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Musaceae

Ensete Horan.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 31 October 2016

Photos
  1. Ensete edule Bruce ex Horan. --Musa ensete Gmel., Syst. Nat. 13(2) (1791) 567. 
  2. Ensete glaucum (Roxb.) Cheeseman, Kew Bull. 2 (1947, publ. 1948) 101; --Musa glauca Roxb., Pl. Coromandel. 3 (1819) t. 300; --Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 387; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 221.

Musa L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 November 2016

Photos
  1. Musa acuminata Colla, Mem. Gen. Musa 25 (1820) 66. --Musa cavendishii I.M.Lamb ex Paxton var. hawaiiensis Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) 410.
  2. Musa X alinsanaya R.V.Valmayor in Valmayor et al., Philip. Agric. Scientist 87 (2004) 117; --Type: Lelita Gonzal VH 1280 (Leyte State University, Botanical Herbarium, holo), Leyte: Baybay, Leyte State University, Musa Germplasm Bank, 10-Jul-2003. The name was published illegitimately twice (Valmayor 2001: 330; Valmayor et al. 2002: 240) (McNeill et al. 2006: Art. 37.7), since the holotype was not indicated. Valmayor’s (2001) description is based upon a putative hybrid M.banksii × textilis, characterised by Brewbaker & Gorrez(1956: 263). The plant was taken into the cultivation from Philippines (Valmayor 2001). Photos
  3. Musa balbisiana Colla, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino 25 (1820) 384. Tropical and subtropical Asia, Philippines. Photos
  4. Musa coccinea Andrews, Botanist’s Repository 1 (1797) 343. --Musa uranoscopos Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 645, excl. syn. Rumph., non Colla, 1820.  Native of SE Asia. Introduced and occasionally planted on account of its very showy red bracts.
  5. Musa X paradisiaca L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1043; --Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 412; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 154; EPFP 1 (1922) 221. --Musa nigra Perr., Mém.  Soc. Linn. Paris 3 (1825) 131; --type unknown and the protologue is too poor to allow positive identification. Plantain or cooking bananas. A number of forms or varieties occur in the Philippines, which from a species standpoint are hardly discerned from Musa sapientum L., the bananas. Blanco (1837), Teodoro (1915) and Quisumbing (1919) have attempted to document all these entities in the Philippines. These were subsequently summarized by Merrill (1922) and a few others. Photos
  6. Musa X sapientum L., Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 1303; --Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 393; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 222; --Musa x paradisiaca L. ssp. sapientum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1 (1892) 692. --Musa X chapara Perr., Mém. Soc. Linn. Paris 3 (1825) 131, described from material of Philippine origin, type unknown and diagnosis is too poor to allow identification, M chapara has been regarded as a synonym of M. sapientum L. (Schumann 1900; Champion 1967). The familiar table bananas, usually distinguished from the plantains (Musa paradisiaca L.) in the consistency and character of the mature fruits. Musa sapientum has been repeatedly shown to represent Musa cultivars (AB, AAB, ABB group). Therefore all infraspecific taxa described represent various cultivars, unless otherwise shown. According to Simmonds (1960b), Linnaeus originally applied the name M. sapientum to the “Silk fig” (AAB group). Photos
  7. Musa textilis Nées, Anal Cienc. Nat. 4 (1801) 123; --Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 388, t. 18, Fig. 6-10; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 227; --Type not found and requires neotypification. --Musa mindanensis Miq., Flora Indiae Batavae 3 (1855) 588; --Musa sylvestris mindanensis Rumph., Herb. Amboin. (1747) 139. Endemic to the Philippines. Extensively cultivated in the wetter parts of the Philippines. Abaca or Manila hemp. The species is variable, and sundry forms have distinctive local names. Photos
  8. Musa troglodytarum L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1478. --Musa uranoscopos Lour.,Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 645, nom. superfl. Cultivated.

