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Poaceae

= Gramineae

Edited by Dan Nickrent, 12 January 2016

Acroceras
Stapf

No Photos
  1. Acroceras munroanum (Balansa) Henrard, Blumea 3 (1940) 444. --Panicum crassiapiculatum Merr., PJS 1 (1906) SuppI. 356; EPFP 1 (1922) 63. E India, Sri Lanka to S China, Java. PALAWAN, BALABAC, MINDANAO (Agusan). In thickets and along trails in forests at low elevation. 

 Agrostis L.

Photos
  1. Agrostis infirma Buse, Pl. Jungh. 342. --Agrostis rigidula Steud., Syn. 1 (Apr. 1854) 171; --Veldk., Blumea 28 (1982) 214, map 1. --Agrostis elmeri Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 7, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 375, 5 (1910) Bot. 328; EPFP 1 (1922) 81; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 53, t. 1.
  2. Agrostis stolonifera L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 62. Photos.
    Widespread in temperate and subtemperate countries, a native of Europe and Asia. In Malesia: Sumatra (Gunung Kirinci), introduced elsewhere, e.g. Java (Gunung Tengger), Borneo (Mt Kinabalu) and Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Mt Sto Tomas), along trails in open forest, c. 1500m. 

Alloteropsis J.Presl

Photos
  1. Alloteropsis cimicina (L.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 487. Africa to China and N Australia. LUZON, CEBU, MINDANAO. 
  2. Alloteropsis semialata (R.Br.) A Hitchc., Contr. US Nat. Herb. 12 (1909) 210; --Chase in Proc. BioI. Soc. Wash. 24 (1911) 159; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 70; --Santos, Guide to Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986): 53, t. 2. Old World tropics and subtropics. Photos

 Amphilophis (Hackel) Nash = Botriochloa

Ancistrachne S.T.Blake

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Ancistrachne ancylotricha (Quisumb. & Merr.) ST Blake, Univ. Queensl. Papers, Dept. Biol., i. No. 19, (1941) 6; --Panicum ancylotrichum Quisumb. & Merr.; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 55, t. 3. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental (Mati), only known from one collection, Clemens 266. In thickets or open lands, c. 650m. 

Andropogon L.

[Not native]

Photos

No indigenous representative of Andropogon sensu stricto has been reported in the Philippines, but Bothriochloa, Capillipedium, Dichanthium and Schizachyrium have been placed in the genus by earlier authors.
  1. Andropogon gayanus Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 163. Native of Africa.

 Aniselytron Merr.

No Photos
  1. Aniselytron agrostoides Merr., in Merr. & Merritt, PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 329; EPFP 1 (1922) 82; --Aulacolepis agrostoides (Merr.) Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 4 (1935) 30. Taiwan and the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Mt Pulog). Alt. 2400-2800m. Easily confused with Agrostis infirma.

Anthoxanthum L.

Photos
  1. Anthoxanthum horsfieldii (Kunth ex Bennett) Mez [in Fedde, Repert. 17 (1921) 291, nomen] ex Reeder, J. Arnold Arb. 24 (1950) 325, 327.

Apluda L.

Photos
  1. Apluda mutica L. Sp. Pl. (1753) 82; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 79; EPFP 1 (1922) 36. --Apluda mutica var. aristata (L.) Rendle ex Forbes & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 36 (1904) 279; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 80; EPFP 1 (1922) 36. Arabia eastward to India to S China across Malesia to Australia, New Caledonia and Polynesia. Throughout the Philippines in thickets and open grasslands up to 1800m. Photos

Aristida L.

Photos
  1. Aristida adscencionis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 52. Worldwide in warm regions; variable. Not in Veldkamp’s checklist.
  2. Aristida chinensis Munro, Proc. Amer. Acad. 4 (1864-65) 363. Thailand to S China and the Philippines. MINDANAO.
  3. Aristida culionensis Pilger ex Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 145; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 78; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 56, t. 5. Thailand, N Peninsular Malaysia to S Vietnam, Philippines. BUSUANGA, CULION. In open grasslands at low elevation. Perennials.
  4. Aristida cumingiana Trin. & Rupr., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 7 (1849) 141; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 99; EPFP 1 (1922) 79. --Aristida diminuta (Mez) CE Hubb., Kew Bull. 1949 (1950) 480. Tropical Africa to India, China, across Malesia and Queensland. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cordillera Highlands, Pangasinan, Rizal, BUSUANGA, CULION, and MINDANAO: Bukidnon. In open dry grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1500m. Annuals.
  5. Aristida holathera Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 85 (1915) 340. --Aristida tenuisetulosa (Pilger) Mez, Fedde Repert. 17 (1921) 147; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 79. W Australia to Queensland, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Zambales, Pampanga, Bataan. In dry open sandy soil at low and medium elevation.
  6. Aristida hystrix L.f., Suppl. Pl. (1782) 113 (1782). India to Myanmar. Not native to Philippines.

Arthraxon P.Beauv.

Photos
  1. Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 26 (July, 1912) 214; --Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 229; EPFP 1 (1922) 41; 4 (1925) 241. --Arthraxon quartinianus (A.Rich.) Nash, N. Am. Flora 17 (1912, Sept. 18) 99; --Merr., PJS 7 (1912, Sept. 30) Bot. 229; Fl. Manila (1912) 77; EPFP 1 (1922) 42.
  2. Arthraxon lancifolius (Trin.) Hochst., Flora 39 (1856) 188. --Arthraxon microphyllus (Trin.) Hochst., Flora 39 (1856) 188; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 42. Africa to SE Asia, and here and there in Malesia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, open slopes in the pine region, 1200-2000m, MINDANAO.

Arundinella Raddi

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Arundinella ciliata Nees ex Miq., Nieuwe Verh. Eerste Kl. Kon. Ned. Inst. Wetensch. Amsterdam, ser. 3, 4 (1851) 30. India and Indo-China. Not native to the Philippines.
  2. Arundinella filiformis Janowski, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17 (1921) 85; --Type: Loher 7228 (M, holo; K, US, iso). --Arundinella humilior Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 232; --Type from Taiwan. --Arundinella miliacea non Nees: --Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 158; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 52. --Arundinella montalbanica Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3807, nom. nud. pro syn., no Latin descr. Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumba), New Guinea, Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Perennial.
  3. Arundinella furva Chase, J. Arnold Arbor. 24 (1943) 85; --Type: Clemens 5826-A (US, holo; B, L, NY, iso). New Guinea, Philippines. SIBUYAN. Only known from the Philippines from a single record (Argent & Reynoso 89127, Mayos Peak, c. 1550m.).
  4. Arundinella goeringii Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 116; --Type from Java. Java, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Sumbawa(?), Philippines. PALAWAN.
  5. Arundinella holcoides (Kunth) Trin., Bull. Sc. Acad. Petersb. 1 (1836) 71; --Brandtia holcoides Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 2 (1830) 511. t. 170. --Arundinella agrostoides Trin., Sp. Gram. Icon. (1836) 23, t. 265; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 85; EPFP 1 (1922) 52; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 57, t. 6; --Type: Anon. ‘Manila’ (LE, lecto; K 290214 p.p., K 290215, isolecto). --Arundinella pubescens Merr. & Hackel, PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 419; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 52; --Type: BS 856 (Foxworthy) (W, holo; L, NY, PNH (destroyed), US, iso). India, Lesser Sunda Isls (Timor), Myanmar, Sulawesi, Thailand(?), Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Prov., Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDORO, MINDANAO(?), PALAWAN.
  6. Arundinella setosa Trin., Diss. 2 (1824) 63; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 52; --Type from Nepal. India to China through Peninsular Malaysia to Australia. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Rizal, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, CULION, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Open grasslands, on cliffs, etc., at low and medium elevation, ascending to 2000m.

