figs of F. punctata. The former element in K is designated by CC Berg (2005) as lecto of F. sagittata. --Ficus ramosii Merr. ex Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 342. --Ficus rubrocarpa Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3476; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 343. --Ficus sagittata var. minor Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 12. --Ficus tayabensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 255; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 66; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 340. --Ficus sagittata var. oligosperma (Miq.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 12; --Ficus oligosperma Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1851) 55. NE India, Sikkim, Bangladesh, Andaman Isls, Burma, Thailand, Indochina, S China, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (Timor), Moluccas (Talaud, Halmahera, Bacan), Micronesia (Caroline Isls: Palau). Forests, up to 1500m.
  78. Ficus samarana C.C.Berg, Blumea 57 (2012) 151; --Type: Reynosa & Majaducon PPI 21974 (L, holo; K, iso), Philippines, Samar, Paranas, Campo Uno, 400 m,
    1 May 1996. SAMAR.
  79. Ficus satterthwaitei Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 199; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 64; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 311; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 51; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 448. --Ficus appendiculata Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 57; EPFP 2 (1923) 45; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 314. --Ficus binuangensis Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 67; EPFP 2 (1923) 47; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 314. N Borneo (Mt Kinabalu) and the Philippines. LUZON, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Forests, up to 1300m.
  80. Ficus saxophila Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 437; --Miq., Ann. Mus.Bot.Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 260, 287; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 47; --Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 537; --Koord., Atlas 4 (1916) t.702; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 65; --Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3478; --Sata, Monogr. (1944) 537; --Backer, Bekn. Fl. Java (emerg. ed.) 6 (1948) fam.129, p.44; --Blumea 6 (1948) 303; --Urostigma saxophilum (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 333; --Type from Indonesia. Thailand, Laos, S Vietnam, E Java, Christmas Isls, Lesser Sunda Isls (Timor), Central-N Sulawesi, Philippines, Moluccas (Buru), New Guinea (Manokwari).
  81. Ficus septica Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 226, excl. syn. Rheede [F. septica Rumph., Herb. Amboin. 3 (1743) 153, t. 96]; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 27; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 92; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 452, Map 12. --Ficus hauili Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 684; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 175; EPFP 2 (1923) 53; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 271. --Ficus philippinensis Bonard ex Hérincq. Hort. France (1869) 244. --Ficus didymophylla Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. 3 (1905) 200. --Ficus septica var. salicifolia Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 62. --Ficus brunnea Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 56; EPFP 2 (1923) 47; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 252. --Ficus laxiramea Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1257; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 55; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 273. --Ficus linearis Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 65; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 55; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 263. NE India to S China, Taiwan, throughout Malesia to Australia (Queensland) to the Vanuatu. Lowland and montane forests or secondary growth, often near rivers, up to 1800m. Photos
  82. Ficus sohotonensis CC Berg, Blumea 48 (2003) 561, Fig. 4; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 512; --Type: Gutierrez et al. 622 (L, holo), Samar: Mt Sohoton. SAMAR. Forest at low elevation. Note by L.L.Co: Thus far known only from the type collection.
  83. Ficus stricta (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 266; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 21; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 679; --Urostigma strictum Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1851) 50. Andaman Isls, S China, Indochina, Sumatra (Aceh), Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines. LUZON, probably only in cultivation. Forests, up to 2000m.
  84. Ficus subcordata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 440; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 395; --ibid. 21 (1965) 21; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 680, Fig. 124h-l, 127. --Ficus calophylloides Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1246; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 47; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 201. Thailand, Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali, Flores, Sumbawa, Timor), New Guinea, New Britain. Forests, up to 1000m.
  85. Ficus subulata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 461; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 66; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 229; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 76; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 290, Fig. 55. --Ficus confusa Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 47. --Ficus subulata Blume forma driveri Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 231; --Ficus driveri Elmer, LPB 7 (1914) 2397. Sikkim to S China to Thailand, throughout Malesia and the Solomon Isls (but not recorded from Johore, Singapore, Riouw Archipelago, Banka, and Timor). Lowland and montane forests, up to 2000m. Photos
  86. Ficus sulcata Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1377; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 66; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 317; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 457. --Ficus mirabilis Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 58; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 58; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 305. LUZON, PALAWAN, PANAY. Forests and secondary growth, at low elevation.
  87. Ficus sumatrana (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 263, 287, t.10B; --King, Sp. Ficus 1 (1887) 40, t.35B; --Urostigma sumatranum Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1851) 49; Fl. Ind. Bat. 1 2 (1859) 341; Suppl. (1861) 437. --Ficus indica (non L.) Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 49, 243; --Merr., EPFP (1923) 54; --Sata, Monogr. (1944) 199.
  88. Ficus sundaica Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 450; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 389; ibid. 21 (1965) 18; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 684, Fig. 129. Burma, Indochina, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls (?Bali), ?Moluccas. PALAWAN. Forest (islands) or scrubs, often on white sand or in swamps, up to 1100m.
  89. Ficus tinctoria G Forst., Prodr. Fl. Austr. (1786) 76; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 66; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 226; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 475; ibid. 21 (1965) 74; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 292. --Ficus tinctoria ssp. swinhoei (King) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 476; --Ficus swinhoei King, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 2 (1888) 81, t. 101c. --Ficus antoniana Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1374; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 45; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 339. --Ficus fenicis Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 66; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 52; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 337. Photos