Banana Varieties

Musa X paradisiaca L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1043; --Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 412; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 154; EPFP 1 (1922) 221.
  1. var. magna Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 244; Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 413; --Quisumb., Philip. Agr.   Rev. 123 (1919) 67, t. 12, Fig. 212, 213; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 222. Planted here and there for its fruit. Endemic?
  2. var. maxima Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 245; Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 414; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 222. Planted here and there for its fruit. Endemic?
  3. var. subrubea Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 245; --Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 414; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 222. Planted here and there. Endemic?
  4. var. ulnaris Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 246. According to Merrill (1922) a purely imaginary variety, the description based on hearsay data, probably inspired by one of the tundok varieties. 
Musa sapientum L., Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 1303; --Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 393; --Merr., EPFP 1   (1922) 222; Musa X paradisiaca L. ssp. sapientum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1 (1892) 692. var. sapientum The familiar table bananas, usually distinguished from the plantains (Musa paradisiaca L.) in the consistency and character of the mature fruits.  Musa sapientum has been repeatedly shown to represent Musa cultivars (AB, AAB, ABB group). Therefore all infraspecific taxa described represent various cultivars, unless otherwise shown. According to Simmonds (1960b), Linnaeus originally applied the name M. sapientum to the “Silk fig” (AAB group).
  1. var. americana Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 398, t. 7, Figs. 6-10. Based on material of Cuban origin.
  2. var. angao Quisumb., Philip. Agr. Review 123 (1919) 58, t. 5, Fig. 30; t. 7, Fig. 69; t. 9, Fig. 126; t. 11, Fig. 192, 193; t. 26, Fig. 2; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 222. MINDANAO: Misamis. Cultivated at Los Baños.
  3. var. baca Quisumb., Philip. Agr. Review 123 (1919) 51, t. 5, Fig. 23; t. 7, Fig. 60; t. 9, Fig. 118; t. 11, Fig. 176, 177; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 223. LUZON: Cavite. Cultivated at Los Baños.
  4. var. binutig Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 401, t. 10, Fig. 1-5; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 223; Musa sapientum var. grandis Teodoro, Philip. Agr. Review 123 (1919) 35, t. 4, Fig. 7; t. 6, Fig. 45; t. 9, Fig. 102; t. 10, Fig. 144, 145; t. 10, Fig. 144, 145; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 226. Apparently from Leyte. Cultivated at Los Baños.
  5. var. canara Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 406, t. 10, Fig. 6-10; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 223; Cultivated at Los Baños. Origin unknown but probably Philippine, and very likely from Camarines province, where kanara is a well-known banana.
  6. var. canaya Quisumb., Philip. Agric. Rev. 12 (1919) 44, t. 4, Fig. 18; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 223.  MINDANAO: Surigao. Cultivated at Los Baños. 
  7. var. cinerea (Blanco) Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 397, t. 13, Fig. 1-5; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 223; Musa sapientum L. var. cinerea (Blanco) Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 397; --Musa paradisiaca L. var. cinerea Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 250. One of the most common bananas in the Philippines. Latundan.
  8. var. compressa (Blanco) Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 408, t. 7, Fig. 1-5; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 223; --Musa paradisiaca L. var. compressa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 240. A very common banana in most parts of the Philippines. Bisco, Obispo, or sabá.
  9. var. cubensis Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 397, t. 11, Figs. 6-10. Based on material of Cuban origin.