Arundo L.

No Photos
  1. Arundo donax L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 81; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 58, t. 7. Mediterranean to S China. In the Philippines. LUZON, SAMAR.
  2. Arundo formosana Hackel, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 7 (1899) 724; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 55. Ryukyus (Iriomote), Taiwan and the Philippines. BATAN, SAMAR.

Asthenochloa Büse

No Photos
  1. Asthenochloa tenera Büse in Miq. PI. Jungh. (Feb. 1854) 367; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 49; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 59, t. 8. Pulau Condor (‘Andor’), Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Sulawesi and the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, PANAY. Steep open slopes up to 1400m. A monotypic genus. One of the few endemic Malesian grass genera.

Aulacolepis Hack. = Aniselytron

Avena L.

Photos
  1. Avena fatua L., Sp. PI. (1753) 80; --Merr.; EPFP 1 (1922) 83. Probably originated in the Near East, introduced elsewhere. LUZON: Benguet, alt. 1500m.
  2. Avena sativa L., Sp. PI. (1753) 79; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 83. Probably originated in the Near East, cultivated in many forms. LUZON: Mountain Province, above 1500m. Photos

Axonopus P.Beauv.

Photos
  1. Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P Beauv., Ess. Agrost. (1812) 12, 154, 167; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 59, t. 9. Native of tropical America, now throughout the tropics. Introduced in the Philippines after World War II, now widely cultivated as a lawn grass.
  2. Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Comm. Linh. Telegr. Matto Grosso Amaz., Annexo 5 Bot., 11 (1922) 87. --Axonopus affinis Chase, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 28 (1938) 180. Native of (sub-) tropical America, introduced elsewhere. LUZON. Often confused with the preceding and so under-collected. Usually above 900m.

Bambusa Schreb.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Bambusa merrillii Gamble, PJS 5 (1910) Bot. 269; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 94. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, c. 600m.
  2. Bambusa spinosa Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 25 [non Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 305]; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 94. --Bambusa blumeana Schultes f., Syst. 72 (1830) 1343; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 106; EPFP 1 (1922) 95; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 4, t. 2. --. Native to Java and E Malesia. Cultivated in S China, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the Philippines. N LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. The most common and conspicuous bamboo at low and medium elevation throughout the settled areas; apparently always planted, probably of prehistoric introduction by the early Malay invaders. The species very rarely flowers and then usually only when clumps have been severely injured by fire or by too extensive cutting. The only spiny bamboo in the Philippines. Photos
  3. Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex WendI., Collect. PI. 2 (1808) 26,t. 47; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 105;  EPFP 1 (1922) 95; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 10, t. 7. S China, Taiwan, across Malesia. N LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO, in most islands and provinces, in the settled areas at low and medium elevation. Probably an introduced plant in the Philippines. Pantropic in cultivation. Photos

Non-naturalized cultivated taxa:

  1. Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss in Vilmorin, Blumengartnerei 1 (1896) 1189; --Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.) Willd., Sp. Pl. 2 (1799) 245; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 2, t. 1. Indigenous to India, Myanmar and Thailand. Introduced in Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Sulawesi and the Philippines. N LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. Commonly planted in settled areas at low and medium elevation.
  2. Bambusa dolichoclada Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 6 (1916) 144.
  3. Bambusa dolichomerithalla Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 6 (1916) 146.
  4. Bambusa maculata Widjaja, Reinwardtia 11(2) (1997) 63.
  5. Bambusa multiplex (Lour.) Raeusch., NomencI. ed. 3 (1797) 108; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 94. --Bambusa glaucescens Sieb. ex Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 89, in syn.; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 105; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 5, t. 3. Probably a native of China, now widely distributed in cultivation. Planted here and there for ornamental purposes, especially as hedges, in many settled areas at low and medium elevation.
  6. Bambusa oldhamii Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1) (1886) 109.
  7. Bambusa tulda Roxb., Hort. Bengal. (1814) 25, nomen; Fl. Ind. ed. Carey, 2 (1832) 193; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 7, t. 5. India, Myanmar, Thailand and Java. Introduced and only known in cultivation in the Philippines.
  8. Bambusa tuldoides Munro, Bambusa ventricosa McClure, Lingnan Sc. Journ. 17 (1938) 57; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 9, t. 6. Native of S China, introduced to the Philippines and other SE Asian countries. Ornamental garden plant in many settled areas at low and medium elevation.
  9. Bambusa utilis Lin, Bull. Taiwan For. Res. 98 (1964) 2, Fig. 1 &2; --Pancho & Obien, Philipp. Agric. 71 (1988) 214. Native to Taiwan. Introduced in the Philippines for its edible shoots.

Bothriochloa Kuntze

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz.) ST Blake, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 80 (1969) 62. --Andropogon intermedius var. haenkei (C.Presl) Hackel in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 486; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 83; EPFP 1 (1922) 46. --Bothriochloa glabra (Roxb.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 1930, n. s. 76 (1931) 164. Africa to Australia. LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, La Union, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Rizal, Batangas, MINDORO, PALAWAN, NEGROS, BOHOL, MINDANAO. Open grasslands at low and medium elevation. Photos
  2. Bothriochloa ewartiana (Domin) CE Hubb., Kew Bull. (1934) 444. Australia, Sumbawa, Timor. LUZON.
  3. Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng, Contr. Biol. Lab. Sci. Soc. China, Bot. Ser. 10 (1936) 201. Africa, Eurasia. Not native to the Philippines, naturalized? Photos
  4. Bothriochloa kwashotensis (Hayata) Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. & Geobot., Kyoto 11 (1942) 168; --Capillipedium kwashotense (Hayata) Hsu, J. Jap. Bot. 37 (1962) 280; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 55. S Ryukyus, Taiwan, Lanyu and the Philippines. BATAN. On littoral rocky cliff, locally frequent. Reported on LUZON by Veldkamp.

Brachiaria (Trin.) Griseb. = Urochloa

Brachypodium P.Beauv.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P. Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 155.

Bromus L.

Photos
  1. Bromus catharticus Vahl, Symb. Bot. 2 (1791) 22; --Veldk., Blumea 35 (1991) 487. Native of S America, introduced to many countries as a forage and naturalized. In the Philippines thus far known only from LUZON: Benguet (Haight’s Place). Photos
  2. Bromus morrisonensis Honda, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 42 (1928) 137; --Veldk., Blumea 35 (1991) 492. --Bromus pauciflorus auct., non (Thunb.) Hackel; --Merr. in PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 386; EPFP 1 (1922) 92. Taiwan and the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. In wet open grassy places, 1500-2400m.

Calamagrostis Roth

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos

  1. Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth, Tent. Fl. Germ. 1: 33 (1788). --Deyeuxia pyramidalis (Host) Veldk., Blumea 37(1) (1992) 230. --Deyeuxia arundinacea (L.) Jansen, Act. Bot. Neerl. 1 (1952) 470, nom. illeg. --Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth var. nipponica (Franch. & Sav.) Hackel, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 7 (1899) 652; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 82. Temperate regions of Europe to India, China and Japan, across Malesia: New Guinea and the Philippines. LUZON: Cordillera Highlands, MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Open grassy slopes 1800-2400m. Photos
  2. Calamagrostis filifolia Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 179; 375; EPFP 1 (1922) 82. --Deyeuxia suizanensis (Hayata) Ohwi, J. Jap. Bot. 33 (1958) 211. --Deyeuxia filifolia non Wedd., Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 22 (1875) 173.--Deyeuxia stenophylla Jansen, Act. Bot. Neerl. 1 (1952) 472; --Deyeuxia suizanensis var. stenophylla (Jansen) Veldkamp, Taiwania 38 (1994) 3. Taiwan, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, MINDANAO. High montane grasslands, 1800-2200m.
  3. Calamagrostis stenophylla Hand.-Mazz., Symb. Sin. 7 (1936) 1298. China, New Guinea, Philippines.

