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Plantaginaceae

Adenosma R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Adenosma bilabiatum (Roxb.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 434; --Erinus bilabiatus Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 92; Hort. Beng. (1814) 47, nom. nud. India to Malaya. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Low and medium elevation thickets.
  2. Adenosma javanicum (Blume) Koord., Exkursfl. Java 3 (1912) 175; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 434; --Herpestis javanica Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 748. Myanmar and Indochina through Malesia to the Moluccas. LUZON: Pangasinan, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, PANAY, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Surigao del Norte. Lowland and medium elevation forests along small streams.

Bacopa Aubl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 September 2017

Photos
  1. Bacopa floribunda (R.Br.) Wettst. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 43 b (1891) 76; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 422; EPFP 3 (1923) 435; --Herpestis floribunda R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. (1810) 442. Tropical Africa, India, Java, and tropical Australia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Zambales, Rizal. A characteristic rice paddy weed.
  2. Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 43 b (1891) 77; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 422; EPFP 3 (1923) 435, as ‘monnieria’; --Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 585; --Lysimachia monnieri L., Cent. Pl. (1756) II 9. Pantropical. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Rizal, Laguna, CEBU. Lowland open wet places, chiefly within the influence of salt or brackish water. Photos

Bythophyton Hook.f.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Bythophyton indicum (Hook.f. & Thomson) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4 (1884) 286; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 436; --Micranthemum indicum Hook.f. & Thomson, Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 9 (1857) 245. India (Khasya Mtns), N Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province (Mt Data). In shallow water, and along the marshy margin of a small pond, c. 2200m.

Curanga Juss. = Picria

Dopatrium Buch.-Ham.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Dopatrium junceum (Roxb.) Buch.-Ham. ex Benth., Scroph. Ind. (1835) 31; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 426; EPFP 3 (1923) 435; --Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 589; --Gratiola juncea Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 2 (1799) 16. India to S China through Malesia to tropical Australia. Naturalized in North America. LUZON: Rizal, PANAY. Lowland old rice paddies. Very local in the Philippines.

Ellisiophyllum Maxim.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Ellisiophyllum pinnatum (Wall. ex Benth.) Makino, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 20 (1906) 91; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 441; --Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 591; --Ourisia pinnata Wall. ex Benth., Scroph. Ind. (1835) 47. Nepal, India, China, Taiwan, Japan, N Philippines, Papua New Guinea. LUZON: Benguet. Mossy forests on the highest mountains, 2000-2400m.

Hemiphragma Wall.

Photos
  1. Hemiphragma heterophyllum Wall., Tent. Fl. Nepal. (1824) 16; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 441; --Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 597. --Nertera dentata Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 15; --Type: Elmer 6239 (BISH, L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Sto Tomas, forming dense mats in clay-like soil at c. 2000m, May-1904. E Himalayas, Myanmar, W and C China, Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. High montane regions, 2000-2600m, in open grasslands, marshy borders of sluggish streams, etc. Photos