  90. Ficus trichocarpa Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 458; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 59; ibid. 21 (1965) 59; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 556. --Ficus trichocarpa var. obtusa (Hassk.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 19; --Ficus obtusa Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bogor. (1844) 75; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 59. --Ficus trichocarpa var. piperifolia (Miq.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 10; --Pogonotrophe piperifolia Miq. in Zoll., Syst. Verz. 2 (1854) 93, 99. --Ficus ahernii Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 61; EPFP 2 (1923) 44; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 350. Thailand, Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumba, Sumbawa, Flores), Moluccas. Forests, up to 1300m. Photos
  91. Ficus ulmifolia Lam., Encycl. 2 (1788) 499; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 174; EPFP 2 (1923) 67; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 239; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 66; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 258, Fig. 51, Map 3. --Ficus ulmifolia forma sinuosa (Miq.) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 283; --Ficus sinuosa Miq., London J. Bot. 7 (1848) 232. --Ficus blepharostoma Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1905) 197; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 47; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 241. --Ficus sparsifolia Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 64; EPFP 2 (1923) 65; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 83. --Ficus velascoi Merr. ex Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 242, 275. Philippines (widespread, but not in Palawan and Mindanao?). Lowland second-growth forest, open grassy places, on rocky sites, extreme ultramafic sites. Photos
  92. Ficus uniglandulosa Wall. ex Miq. in Hook., London J. Bot. 7 (1848) 431; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 79; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 296. --Ficus uniglandulosa var. parvifolia Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 277. --Ficus copelandii C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 176; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 50; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 227. Burma, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN, MINDANAO, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Forest (margins) and on rocks and cliffs, up to 1700(-2300)m; if (pseudo- or hemi-?) epiphytic, then up to 20m from the forest floor. Photos
  93. Ficus variegata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 459; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 68; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 366; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 83; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 348, Fig. 58g-l; Map 7. --Ficus variegata var. garciae (Elmer) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 33; --Ficus garciae Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 550; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 52; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 371. --Ficus variegata var. ilangoides (Elmer) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 33; --Ficus ilangoides Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3443; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 372. --Ficus variegata var. sycomoroides (Miq.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 18 (1960) 33; --Ficus sycomoroides Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 230, 290. --Ficus integrifolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 61; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 54; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 365. --Ficus laevigata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 682, non Vahl 1805; --Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 125. --Ficus latsonii Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 204. --Ficus variegata Blume var. paucinervia (Merr.) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 367. --Ficus compressitora Elmer, LPB 9 (1937) 3443; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 314, 367. --Ficus variegata var. paucinervia (Merr.) Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 367; --Ficus paucinervia Merr., PJS 1 suppl. (1906) 44; EPFP 2 (1923) 54. --Ficus agusanensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3762. NE India to Burma, S China, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, Indochina, S Andaman Isls, and to Thailand, Malesia, the Solomon Isls, and Australia (Queensland). In Malesia throughout the region. Forest and secondary growth, up to 1200m; often in villages and gardens. Photos
  94. Ficus villosa Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 441; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 68; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 346; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 19 (1962) 390, t. 3; idem. 21 (1965) 56; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 547. --Ficus grossivenis Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 227, 294; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 55. --Ficus jaroensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 268; EPFP 2 (1923) 55; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 343. --Ficus lagunensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 273; EPFP 2 (1923) 55; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 344. --Ficus propinqua Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 8; EPFP 2 (1923) 62; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 345. --Ficus crininervia Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 69; EPFP 2 (1923) 50, non Miq. (1860-61). NE India, Andaman Isls, Burma, S China, Thailand, Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Talaud, Seram). LUZON, PALAWAN, MINDANAO. Forests up to c. 1700m. Photos
  95. Ficus virens Aiton, Hort. Kew. 3 (1789) 451, excl. cit. Sloane; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 376; --Burkill, Dict. (1935) 1011; --Backer, Bekn. Fl. Java (em. ed.) 6 (1948) fam. 129, p.51. Sri Lanka, India, Burma, S. China, Hainan, Andaman Is., Indo-China, Thailand, through Malesia to the Carolines, Solomons, and N.Australia; in Malesia: Sumatra (north; west coast), Malaya (Langkawi Is.), Java, Lesser Sunda Is. (east to Timor), Sulawesi, Philippines, Moluccas, New Guinea (also New Britain). Ecol. Coastal forest, also in monsoon forest, savannah forest, and on cliffs, apparently not in inland lowland rain-forest (except in eastern Malesia, up to 1300 m in New Guinea, and Australia). Photos
  96. Ficus virgata Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 454, non Roxb. 1823; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 477; ibid., 21 (1965) 75; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 297. --Ficus virgata var. philippinensis (Miq.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 17 (1960) 477; --Ficus philippinensis Miq. in Hook., London J. Bot. 7 (1848) 435; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 61; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 228; --Type: Cuming 1937 (K). --Ficus philippinensis var. magnifica Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 229; --Ficus magnifica Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 51; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 61; --Type: Elmer 8010 (not seen), Luzon: Benguet prov., Sablan, along river. Borneo, Philippines (excl. Palawan), Sulawesi (incl. Sangi), Lesser Sunda Isls (Flores, Alor, Wetar, Timor), Moluccas (Talaud Isls, Sula Isls, Seram, Ambon, Banda Besar), New Guinea (incl. New Britain), Solomon Isls, Vanuatu (Tanna), New Caledonia, Australia (Queensland). Forest and second growth, up to 1700m. Photos
  97. Ficus warburgii Elmer, LPB 1 (1907) 247; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 68; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 340; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 60; --CC Berg & Corner,  Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 515. LUZON, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Montane forests.