Capillipedium (Hackel) Stapf

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Capillipedium assimile (Steud.) Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 314. India to S China, Taiwan and the Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO.
  2. Capillipedium parviflorum (R.Br.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Africa 9 (1917) 169. --Andropogon micranthus Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 165; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 46. --Capillipedium arachnoideum Henrard, Blumea 3 (1940) 458. --Andropogon cinctus auct. non Steud., Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 398; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 43. Africa, Arabia, tropical and subtropical Asia to Australia, Philipines. BATAN, BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, MINDANAO. Open grasslands chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 2300m.
  3. Capillipedium spicigerum (Benth.) ST Blake, Dept. Biol. Univ. Queensl. 22 (1944) 43; --Andropogon micranthus Kunth var. spicigerus Hackel in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 489; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 336. An Australian species, also known from New Guinea, Timor, Flores and the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, CEBU.

Cenchrus L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 November 2016

Photos
  1. Cenchrus alopecuroides (L.) Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. (1794) 24. --Cenchrus purpurascens Thunb., Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 2 (1794) 329. --Pennisetum alopecuroides Spreng., Syst. 1 (1825) 303; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 75. India, Andamans to Indochina, China, Japan and Australia. Malesia: E Java, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Benguet, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte. On open slopes at medium elevation, chiefly in the pine region, ascending to 2000m. Photos
  2. Cenchrus brownii Roemer & Schultes, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2 (1817) 258. --Cenchrus echinatus auctt. males., non L. --Cenchrus viridis Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1 (1824) 301; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 74. C & S America, introduced elsewhere. LUZON, CULION, PALAWAN, NEGROS, MANTIGUI, SAMAR, MINDANAO, JOLO, Annuals. A widely distributed weed in settled areas, occurring generally in open waste places in and about towns. Photos
  3. Cenchrus caliculatus Cav., IIcones descriptione plantarum 5 (1799) 39. t. 463. N Australia, to New Zealand, S Pacific; Malesia: Lesser Sunda Isls (Timor, Alor), Papua New Guinea, Philippines. MINDANAO. Perennials.
  4. Cenchrus ciliaris L., Mant. (1771) 302; --Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link, Hort. Berol. 1 (1827) 213; Handb. i. 85. S Africa to N India. Widely introduced. LUZON, MINDANAO. Perennials. Photos
  5. Cenchrus clandestinus (Hochst. ex Chiov.) Morrone in Chemisquy et al., Annals of Botany 106 (2010) 127; --Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. ex Chiov., Ann. Ist. Bot. Roma 8 (1903) 41, in adnot. E. Africa. Widely introduced as a soil-binder, but easily overlooked because of the hidden inflorescences. LUZON.
  6. Cenchrus echinatus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1050. --Cenchrus echinatus C.Presl, ReI. Haenk. 1 (1830) 317; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 95. Warmer regions of the New World, introduced elsewhere, e.g. LUZON: Manila, PALAWAN, CEBU, SAMAR (1 collection each). Most specimens so far seen from the Philippines were misidentified C. brownii.
  7. Cenchrus elegans (Hassk.) Veldk., Blumea 59 (2014) 56; --Sericura elegans Hassk., Flora 25, 2, Beibl. 1 (1842) 2. --Cenchrus caninus (Reinw. ex Blume) Morrone in Chemisquy et al., Annals of Botany 106 (2010) 127, nom. inval. --Pennisetum macrostachys (Brongn.) Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. vi, 32 (1835) 177; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 75 (‘macrostachyum’). W Malesia to Solomon Isls. Also as ornamental. LUZON: Laguna, Batangas, Rizal, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDORO, MASBATE, PANAY, NEGROS, CEBU, BOHOL, MINDANAO, BASILAN. In old clearings at low and medium elevation. Photos
  8. Cenchrus orientalis (Rich.) Morrone in Chemisquy et al., Annals of Botany 106 (2010) 128; --Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Pers. Syn. 1 (1805) 72. E Africa. Cultivated. LUZON.
  9. Cenchrus pedicellatus (Trin.) Morrone in Chemisquy et al., Annals of Botany 106 (2010) 128; --Pennisetum pedicellatum Trin., Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. 4, 32 (1835) 184. W Africa and India to Burma. Cultivated elsewhere.
  10. Cenchrus polystachios (L.) Morrone in Chemisquy et al., Annals of Botany 106 (2010) 129; --Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schultes, Mant. 2 (1824) 146. Photos
  11. Cenchrus purpureus (Schumach.) Morrone in Chemisquy et al., Annals of Botany 106 (2010) 129; --Pennisetum purpureum Schumach., Beskr. Guin. Pl. (1827) 44; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 112, t. 64. Tropical Africa, widely introduced as a fodder. LUZON: Benguet, Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, Quezon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, MASBATE, PANAY, NEGROS, CEBU, MINDANAO, BASILAN. Old clearings and waste places at low and medium elevation.

Centosteca Desv. = Centotheca

Centotheca Desv.

Photos
  1. Centotheca lappacea (L.) Desv., Nuov. Bull. Soc. Philom. 2 (1810) 189. --Centotheca latifolia Trin., Fund. Agrost. (1820) 141; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 100; EPFP 1 (1922) 91. India to Polynesia, Australia. Widespread in the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON, SAN MIGUEL, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, PALAWAN, CAGAYAN DE SULU, PANAY, CEBU, LEYTE, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO, JOLO. In thickets, forests, and clearings from sea level to c. 1000m. Shade-loving, usually the only grass in some types of forest. Photos
  2. Centotheca philippinensis (Merr.) Froideville, Blumea 19 (1971) 60; --Ramosia philippinensis Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 2; EPFP 1 (1922) 92; --Type: BS 23607 Ramos. Australia (Queensland), New Guinea and Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, GUIMARAS. Rare.

Cephalostachyum Munro

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2012

No Photos
  1. Cephalostachyum mindorense Gamble, PJS 5 (1910) Bot. 272; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 97; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 12, t. 9. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte, MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (Sta Cruz; Mt Cabiguayan). Thickets, along river flats and forest edges, 0-800m.

Chamaeraphis R.Br. = Pseudoraphis

Chionachne R.Br.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Chionachne biaurita Hackel, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 263; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 29; --Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 253; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 63, t. 12. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet (Bued River). On fresh talus slopes, untilled soil, etc., c. 1200m.
  2. Chionachne punctata (R.Br.) Jannink, Blumea 47 (2002) 566; --Sclerachne punctata R.Br., Benn. Pl. Jav. Rar. (1838) 15. Java, Kangean Isl., Madura, LUZON: check JV Santos coll. records.

Chloris Sw.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Chloris barbata (L.) Sw., Fl. Ind. Occ. 1 (1797) 200; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 103; EPFP 1 (1922) 84; Santos: 64, t. 13. --Chloris infiata Llanos, Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 31; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 84. --Chloris inflata Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. 1 (1821) 105. Pantropic weed of American origin. Common in and about towns (along roadsides, wastelands) in many parts of lowland Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN, NEGROS, CEBU, MINDANAO. Photos
  2. Chloris clementis Merr., PJS 40 (1929) 181; --Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 253; --Type: UC 347514. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan.
  3. Chloris gayana Kunth., Rev. Gram. 1 (1830) 89, 293. t. 58; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. Fauna (1986) xx, t. 14. Africa, introduced elsewhere. 'Throughout the Philippines' (Santos: 66), only seen from LUZON. Photos
  4. Chloris rufescens Lag., Varied. Ci. 2 (1805) 143. Mexico, C America. Not native to Philippines. Naturalized?
  5. Chloris wightiana Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 206. India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls., Moluccas, Philippines?