Limnophila R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 May 2018

Photos
  1. Limnophila aromatica (Lam.) Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 466; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 432; --Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 599; --Ambulia aromatica Lam., Encycl. 1 (1783) 128. India to Taiwan, across Malesia to tropical Australia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Camarines, POLILLO, BUSUANGA, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Davao. Lowlands to medium elevation, ascending to 1600m, in marshes and open wet places.
  2. Limnophila chinensis (Osbeck) Merr., Am. J. Bot. 3 (1916) 581; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 433; --Columnea chinensis Osbeck, Dagb. Ostind. Resa (1757) 230. India to S China to Borneo. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Davao. Low and medium elevation open swampy places.
  3. Limnophila fragrans (G.Forst.) Seem., Fl. Vit. (1865) 180; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 423; EPFP 3 (1923) 433; --Ruellia fragrans G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. (1786) 44. Malesia to tropical Australia and Polynesia. POLILLO. Lowland rice paddies.
  4. Limnophila heterophylla (Roxb.) Benth., Scroph. Ind. (1835) 25; --Columnea heterophylla Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 3 (1832) 97. Assam, Bangladesh, India, ?Philippines. Photos
  5. Limnophila indica (L.) Druce, Bot. Exch. Club (1914) 420; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 433; --Hottonia indica L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 208. India to Japan, across Malesia to tropical Australia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Laguna, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Bukidnon, Davao. Lowlands and medium elevation, ascending to 1500m, in shallow sluggish streams.
  6. Limnophila manilensis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 246; Fl. Manila (1912) 423; EPFP 3 (1923) 433; --Type: Merrill 7432 (US, iso), Luzon: Manila and vicinity, Jan/Feb-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan, Rizal. Lowlands, in wet fallow rice paddies.
  7. Limnophila obovata Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 439; EPFP 3 (1923) 433; --Type: Merrill 7227 (L, US, iso), Palawan, Sep-1910. Borneo, SW Philippines. PALAWAN. Lowland, along small streams, often in shallow water, in shaded places.
  8. Limnophila rugosa (Roth) Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 466; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 434; --Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 601. India, Indochina, Ryukyus, Taiwan, Malesia, Polynesia. LUZON: Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Bulacan, Camarines, Sorsogon, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Lowlands, open wet places.
  9. Limnophila stolonifera (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 345; EPFP 3 (1923) 434; --Diceros stoloniferus Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 349; --Type: Not extant, possible neotype: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 201. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Lowland fallow rice paddies. Synonym of Limnophila repens (Benth.) Benth.?

Microcarpaea R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Microcarpaea minima (K.D.Koenig ex Retz.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 100; EPFP 3 (1923) 436; --Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 612; --Paederota minima K.D.Koenig ex Retz., Observ. Bot. 5 (1789) 10. Tropical and subtropical Asia to tropical Australia. LUZON: Mountain Province. Rice paddies, c. 1200m.

Picria Lour.

No Photos
  1. Picria fel-terrae Lour. Fl. Cochinch. 2 (1790) 393; --Curanga fel-terrae (Lour.) Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 467; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 439. India to Indochina through Malaya to the Moluccas. LUZON: Kalinga, Cagayan, Laguna. Forested slopes at low elevation, ascending to 400m; rare and local.

Plantago L. [Not native]

Photos
  1. Plantago lanceolata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 113; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 491. Native of Europe; naturalized in Philippines. Photos
  2. Plantago major L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 112; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 444; EPFP 3 (1923) 491. Native of Europe and Asia; naturalized in Philippines. Photos

Scoparia L. [Not native]

Photos
  1. Scoparia dulcis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 116; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 420; EPFP 3 (1923) 441; --Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 621. Native of tropical America, now pantropic in distribution. Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation, a very common weed in the settled areas. Photos

Veronica L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 May 2018

Photos
  1. Veronica javanica Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 746; --Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 345; --Steenis, Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Pl. 51-4; --Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 632. Tropical Africa, India, SE China, Taiwan, Japan, Ryukyus, Sumatra, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Cordillera Highlands (Mt Data; Pauai). Near trails, 2000m.
  2. Veronica monantha Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 385; EPFP 3 (1923) 441; --Type: Merrill 6593 (US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Pulag, May-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Mt Pulag). Mossy forest, c. 2600m.

Non-naturalized:

  1. Digitalis purpurea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 622; --Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 589. Native of Europe. In the Philippines commonly cultivated as an ornamental at high elevation, e.g. Cordillera Highlands of N Luzon. Photos
  2. Russelia equisetiformis Schltdl. & Cham., Linnaea 6 (1831) 377; --Russelia juncea Zucc., Flora 15 (1832) Beibl. 99; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 421; EPFP 3 (1923) 431. Native of Mexico. Cultivated for ornamental purposes, occasionally spontaneous on damp stone walls in towns. Photos

Literature

Backer, CA & RC Bakhuizen van den Brink. 1965. Flora of Java 2: 445-446.

Backer, CA & RC Bakhuizen van den Brink. 1965. Flora of Java 2: 498-515.

Liu, HY.1998. Scrophulariaceae. In TC Huang (ed). Flora of Taiwan 2nd edition: 582-646.

Yamazaki, T. 1985. Flora of Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam 21: 1-217.

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 30 May 2018