Cultivated

  1. Ficus benghalensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1059; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 381; --CC Berg &  Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 630. Native of Pakistan and India. Widely cultivated in Malesia and elsewhere. Photos
  2. Ficus carica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1059; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 47; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21(1965) 36;  --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 88. Mediterranean to Afghanistan, widely cultivated under subtropical conditions. Photos
  3. Ficus elastica Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 65, nom. nud., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 541 ex Hornem., Hort.  Bot. Hafn., Suppl. (1819) 7; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 175; EPFP 2 (1923) 51; --Corner, Gard. Bull.  Sing. 21 (1965) 24; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 691, Fig. 131. Certainly native to NE India, Sikkim, Burma, N Peninsular Malaysia; probably also occurring naturally in Sumatra and Java. Frequently cultivated in the range indicated, as well as elsewhere in the tropics and subtropics. Photos
  4. Ficus pumila L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1060; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 45;  --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 52; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 518.  Korea, Japan, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, China, Indochina. Cultivated in Malesia, often as creeper on walls. Photos
  5. Ficus religiosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1059; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 63; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 6; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 608.  Indigenous in the subhimalayan forest from Pakistan to SW China (Yunnan), N Thailand, Vietnam. Cultivated in Malesia.

Species incertae sedis:

  1. Ficus merrittii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 252; EPFP 2 (1923) 57; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku  Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 303; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 701; --Type: FB 11466  (US, iso). Mindoro: locality not specified, Apr-May 1908. LUZON: Quezon, Camarines, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, PALAWAN (Addison Peak), SAMAR, MINDANAO, BUCAS GRANDE. Forests at low elevation. Possibly merely a form of F. nota with long ferruginous hairs. 
  2. Ficus sargentii Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 63; EPFP 2 (1923) 64; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 32 (1944) 274; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 701; --Type: Sablaya 10 (not  seen by Corner). ‘...It seems near to, if not identical with, F. heteropoda Miq.

Check occurrence in the Philippines:

  1. Ficus vasculosa Miq., London J. Bot. 7 (1848) 454; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 30; --CC  Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 167, Map 2. Burma, S China, Indochina, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, N & W Borneo. Forest, up to 1300m. According to Hatusima (1965), BATAN plants attributed to F. tinctoria is F. vasculosa Wall. ex King. –subg. Pharmacosycea sect. Oreosycea, subsect. Pedunculatae

Excluded species:

  1. Ficus binnendijkii (Miq.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 288; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing.  21 (1965) 20; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 17 (2005) 633; --Urostigma binnendijkii Miq.,  Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 341. C Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Banka, Borneo (Sarawak, Brunei) and the Philippines. LUZON Not in the Philippines, as per CC Berg’s FM revision, incl. var. coriacea
  2. Ficus bordenii Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 11; --Sata, Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp.  Univ. 32 (1944) 250; --Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 97; --CC Berg & Corner, Fl. Males. ser.  1, 17 (2005) 544; --Type: FB 1211 Borden (K, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov., Lamao River, Jun-1904. Type specimen is a mixture of leaves of F. sagittata Vahl and figs of F. punctata. The former element in K is designated by CC Berg (2005) as lecto of F. sagittata. 
  3. Ficus iwahigensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1381; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 55. Type specimen is a mixture of leaves of F. depressa and figs of F. forstenii

Maclura Nutt.