Chrysopogon Trin.

Photos
  1. Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin., Fund. Agrost. (1820) 188; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 67, t. 15; --Andropogon aciculatus Retz., Obs. 5 (1789) 22; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 83; EPFP 1 (1922) 42. India to China, across Malesia to tropical Australia and Polynesia. Throughout the Philippines. LUZON, PALAWAN, CEBU, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Open places at low and medium elevation; very common lawn and roadside grass, a veritable pest on account of its spikelets adhering to fur, clothing, etc. Photos
  2. Chrysopogon festucoides (C.Presl) Veldk., Austrobaileya 5 (1999) 512; --Vetiveria festucoides (C.Presl) Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus., No. 18 (1947) 4; --Andropogon festucoides C.Presl, ReI. Haenk. 1. (1828) 340; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 44. E India to Vietnam, W and E Java, Philippines. LUZON: Pampanga, Nueva Ecija. Rare. In open level lands, rice-paddy banks, etc., at low elevation. Roots not aromatic.
  3. Chrysopogon fulvus Chiov., Fl. Somala 1 (1929) 327. Not in Veldkamp’s checklist.
  4. Chrysopogon nemoralis (Balansa) Holttum, Gard. Bull. Sing. 11 (1947) 297. --Chrysopogon philippinensis (Merr.) Henrard, Blumea 4 (1941) 532; --Andropogon gryllus var. philippinensis Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 368; EPFP 1 (1922) 45. Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. PANAY, BS 30964 Ramos & Edaño. On boulders and ledges along streams at low elevation. Very rare.
  5. Chrysopogon orientalis (Desv.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo -Chine 7 (1922) 332. Sri Lanka, S India to S China. ‘Only known to me in Malesia from the Malay Pen. and CE Sumatra. Error for next?’ --Veldkamp.
  6. Chrysopogon serrulatus Trin., Mem. Acad. Petersb. Ser. 6, 2 (1833) 318. S Africa to Sumatra. Cultivated in LUZON.
  7. Chrysopogon subtilis (Steud.) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 492. E Java, Sumba, LUZON. A distribution reminiscent of that of Chionachne punctata, see above. Annuals.
  8. Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, Bull. Inst. Franc. Afr. Noire, Ser. A, 22 (1960) 106; --Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash in Small, Fl. SE US. (xxxx) 67; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 131, t. 83; --Andropogon zizanioides (L.) Urban, Symb. Antil. 4 (1903) 79; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 49. India, introduced elsewhere. certainly an introduced plant in the Philippines 'Occasionally found in many provinces' (Santos: 131). Planted about rice-paddy banks, often abundant; Roots aromatic.

Coelachne R.Br.

No Photos
  1. Coelachne infirma Büse, Pl. Jungh. (1854) 350. Madagascar, Malesia to New Guinea, Philippines. Synonym of Coelachne simpliciuscula (Wight & Arn.) Munro ex Benth.?
  2. Coelachne perpusilla (Nees ex Steud.) Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (1864) 373. India, Sri Lanka, Indo-China to Philippines?
  3. Coelachne simpliciuscula (Wight & Arn.) Munro ex Benth., J. Linn. Soc. 19 (1881) 93. --Coelachne hackelii Merr., Govt. Lab. PubI. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 8; EPFP 1 (1922) 82. --Coelachne pulchella auct. Sumatra to New Guinea. LUZON: Benguet. Very wet places above 1000m, forming dense mats along small cool streams.

Coelorhachis Brongniart = Mnesithea

Coix L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Coix lacryma-jobi L., Sp. PI. (1753) 972; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 29--30; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 70, t. 17. ‘lachryma’ Old World tropics, introduced elsewhere. 'Common in the Philippines' (Santos: 70): BATAN, LUZON, MINDANAO, NEGROS, SAMAR, SULU. Photos
    The taxonomy of this species is not resolved and there are probably a lot of (ancient) cultivars. Some of these entities are as follows:

Cortaderia Stapf

Photos
  1. Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult.) Aschers. & Graebn. The female form is cultivated as 'pampas grass'. Only occurs under cultivation in the Philippines.

Cymbopogon Spreng.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Kew Bull. (1906) 257; --Andropogon citratus DC., Cat. Hort. Monsp. (1813) 78; --Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 82; EPFP 1 (1922) 43. Native of tropical Asia, now widely distributed in cultivation. Planted here and there about houses in most or all parts of the Philippines for its fragant leaves, but nowhere spontaneous. Very rarely flowering. Citronella grass or Lemon grass.
  2. Cymbopogon flexuosus (Steud.) Wats. in Atkins, Gaz. N.W. Prov. Ind. (1882) 392; --Andropogon flexuosus Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 388. India. Widely cultivated in Asia as a source of “Lemon-Grass Oil”. MINDANAO. Similar in habit and appearance to the preceding, and also found here only in cultivation.
  3. Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle in W.P.Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. 2 (1899) 155. Africa to Indo-China. Not native to the Philippines. Naturalized?
  4. Cymbopogon tortilis (J.Presl) Hitchc., Lingnan Sci. J. 7 (1931) 246, 253; --Andropogon nardus L., Sp. PI. (1753) 1046, var. tortilis (J.Presl) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 46. Vietnam to S China, Moluccas. BATAN, LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Ilocos Norte, Abra, Pangasinan, Zambales, Nueva Ecija, CAGAYAN DE SULU, MINDANAO. In open grasslands at low and medium elevation.

Cynodon Rich.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Syn. 1 (1804) 85 --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 103; EPFP 1 (1922) 83; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 71, t. 18 Cosmopolitan, and widely planted as a lawn grass. Throughout the Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, GUIMARAS, CEBU, BILIRAN, MINDANAO, SULU. Along roadsides, fallow rice paddies, waste places, pastures, etc. at low and medium elevation; common. Photos
  2. Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst, Bull. Agric. Congo Belge 13 (1922) 342. Africa. Not native to the Philippines. Naturalized?
  3. Cynodon radiatus Roemer & Schultes, Syst. Veg. 2 (1817) 411; --Nowack, Blumea 36 (1992) 478. --Cynodon arcuatus C.Presl, ReI. Haenk. 1 (1830) 290; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 103; EPFP 1 (1922) 83. --Cynodon dactylon ssp. arcuatus (C.Presl) Kern ex Henty, Man. Grasses New Guin. (1969) 57. Madagascar to New Guinea. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Tarlac, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, PANAY, MINDANAO. In open grasslands at low and medium elevation.

Cyrtochloa S.Dransf.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Cyrtochloa fenixii (Gamble) S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 53 (1998) 864; --Schizostachyum fenixii Gamble,  PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 289; idem. 8 (1913) Bot. 205; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 98. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Ilocos Sur, Benguet, Cagayan, PANAY. In thickets at low and medium elevation.
  2. Cyrtochloa hirsuta S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 53 (1998) 869; --Type: Pennoyer 853 (PNH, holo), Luzon: Bataan prov., Dinalupihan, Barrio San Pablo. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan (Dinalupihan).
  3. Cyrtochloa luzonica (Gamble) S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 53 (1998) 871; --Schizostachyum luzonicum Gamble, PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 277; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 99. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales. In forests and in ravines, alt. c. 800m.
  4. Cyrtochloa major (Pilg.) S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 58 (2003 publ. Feb 2004) 982; --Dinochloa major Pilg. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philipp. i. 149. Endemic to the Philippines.
  5. Cyrtochloa mindoroensis S Dransf., Kew Bull. 58 (2003 publ. Feb 2004) 981. --Type: BS 39366 Ramos (K, holo). Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental prov., Mt Calavite. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (Mt Calavite).
  6. Cyrtochloa puser S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 53 (1998) 867; --Type: McVey s.n. (K, holo), Luzon: Abra prov., Bangued. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra (Bangued).
  7. Cyrtochloa toppingii (Gamble) S Dransf., Kew Bull. 53 (1998) 862; --Schizostachyum toppingii Gamble, PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 276; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 106; EPFP 1 (1922) 100;  --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 32, t. 25. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, MINDORO. Low and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests.