  10. var. daryao Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 403, t. 8, Fig. 1-5; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 224.  LEYTE. Cultivated at Los Baños.  
  11. var. dinalaga Quisumb., Philip. Agr. Review 123 (1919) 55, t. 5, Fig. 31; t. 7, Fig. 66; t. 9, Fig. 122; t.   11, Fig. 184, 185; t. 26, Fig. 1; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 223. LUZON: Quezon. Cultivated at Los Baños. 
  12. var. dool Quisumb., Philip. Agr. Review 123 (1919) 35, t. 4, Fig. 6; t. 6, Fig. 44; t. 9, Fig. 101; t. 10, Fig. 142, 143;  t. 15, Fig. 1;  --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 223. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Cultivated at Los Baños.
  13. var. eda Quisumb., Philip. Agr. Review 123 (1919) 37, t. 4, Fig. 9; t. 6, Fig. 47; t. 9, Fig. 104; t. 10, Fig. 148, 149;  t. 15, Fig. 1;  --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 223. MINDANAO: Surigao. Cultivated at Los Baños.
  14. var. flabellata Quisumb., Philip. Agr. Review 123 (1919) 66, t. 5, Fig. 35; t. 8, Fig. 78; t. 12, Fig. 208, 209; t. 29, Fig. 2; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 224. LUZON: Bulacan, Laguna. Cultivated at Los Baños. Perhaps better placed under M paradisiaca L.
  15. var. galatayan Quisumb., Philip. Agr. Review 123 (1919) 40, t. 4, Fig. 13; t. 6, Fig. 50; t. 9, Fig. 108;  t. 10, Fig. 154, 155; t. 18, Fig. 1; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 224. LUZON: Cavite. Cultivated at Los Baños. 
  16. var. garangao Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 401, t. 10, Fig. 6-10; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 224; LEYTE. Cultivated at Los Baños.  
  17. var. glaberrima (Blanco) Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 399, t. 15, Fig. 1-5; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922)   224; --Musa paradisiaca L. var. glaberrima Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 245. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna. Cultivated at Los Baños.
  18. var. gladiata Quisumb., Philip. Agr. Review 123 (1919) 30.  Based on extra-Philippine plants of unknown origin cultivated in Los Baños
  19. var. glauca (Blanco) Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 402, t. 11, Fig. 6-10; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 224;   --Musa paradisiaca L. var. glauca Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 250. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna. Cultivated at Los Baños.
  20. var. grandis Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 410, t. 14, Fig. 1-3; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 224; LUZON: Laguna. Cultivated at Los Baños.
  21. var. humilis (Perr.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 224; --Musa humilis Perr. Mém. Soc Linn. Paris 3 (1825) 131, non Aubl. [=Heliconia bihai (L.) L.] MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Cotabato. A peculiar form with small obovoid fruit.
  22. var. inarnibal Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 406, t. 9, Fig. 1-5; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 225; LUZON: Laguna.
  23. var. kinamay Quisumb., Philip. Agr. Review 123 (1919) 57, t. 5, Fig. 32; t. 7, Fig. 67; t. 9, Fig. 125;  t. 11, Fig. 190, 191; t. 23, Fig. 1; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 224. LUZON: Bulacan. Cultivated at Los Baños.
  24. var. lacatan (Blanco) Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 405, t. 11, Fig. 1-5; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 225;   --Musa paradisiaca L. var. lacatan Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 240. A widely cultivated banana and one of the most popular varieties in the Philippines. Lakatan.
  25. var. longa (Blanco) Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 407; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 225; --Musa   paradisiaca L. var. longa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 245. Known only from Blanco’s description.
  26. var. padilat Quisumb., Philip. Agr. Review 123 (1919) 63, t. 5, Fig. 38; t. 7, Fig. 71; t. 8, Fig. 88;  t. 12, Fig. 202, 203; t. 28, Fig. 1; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 225. BABUYAN ISLS (DALUPIRI). Cultivated at Los Baños.