Photos
  1. Maclura cochinchinensis (Lour.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 19 (1962) 239; --Vaniera cochinchinensis Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 565; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 179; EPFP 2 (1923) 39. --Maclura amboinensis Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 2 (1856) 84. --Vaniera grandifolia (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 39; --Cudrania grandifolia Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 52; --Type: Wenzel 1883, Mindanao: Surigao del Norte prov., Placer, in forest, altitude c. 150m, 11 Jul 1916. --Maclura amboinensis Blume var. paucinervia Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 19 (1962) 239; --Type: Elmer 15530 (K, in Herb. Trec.), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan. Sri Lanka and India, SW & SE China, Indochina, across Malesia to New Britain, Australia and New Caledonia. N LUZON to MINDANAO. Dry thickets and secondary forests from lowlands to c. 1400m. Photos

Malaisia Blanco

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 July 2015

Photos
  1. Malaisia scandens (Lour.) Planch., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. IV, 3 (1855) 293; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 178; EPFP 2 (1923) 37; --Caturus scandens Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 613; --Trophis scandens (Lour.) Hook. & Arn., --Bot. Beechey Voy. 214. --Malaisia tortuosa Blanco, FI. Filip. (1837) 789. --Malaisia blancoi Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1812. Indochina, S China, Taiwan, across Malesia to Australia and Polynesia. N LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. Lowland and medium elevation thickets and forests. Photos

Morus L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 October 2013

Photos
  1. Morus alba L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 986; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 178; EPFP 2 (1923) 36. --Morus australis Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Meth. 4 (1783) 380; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 26. Native to parts of mainland Asia and Japan. Introduced and cultivated in SE Asia. Naturalized in N Luzon. Photos

Parartocarpus Baill.

Photos
  1. Parartocarpus venenosa (Zoll. & Mor.) Becc., Nelle Foreste di Borneo (1902) 632. Photos

 Paratrophis Blume = Trophis subg. Trophis sect. Calpidochlamys (Diels) Corner

Prainea King ex Hook.f. = Artocarpus

Pseudotrophis Warb. = Streblus sect. Pseudotrophis (Warb.) Corner

 Phyllochlamys Bureau = Streblus sect. Phyllochlamys (Bureau) Corner

Sloetia Teijsm. & Binn.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser & Elliot Gardner, 30 August 2016

Photos
  1. Sloetia elongata (Miq.) Koord., Exkursionsfl. Java 2 (1912) 90; --Streblus elongatus (Miq.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Singapore 19 (1962) 227; --Artocarpus elongatus Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 419. Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Philippines. DINAGAT. Photos

Streblus Lour.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 October 2013

Photos
  1. Streblus asper Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 615; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 177; EPFP 2 (1923) 38. Sri Lanka, India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, S China, Hainan, Indochina, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok, Sulawesi and Philippines. Throughout the Philippines in low elevation thickets, especially common in regions with pronounced dry season. Photos
  2. Streblus glaber (Merr.) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 19 (1962) 221; --Gironniera glabra Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 42; EPFP 2 (1923) 35. --Aphananthe negrosensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 575. --Excoecaria baccifera Elmer, ined., based on Elmer 22014, from Mt Pinatubo (NY). Photos
  3. Streblus ilicifolius (Vidal) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 19 (1962) 227; --Taxotrophis ilicifolius Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 249; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 38. Bangladesh, Myanmar, S China, Thailand, Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls., Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, MINDORO, PANAY, NEGROS, CEBU, BASILAN, MINDANAO, SULU, PALAWAN. Dry thickets and thin forests at low elevation. Also on limestone. Photos
  4. Streblus macrophyllus Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 2 (1856) 80. --Pseudotrophis mindanaensis Warb., Perkins Frag. Fl. Philip. (1905) 165; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 36. Thailand, Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. CEBU, LEYTE, BOHOL, BASILAN, MINDANAO. Lowland thickets and forests. Photos
  5. Streblus taxoides (Heyne ex Roth) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 19 (1962) 225; --Phyllochlamys taxoides (Heyne ex Roth) Koord., Exkur. Fl. Java 2 (1912) 89, var. parvifolia Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 247; EPFP 2 (1923) 38. India and Sri Lanka to Indochina, Philippines, Sulawesi and Timor. MINDORO, PALAWAN. Lowland dry forests. Photos