Cyrtococcum Stapf

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Cyrtococcum oxyphyllum (Hochst. ex Steud.) Stapf in Hook., Icon. Pl. 31 (1922) t. 3096; --Panicum oxyphyllum Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 65. --Panicum pilipes Nees in Hook., J. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 97; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 94; EPFP 1 (1922) 66. Seychelles to Society Isl. LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN, MARINDUQUE, CEBU, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO, JOLO.
  2. Cyrtococcum patens (L.) Camus, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Paris 27 (1921) 118; --Panicum patens L., Sp. PI. (1753) 86; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 66. Photos
  3. Cyrtococcum trigonum (Retz.) Camus, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 27 (1921) 118. Widespread from Sri Lanka to the Pacific. Very rare, in the Philippines twice collected: MINADANAO, SULU.

Dactyloctenium Willd.

Photos
  1. Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd., Enum. Pl. (1809) 1029; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 104; EPFP 1 (1922) 86; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 72, Pantropic. Throughout the Philippines, seen from LUZON, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, CEBU, MINDANAO. A common tufted to mat-forming annual weed along roadsides, cultivation, etc. in settled areas at low and medium elevation. Photos

Dallwatsonia B.K.Simon = Hymenachne

Danthonia DC. = Rytidosperma

Dendrocalamus Nees

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Dendrocalamus asper (Schult.f.) Backer ex Heyne, Nutt. Pl. Ned.-Ind. ed. 2, 1 (1927) 301; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 13, t. 10. Probably from SE Asia. Introduced in Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Philippines, Australia. Planted and naturalized from low to high elevation to 1500m, but thrives best at 400-500m.
  2. Dendrocalamus merrillianus  (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2675; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 97; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 16, t. 12; --Bambusa merrilliana (Elmer) Rojo & Roxas in Rojo, Rev. Lexicon Philipp. Trees (1999) 179; --Gigantochloa merrilliana Elmer, LPB 1 (Jan. 1908) 273. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Abra, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Zambales, Pangasinan, Bulacan, LEYTE, CEBU, BOHOL, MINDANAO: Lanao. In and about towns, chiefly planted. Rojo (loc. cit.) states that “..in the sense of Dransfield & Widjaja (1995), this species is conspecific with Dendrocalamus asper. However, current observation of the flowers and vegetative characteristics points to Bambusa rather than Dendrocalamus”. Question: If this is indeed a Bambusa, why was the epithet asper not used? Basionym Bambusa aspera Schultes f. (1830) clearly antedates basionym Gigantochloa merrilliana Elmer (1908).

Non-naturalized cultivated taxa:

  1. Dendrocalamus brandisii (Munro) Kurz, For. Fl. Brit. Burma 2 (1877) 560; --Dransf. & Widjaja (eds.)  PROSEA 7, Bamboos (1995) 83.
  2. Dendrocalamus giganteus Wall. ex Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 150; --Dransf. & Widjaja (eds.) PROSEA 7, Bamboos (1995) 85; Probably from S Myanmar. Introduced to Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines for its edible shoots and culms for construction materials. Grows up to 1200.
  3. Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 152, t. 6; --Roxas in Dransf. & Widjaja (eds.) PROSEA 7, Bamboos (1995) 87; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 15, t. 11. Native to Myanmar, Thailand, S China and Taiwan. Cultivated in India, Indonesia and the Philippines. MINDANAO: Cotabato, Davao. Cultivated at low elevation in Indonesia and the Philippines.
  4. Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 149; --S.Dransf. & Widjaja (eds.)  PROSEA 7, Bamboos (1995) 90;  Thailand, Myanmar, Laos. Recently introduced in the Philippines.
  5. Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees, Linnaea 9 (1834) 476; --Jansen and Duriyaprapan in Dransf. & Widjaja (eds.) PROSEA 7, Bamboos (1995) 93;  Widespread and native to India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand. Cultivated in Sri Lanka, Indochina, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Cuba and the US.

Deschampsia P.Beauv.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin., Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. 1 (1836) 66; --Merr. & Merritt, PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 330; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 83.

Deyeuxia P.Beauv. = Calamagrostis

Dichanthium Willem.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Africa 9 (1917) 178; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) t. 21; --Andropogon annulatus Forssk., Fl. Aegypt-Arab. (1775) 173.
  2. Dichanthium aristatum (Poir.) CE Hubb., Kew Bull. (1939) 654; --Andropogon aristatus Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Meth. Bot. Suppl. 1 (1810) 585. Native of India. Africa to India, introduced in BOHOL and LUZON before 1947, but after 1923. var. heteropogonoides (Hackel) Jansen, A strain of this variety, called “Alabang X” originated from the Philippines and introduced elsewhere as pasture grass.
  3. Dichanthium caricosum (L.) A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Paris 27 (1921) 549; --Andropogon caricosus L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1480. India to China and Malesia. In the Philippines once collected in MASBATE: Uson (Santos 6816; L, PUH).
  4. Dichanthium sericeum (R.Br.) A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Paris 27 (1921) 549; --Andropogon sericeus R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 201; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 82; EPFP 1 (1922) 48.

Diectomis Kunth

No Photos
  1. Diectomis fastigiata (Sw.) Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. [H.B.K.] 1 (1816) 193; --Andropogon fastigiatus Sw., Prodr. (1788) 26; --Merr. PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 335; EPFP 1 (1922) 44. --Andropogon diectomis Sw. Pantropic, but rare in Malesia. LUZON: Mountain Province, Pangasinan, HERMANA MAYOR, BUSUANGA, PALAWAN. On dry open grassy slopes at low and medium elevation.