  27. var. pamotion Quisumb., Philip. Agr. Review 123 (1919) 49, t. 5, Fig. 21; t. 7, Fig. 59; t. 9, Fig. 116;  t. 11, Fig. 172, 173; t. 22, Fig. 1; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 225. MINDANAO: Surigao. Cultivated at Los Baños.
  28. var. pelipia Quisumb., Philip. Agr. Review 123 (1919) 42, t. 4, Fig. 14; t. 6, Fig. 51; t. 9, Fig. 109;  t. 10, Fig. 158, 159; t. 18, Fig. 2; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 225. MINDANAO: Surigao. Cultivated at Los Baños.
  29. var. principe Quisumb., Philip. Agr. Review 123 (1919) 50, t. 5, Fig. 22; t. 7, Fig. 61; t. 9, Fig. 117; t. 11, Fig. 174, 175; t. 22, Fig. 2; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 225. Philippines, without locality. Cultivated at Los Baños.
  30. var. pumila (Blanco) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 225; --Musa cavendishii Lamb. var. pumila (Blanco)   Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 412; --Musa ×paradisiaca L. var. pumila Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837)   244.  Occasionally planted; perhaps a dwarfed form of bungulan.
  31. var. putian Quisumb., Philip. Agric. Rev. 12 (1919) 36, t. 4, Fig. 8; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 225. From the Visayan Islands. Cultivated at Los Baños.
  32. var. raines Quisumb., Philip. Agr. Review 123 (1919) 55, t. 5, Fig. 27; t. 7, Fig. 65; t. 9, Fig. 124; t. 11, Fig. 186, 187; t. 25, Fig. 1; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 226. POLILLO. Cultivated at Los Baños.
  33. var. sarocsoc Quisumb., Philip. Agr. Review 123 (1919) 39, t. 4, Fig. 11; t. 6, Fig. 49; t. 9, Fig. 104; t. 10, Fig. 152, 153; t. 17, Fig. 1; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 226. LUZON: Camarines. Cultivated at Los Baños.
  34. var. sision Quisumb., Philip. Agr. Review 123 (1919) 35, t. 4, Fig. 7; t. 6, Fig. 45; t. 9, Fig. 102; t. 10, Fig. 144, 145; t. 10, Fig. 144, 145; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 226. PANAY: Capiz. Cultivated at Los Baños.
  35. var. suaveolens (Blanco) Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 400, t. 14, Fig. 6-10; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 226; --Musa paradisiaca L. var. suaveolens Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 244. One of the most popular bananas in the Philippines. Bungulan.
  36. var. ternatensis (Blanco) Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 404, t. 7, Fig. 1-5; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922)   226; --Musa ×paradisiaca L. var. ternatensis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 243. Occasionally cultivated. Gloria; ternate
  37. var. tombak (Blanco) Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 407; --Quisumb., Philip. Agr. Review 123 (1919)   33, t. 4, Fig. 4; t. 6, Fig. 42; t. 9, Fig. 99; t. 10, Fig. 138, 139; t. 14, Fig. 2;  --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922)   226; --Musa paradisiaca L. var. tombak Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 246. Cultivated here and there. Goyoran, tinumbaga, tombak.
  38. var. tuldoc Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 407, t. 10, Fig. 1-5; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 226; LUZON: Rizal. Cultivated at Los Baños.
  39. var. tudlong Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 402, t. 11, Fig. 6-10; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 226; LEYTE. Cultivated at Los Baños.
  40. var. violacea (Blanco) Teodoro, PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 398, t. 5, Fig. 6-10; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922)   226; --Musa paradisiaca L. var. violacea Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 245. Cultivated here and there. Morado.

Acknowledgments

Racquel Tan Chua-Barcelo and Gina S. Mapua kindly contributed some of the photos on this webpage.

Literature

Backer, CA & RC Bakhuizen van den Brink. 1968. Flora of Java 3: 35-38.

Häkkinen, M & H Väre. 2008. Typification and checklist of Musa L. names (Musaceae) with nomenclatural notes. Adansonia, ser. 3, 30(1): 63-112. 

Quisumbing EA. 1919. Studies of Philippine bananas. Philippine Agricultural Review 12: 9-90.

Teodoro, NG. 1915. A preliminary study of Philippine bananas. Philippine Journal of Science 10, section c (Botany): 379-419 + 18 pls.

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Last updated 24 December 2016