Trophis P.Browne

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 October 2013

No Photos
  1. Trophis philippinensis (Bureau) Corner, Gard. Bull. Sing. 19 (1962) 231; --Paratrophis philippinensis (Bureau) Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 98; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 36; --Uromorus philippinensis Bureau in A.DC., Prodr. 17 (1873) 237. --Paratrophis grandifolia Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1814; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 36. Borneo, Sulawesi, Flores, Sumba, Halmahera, New Guinea, New Britain, Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Albay, Sorsogon, PALAWAN, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation damp forests.

 Vaniera Lour. = Maclura

Cultivated

  1. Castilla elastica Sesse (Castilloa elastica Cervantes synonymous?).

Acknowledgments                                 

Alma Gamil, Elliott Gardner, Muhmin Manting, Benigno Resurreccion, and Greg Rule kindly contributed some of the photos on this webpage. Lillian Rodriguez helped with Ficus identifications.

Literature                                

Berg, CC. 2003. Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceae 1: The main subdivision of Ficus: the subgenera. Blumea 48: 167-178

Berg, CC. 2003. Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceae 2: Ficus subgenus Pharmacosycea section Oreosycea. Blumea 48: 289-301

Berg, CC. 2003. Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceae 3: Ficus subgenus Ficus. Blumea 48: 529-550

Berg, CC. 2003. Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceae 4: Ficus subgenus Synoecia. Blumea 48: 551-571

Berg, CC. 2003. Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceae 5: Ficus subgenus Sycidium. Blumea 48: 573-597

Berg, CC. 2004. Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceae 6: Ficus subgenus Sycomorus. Blumea 49: 155-200


Berg, CC. 2004. Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceae 7: Ficus subgenus Urostigma. Blumea 49: 463-480

Berg, CC. 2005. Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceae 8: Other genera than Ficus. Blumea 50: 535-550

Berg, CC. 2011. Corrective notes on the Malesian members of the genus Ficus (Moraceae). Blumea 56: 161-164


Berg, CC. 2012. Seven new Malesian species of Ficus (Moraceae). Blumea 57: 147-157


Berg, CC & EJH Corner. 2005. Moraceae-Ficus. Flora Malesiana series 1, 17 (2): 1-703.

Berg, CC, EJH Corner & FM Jarrett. 2006. Moraceae genera other than Ficus. Flora Malesiana, Series 1 17 (1): 1-146.

Chantarasuwan, B, CC Berg & PC van Welzen. 2013. A revision of Ficus subsection Urostigma (Moraceae). Systematic Botany 38: 653-686.

Clement, WL & GD Weiblen. 2009. Morphological evolution in the mulberry family (Moraceae). Systematic Botany 34: 530-552.

Corner, EJH. 1962. The classification of Moraceae. Gardens Bulletin Singapore 19: 187-252.

Corner, EJH. 1960. Taxonomic notes on Ficus Linn., Asia and Australasia. V. Subgenus Ficus section Rhizocladus, Kalosyce, Sinosycidium, Adenosperma, and Neomorphe. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 18: 1-35.

Corner, EJH. 1965. A checklist of Ficus in Asia and Australasia with keys to identification. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 21:1-186.

Corner, EJH. 1988. Wayside Trees of Malaya, edition 3: 509-558.

Flora Malesiana online Lucid key to Ficus

Flora Malesiana online Lucid key to Moraceae

Jarrett, FM. 1959. Studies in Artocarpus and allied genera. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 40 (1959) 113-115, 298-326, idem 41 (1960) 327-334.

Kochummen, KM. 1978. Moraceae. Tree Flora of Malaya 3: 119-168.

King, G. 1887. The species of Ficus of the Indo-Malayan and Chinese countries. Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden of Calcutta 1, 1: 1-66, t. 1-87; ibid., 1, 2 (1888) 67-185, t. 87-225.

Sata, T. 1944. A monographic study of the genus Ficus. Contributions from the Horticultural Institute, Taihoku Imperial University 34: 1-405, t. 1-54.

Zerega, NJC, D Ragone & TJ Motley. 2005. Systematics and species limits of breadfruit (Artocarpus, Moraceae). Systematic Botany 30: 603-615.

Zerega, NJC, MNN Supardi & TJ Motley. 2010. Phylogeny and recircumscription of Artocarpeae (Moraceae) with a focus on Artocarpus. Systematic Botany 35: 766-782


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Last updated 2 March 2017