Digitaria Haller

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Digitaria abludens (Roemer & Schultes) Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 53, Fig. 11d; 12. --Digitaria pedicellaris (Trin.) Prain, Bengal PI. (1903) 1182; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 54. N Pakistan to Thailand, Java, Madura, Lesser Sunda Isl., Sulawesi, New Guinea. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Rizal, Bataan, CULION, MINDANAO. In open grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 850m.
  2. Digitaria bicornis (Lam.) Roemer & Schultes, Syst. 2 (1817) 470; --Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1950) 71, Fig. 979; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 30, f. 3c, d. Table 1. --Digitaria corymbosa (Roxb.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 53. --Digitaria sanguinalis auct., Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 54. Pan (sub) tropical. LUZON (Zambales), BUSUANGA, PALAWAN, MINDANAO. Annuals.
  3. Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koel, Descr. Gram. (1802) 27, pro comb.; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 87; --Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1950) 129; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 32, f. 5a, Table 1. --Digitaria sanguinalis auct. non (L.) Scop.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 54, pro parte. --Digitaria adscendens (Kunth) Henrard, Blumea 1 (1934) 92. Pantropical. Widespread in the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN, LEYTE, TURTLE ISLS. Rhachis with distinct spicules. Photos.
  4. Digitaria eriantha Steud. Africa. Introduced in the Philippines according to 't Mannetje & Jones (1992:121), but no vouchers have been seen.
  5. Digitaria fuscescens (C.Presl) Henrard, Meded. Rijksherb. Leiden 61 (1930) 8; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 61, Fig. 14b. Africa to the Pacific. LUZON, BALABAC, PANAY, BOHOL, CAGAYAN DE SULU, TURTLE ISLS. Perennials.
  6. Digitaria henrardii Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 55, Fig. 12; --Type: Merrill Phil. Pl. 577 (L, holo; PRC, U, iso). --Digitaria pedicellaris auct., --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 54. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Annuals.
  7. Digitaria heterantha (Hook.f.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 54; --Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1950) 314, Fig. 861; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 46, Fig. 4; 9. --Digitaria heterantha var. pachyrhachis (Hackel) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 54. Scattered along the coast of the China Sea, collected here and there in the Philippines. BALABAC, LANGAAN, LUMBUCAN, TURTLE ISLS, URSULA IS. Perennials.
  8. Digitaria insularis (L.) Mez ex Ekman, Ark. Bot. 11 (1912) 17; --Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1950) 341, Fig. 869; Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 48, Fig. 11-a,b; --Tricachne insularis (L.) Nees, Agrost. Bras. (1829) 86; --Andropogon insularis L., Syst. Nat. (1759) 1304. Tropical and subtropical America (S USA to N Argentina). Introduced elsewhere, e.g. Hawaii, Marshall Isls, Malesia: New Guinea, Java and the Philippines. MINDANAO: Misamis Oriental, Bukidnon, Saranggani.
  9. Digitaria junghuhniana (Steud.) Henrard, Meded. Rijksherb. Leiden 61 (1930) 11; Monogr. Digit. (1950) 361; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 51. Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Borneo (Mt Kinabalu), Sulawesi and the Philippines. LUZON: (Mt Pulog) and CEBU. According to a note by Dr Jansen, collected by Beccari in New Guinea. Annuals.
  10. Digitaria longiflora (Retz.) Pers., Syn. 1 (1805) 85; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 88; EPFP 1 (1922) 54; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 66. --Paspalum filiculme Nees ex Thwaites, Enum. PI. Zeyl. (1859-64) 358; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 53, in synonymy of D. chinensis. Old World tropics, very common throughout Malesia. LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO. Along roadsides, cultivated lands, open grass lands, etc. 0- c.1600m.
  11. Digitaria mariannensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 54; --Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1950) 434, Fig. 845; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) xxxx, Fig. 3-a,b; 4. Christmas Is., Guam and Malesia: Kangean Arch., E Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Timor, Sawu, Sumba), and Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan (FB 8399 Curran & Merritt). A sandy coast species and so probably much overlooked.
  12. Digitaria milanjiana (Rendle) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9(3) (1919) 430. Africa Introduced in the Philippines according to 't Mannetje & Jones (1992: 123).
  13. Digitaria mollicoma (Kunth) Henrard., Blumea 1 (1934) 97; --Paspalum molle C.Presl. Taiwan, rare and dispersed in Malesia. LUZON.
  14. Digitaria nuda Schumach. Pantropical. Throughout Malesia. LUZON, PALAWAN, MINDANAO.
  15. Digitaria philippinensis Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1950) 563, Fig. 874; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 70, Fig. 14g; --Type: BS 42890 Ramos (W, holo; L, P, PUH, SING, US, iso). Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL. Only known from the type collection.
  16. Digitaria radicosa (C.Presl) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 437. --Digitaria timorensis (Kunth) Balansa, J. Bot. Mor. Tom. 4 (1890) 138, nom. illeg. --Digitaria sanguinalis var. australis (Spreng.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 55. Old World tropics. LUZON, MINDORO, CULION, PALAWAN, PANAY, LEYTE, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, CAGAYAN DE SULU, MINDANAO, SULU ARCHIPELAGO Low and medium elevation, in thickets, waste places, etc.
  17. Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 1 (1771) 52. Mediterranean to C Asia and Malesia, Philippines?
  18. Digitaria setigera (Roth) Roemer & Schultes, Syst. Veg. 2 (1817) 474; --Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1850) 684, in obs., --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 37.
  19. Digitaria ternata (A.Rich.) Stapf, Fl. Cap. 7 (1898) 376; --Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1850) 737, Fig. 888; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 59, Fig. 14a. --Digitaria ropalotricha Büse. Old World tropics and subtropics, from S Africa, N to Guinea, Ethiopia, India to S China, across Malesia from Sumatra to New Guinea. In the Philippines. LUZON, CEBU, MINDANAO.
  20. Digitaria violascens Link, Hort. Berol. 1 (1827) 229; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 88; --Henrard, Monogr. Digit. (1950) 790, Fig. 878; --Veldk., Blumea 21 (1973) 63, Fig. 14-a. --Digitaria chinensis auctt. non Nees; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 53. Pantropical. Widespread in Malesia and the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, BOHOL, MINDANAO. Common along roadside, cultivated lands and abandoned fields, open grasslands, etc. from low to medium elevation.

Dimeria R.Br.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 31 December 2016

No Photos
  1. Dimeria chloridiformis (Gaudich.) K. Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Schutzgeb. Südsee [Schumann & Lauterbach] (1900) 165; --Type: Gaudichaud s.n. (P, holo; BRI, K). --Dimeria ciliata Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 262; EPFP 1 (1922) 30. Peninsular Malaysia to New Guinea. PALAWAN. Representative specimen: Merrill 9820. Open grasslands just above sea level. Rare. Perennial.
  2. Dimeria kurzii Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 7 (1896) 103; --Type: Kurz 2741 (K lecto; G, K, isolecto). Myanmar to Vietnam, Philippines. PALAWAN. Annual.
  3. Dimeria ornithopoda Trin., Fund. Agrost. (1820) 167, t. 14; --Type: Herb. Trinius 1254.1 (LE, holo). --Dimeria ornithopoda var. tenera (Trin.) Hackel in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 81; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 75; EPFP 1 (1922) 30. India to Japan, N Australia. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Pangasinan, Zambales, Bulacan, Rizal, Camarines, MINDORO, CULION, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Davao. Open grasslands, on rice-paddy banks, etc., 0- c. 1500m, locally abundant. Weak annuals, easily overlooked.

Uncertain status:

  1. Dimeria avenacea (Retz.) C.E.C.Fisch., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1932 (1932) 72.

Dinochloa Buse

No Photos
  1. Dinochloa acutiflora (Munro) S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 53(4) (1998) 877; --Schizostachyum diffusum (Blanco) Merr., Am. J. Bot. 3 (1916) 62; EPFP 1 (1922) 98; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl.Fauna 4 (1986) 26, t. 21. Taiwan, Philippines. BABUYAN  ISLS,  LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Apayao, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Zambales, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, MINDORO, PALAWAN?, LEYTE. Common in thickets, secondary and primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1700m. Variable.
  2. Dinochloa dielsiana Pilger in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 148; --Schizostachyum dielsianum (Pilger) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 391;  EPFP 1 (1922) 97; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 25, t. 20; --Type: Merrill 711 (K, NY, iso), Paragua (=Palawan): Ewi-ig (=Iwahig) River, 18-Feb-1903. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Synonym of Dinochloa acutiflora (Munro) S.Dransf.?
  3. Dinochloa elmeri Gamble in PJS 5 (1910) Bot. 280; --Camus, Bamb. (1913) 170; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 100; --Type: Elmer 6542 (K, 3 sheets; US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Sto. Tomas, June 1904. LUZON: Benguet (Mt Sto. Tomas). Mossy forests, c. 2200m.
  4. Dinochloa luconiae (Munro) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 100; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 17, t. 13. Philippines and Borneo. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ifugao, Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Zambales, Cavite, Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, MINDORO, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO, BASILAN. In forests at low and medium elevation.
  5. Dinochloa oblonga S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 51 (1996) 113. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN.
  6. Dinochloa palawanensis (Gamble) S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 51 (1996) 106; --Schizostachyum palawanense Gamble,  PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 274; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 99. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. In forests at low elevation.
  7. Dinochloa robusta S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 47 (1992) 402. Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN.
  8. Dinochloa scandens (Blume) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 773; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 100; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 19, t. 15. Andaman and Nicobar Isls. to W Malesia, Philippines?
  9. Dinochloa pubiramea Gamble, PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 279; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 100; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 18, t. 14. --Dinochloa tjankorreh Büse, Pl. Jungh. (18xx) 388. Borneo and the Philippines. LEYTE, SAMAR, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Surigao, BASILAN. In forests at low and medium elevation.

Diplachne P.Beauv.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

No Photos

  1. Diplachne fusca (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2 (1817) 615; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 381, Fl. Manila (1912) 99; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 74, t. 23; --Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. i. (1829) 91.

Echinochloa P.Beauv.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Echinochloa colona (L.) Link, (erroneously, ‘colonum’), Hort. Berol. 2 (1833) 209; --Panicum colonum L., Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 870; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 91; EPFP 1 (1922) 62. Cosmopolitan. Throughout the Philippines. LUZON, SAN MIGUEL, MINDORO, PALAWAN, BALABAC, PANAY, CEBU, BOHOL, LEYTE, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO, SULU. Low and medium elevation, in open, rather wet places. Photos
  2. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 53. s.l.; --Panicum crus-galli L., Sp. PI. (1753)  56; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 91; EPFP 1 (1922) 63. Cosmopolitan. Throughout the Philippines. LUZON, CATANDUANES, CAMIGUIN, CEBU, MINDANAO, no doubt elsewhere. Low and medium elevation, in open wet places, rice paddies, etc. Very polymorphic. Photos
  3. Echinochloa crus-pavonis (Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth) Schult., Syst. Veg. 2, Mant. (1824) 269; --Oplismenus crus-pavonis Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen et Sp. 1 (1816) 108. Pantropical. Usually in or near water.
  4. Echinochloa oryzoides (Ard.) Fritsch, Verh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 41 (1891) 742; --Panicum oryzoides Ard., Aminadv. Bot. Spec. Alt. (1764) 15. Caucasus to Japan and Philippines?
  5. Echinochloa picta (Koenig) Michael. Africa to the Pacific. LUZON, MINDANAO. Often confused with the next, hence distribution uncertain.
  6. Echinochloa stagnina (Retz.) Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 57; --Panicum stagninum Retz., Obs. 4 (1786) 17; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 91; EPFP 1 (1922) 68; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 75, t. 24. --Panicum crus-galli L. var. stagninum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 783. Africa to Philippines. BABUYANES, N LUZON to MINDANAO, in most islands and provinces. Open wet places, swamps, borders of lakes and streams, at low and medium elevation.

Ectrosia R.Br.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

No Photos

  1. Ectrosia lasioclada (Merr.) S.T.Blake, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland 84 (1973) 65; --Eragrostis lasioclada Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 382; EPFP 1 (1922) 90; --Ectrosiopsis lasioclada (Merr.) Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 268; --Type: Merrill 461. N Australia, New Guinea and the Philippines. CULION, PALAWAN. Fallow of rice paddies. Perennials.

Ectrosiopsis (Ohwi) Jansen =  Eragrostis 

Ehrharta Thunb.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

No Photos

  1. Ehrharta stipoides Labill., PI. Nov. Holl. 1 (1804) 91, t. 118; --Willemse, Blumea 28 (1982) 189; --Microlaena stipoides (Labill.) R.Br. Prodr. (1910) 210; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 78.

Eleusine Gaertn.

Photos
  1. Eleusine coracana Gaertn. Fruct. Sem. Pl. i. 8; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) t. 25. Presumably from Africa, 'cultivated in improved pastures of the Philippines' (Santos: 77), seen from LUZON, MINDANAO. Used to be widely cultivated and may persist here and there. Locally a preferred cereal.
  2. Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn., Fruct. 1 (1788) 8; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 104; EPFP 1 (1922) 85; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 78, t. 26. Old World tropics. Widespread throughout the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON, PALAWAN, CEBU, LEYTE, MINDANAO. An abundant weed along roadsides, cultivated lands, pastures, and other open sites in the settled areas throughout the Philippines, 0-2000m. Photos

Enteropogon Nees

No Photos
  1. Enteropogon dolichostachyus (Lagasca) Keng ex Lazarides, Austral. J. Bot. Suppl. 5 (1972) 31; --Chloris dolichostachya Lagasca, Gen. et Sp. Nov. (1816) 5. --Chloris digitata (Roxb.) Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 207. --Chloris incompleta Roth, Nov. Sp. PI. (1821) 60; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 84. --Chloris mearnsii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 220; EPFP 1 (1922) 84. India to China, Taiwan, Peninsular Malaysia, New Guinea. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Zambales, MINDORO, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, CEBU, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, JOLO. Dry open sandy soil at low elevation, sometimes along the seashore.

Eragrostis Wolf

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Eragrostis amabilis (L.) Wight & Arn., Cat. Indian Pl. 2 (1834) 105; -- Hook. & Am., Bot. Beechy Voy. (1841) 251; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 88. --Eragrostis tenella (L.) Roemer & Schultes, Syst. 2 (1817) 576; --Merr.; Fl. Manila (1912) 101; --Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 274. --Eragrostis mangalorica Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 265; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 101; EPFP 1 (1922) 90. Old World tropics. Widespread in the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON, PALAWAN, CEBU. In and about towns, a very common weed in open waste places. Photos
  2. Eragrostis aspera Nees, Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill (1841) 408. Tropical Africa to India. Cultivated and escaping, e.g. in LUZON. Annuals.
  3. Eragrostis atrovirens (Desf.) Steud. --Eragrostis elongata auct. non (Willd.) Jacq., --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 88. --Eragrostis luzoniensis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 266. Old World tropics and subtropics, Philippines. LUZON, GUIMARAS, SEMIRARA, PALAWAN, NEGROS, MINDANAO.
  4. Eragrostis brownii (Kunth) Nees in Steud., Nom. Bot. 1 (1841) 562. --Eragrostis elongata auctt., non (Willd.) Jacq. Sri Lanka, India, to S China, New Zealand. LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, MINDANAO
  5. Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vignolo ex Janch., Mitt. Naturw. Ver. Univ. Wien 5 (1907) 110; Vignolo-Lutati, Malpighia 18 (1904) 386; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 88. Widely distributed in (sub)tropics of the Old World. CEBU, NEGROS. Open waste places at low elevation. Photos
  6. Eragrostis ciliaris (L.) R.Br. in J.H.Tuckey, Narr. Exped. Zaire (1818) 478. Old World tropics and subtropics, Philippines?
  7. Eragrostis cumingii Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 266. --Eragrostis elongata auct. non (Willd.) Jacq., --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 88. --Eragrostis elegantula Pilger in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 148; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 102 , non Steud. --Eragrostis distans Hackel, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 81; --Merr.; Fl. Manila (1912) 102; EPFP 1 (1922) 88. --Eragrostis reflexa Hackel, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 168; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 90. Myanmar to N Vietnam, and tropical Australia. LUZON: IIocos Norte, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Rizal, HERMANA MAYOR, MINDORO, CULION, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Common in open grasslands at low and medium elevation
  8. Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees, Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill. (1841) 397. S Africa, widely cultivated elsewhere. LUZON. Not native to the Philippines.
  9. Eragrostis elongata (Willd.) J.Jacq., Ecl. Gram. Rar. (1813) t. 3. Tropical and subtropical Asia to Australia, Philippines? This has been misapplied to several species, e.g. E. atrovirens, E. brownii, E. cumingii, E. luzoniensis. Actually it is the same as the New Guinea - Australian E. diandra (R.Br.) Steud.
  10. Eragrostis interrupta (R.Br.) Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 71 (non Doell), --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 89. Australia. Not native to the Philippines.
  11. Eragrostis japonica (Thunb.) Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. vi, 1 (1830) 450; --Merr. in PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 384; EPFP 1 (1922) 89. --Eragrostis interrupta Doell in Mart., Fl. Bras. 3: 157; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 101, non Beauv. --Diandrochloa diarrhena (Schult.) Henry; --Eragrostis diarrhena (Schult.) Steud. --Diandrochloa japonica (Thunb.) Henry. --Eragrostis japonica var. interrupta (Lam.) Henrard, Blumea 3 (1940) 424. Old World tropics to New Guinea. LUZON: Abra, Mountain Province, Benguet, La Union, Nueva Vizcaya, Bataan, Laguna, Zambales, MINDORO, PALAWAN, BALABAC, CULION, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Open wet grasslands, along streams, etc., at low and medium elevation.
  12. Eragrostis multicaulis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 426. Pan(sub)tropical, Philippines. LUZON. Annuals.
  13. Eragrostis nigra Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1 (1854) 267. Sri Lanka, India to N China, Philippines (Santos 7152, L).
  14. Eragrostis nutans (Retz.) Nees ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1 (1840) 563. India to Malesia, Philippines?
  15. Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Nees, Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill. (1841) 406. USA to Argentina, introduced elsewhere, e.g. in the Philippines (LUZON, c. 1956). Photos
  16. Eragrostis pilosa (L.) P. Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 71; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 102; EPFP 1 (1922) 90. Old World. LUZON (Benguet, Rizal), NEGROS, MINDANAO. An introduced weed in open waste, abundant.
  17. Eragrostis riparia (Willd.) Nees in Mart., Fl. Bras. 2 (1829) 512; --Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 272. Sri Lanka, S India, Malesia: Philippines. LUZON, several collections between 1902 and 1925, even in Manila, but not collected since). “Rather rare in Malesia. Some (specimens) from British New Guinea” –Jansen.
  18. Eragrostis tenuifolia (A.Rich.) Steud. Tropical Africa to Vietnam, introduced elsewhere, e.g. in Malesia: New Guinea, recently spreading elsewhere: W Sumatra, Sabah, C Sulawesi, MINDANAO. Annuals.
  19. Eragrostis unioloides (Retz.) Steud., Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 264; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 102; EPFP 1 (1922) 90. Old World Tropics, introduced into the Neotropics. Widespread in SE Asia. LUZON: Zambales, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, NEGROS, MINDANAO. Perennials. Open wet places at low elevation.
  20. Eragrostis viscosa (Retz.) Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 1 (1830) 397; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 101; EPFP 1 (1922) 91. Africa, Arabia, tropical Asia, Philippines. Synonym of Eragrostis amabilis (L.) Wight & Arn.?
  21. Eragrostis zeylanica Nees & Mey., Nov. Act. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Suppl. 1 (1843) 204; --Eragrostis spartinioides Steud., Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 265; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 102; EPFP 1 (1922) 90. India to Indo-China, Philippines. LUZON: IIocos Norte, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Laguna, MINDORO. Open grasslands at low elevation.

Eremochloa Büse

No Photos
  1. Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 331; EPFP 1 (1922) 39; --Buitenhuis & Veldk., Blumea 46 (2001) 406, Fig. 3; --Santos: 78, t. 27. Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, China (SC and SE), Hainan, Taiwan, Malesia: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sulawesi, Aru Isls, New Guinea, Australia (N Queensland (Badu and Moa Isls. in Torres Strait), Cook District). In the Philippines known only from LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela. Open grasslands at low elevation. Rare.

Eriachne R.Br.

No Photos
  1. Eriachne pallescens R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 184; --Benth. Fl. Austral. 7 (1878) 630; --Merr.; EPFP 1 (1922) 82; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 79, t. 28. E India to S China through Malesia to Australia. In the Philippines recorded from LUZON, HERMANA MAYOR, CULION and PALAWAN. Open grassy places up to 550m.
  2. Eriachne triseta Nees ex Steud., Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 237; --Pilger in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 147; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 82; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 93, t. 42; --Massia triseta (Steud.) Balansa in Morot, J. de Bot. 4 (1890) 165. Sri Lanka to Australia. LUZON, CULION, PALAWAN. Open grasslands at low elevation.

Erianthus Michx. = Saccharum

Eriochloa Kunth

Photos
  1. Eriochloa procera (Retz.) CE Hubb., Kew Bull., (1930) 256; --Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 276; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) xxx, t. 29. --Eriochloa ramosa (Retz.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 775; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 85; EPFP 1 (1922) 58. --Eriochloa procera var. involucrata (Hackel ex Merr.) Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 276. --Eriochloa ramosa var. involucrata Hackel ex Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 349; EPFP 1 (1922) 58. Africa to Australia. Throughout the Philippines. LUZON, CATANDUANES, SAN MIGUEL (off Albay prov.), MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, CEBU, BOHOL, MINDANAO. Annual. Usually in open, damp grasslands at low and medium elevation. Photos

Eulalia Kunth

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Eulalia contorta (Brongn.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 775. SE Asia, Philippines?
  2. Eulalia leschenaultiana (Decne.) Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus., No. 18, 2 (1947). --Pollinia fulva auctt. non (R.Br.) Benth.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 33. N India to S China and Malesia: Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Benguet, Pangasinan, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDORO. Open grasslands, sandy river bars, etc., at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1200m.
  3. Eulalia maritima (Merr.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 68 (1922) 204; --Pollinia maritima Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 326; EPFP 1 (1922) 34. Endemic to the Philippines. LUMBACAN Isl. Sandy seashore. Distribution and habitat suggest sea dispersal. Synonym of Eulalia ridleyi (Hackel) Stapf ex Ridl.?

Eulaliopsis Honda

Photos
  1. Eulaliopsis binata (Retz.) C.E.Hubb., Hooker's Icon. Pl. 33 (1935) sub t. 3262, p. 6, in adnot. --Ischaemum angustifolium (Trin.) Hackel ex Oliv. in Hook., Icon. III, 8 (1888) t. 1773, --Merr. EPFP 1 (1922) 37. Afghanistan to S China, Taiwan and the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan)., PALAWAN. Open grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1400m. Photos

Eustachys Desv.

No Photos
  1. Eustachys tenera (J.Presl) A.Camus, Rev. Bot. Appl. Agric. Colon. v. (1925) 208 (1925), in obs.; --Chloris tener (C.Presl) Scribn., Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 41, t. 40; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 84. Thailand to SE China, Hainan, Philippines, New Guinea. LUZON: Sorsogon, NEGROS, CEBU, BOHOL, SAMAR, CAGAYAN DE SULU, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO, SULU. Open places at low elevation.

Festuca L.

Photos
  1. Festuca leptopogon Stapf., Fl. Brit. Ind. vii. 354. Sikkim to Yunnan, Taiwan, Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, Timor. LUZON: Mt Simacoco [BS 40326 (Ramos & Edaño); L].

Fimbribambusa Widjaja

No Photos
  1. Fimbribambusa horsfieldii (Munro) Widjaja, Reinwardtia 11 (1997) 81; --Bambusa horsfieldii Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 115; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 6, t. 4. --Bambusa cornuta Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 113; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 94. Java and Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya. In ravines along small streams, 1000-1600m.

Garnotia Brongn.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 October 2015

No Photos
  1. Garnotia stricta Brongn. in Bot. Duperr. Voy. (1829) 132, t. 21; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 81.

Gigantochloa Kurz ex Munro

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Gigantochloa atter (Hassk.) Kurz, Natuurk. Tijdschr. Ned.-Indië 27: 226 (1864); --Bambusa thouarsii var. atter Hassk., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1848) 41. Indo-China to New Guinea, Philippines?
  2. Gigantochloa levis (Blanco) Merr., Am. J. Bot. 3 (1916) 61; EPFP 1 (1922) 96; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 21, t. 16. LUZON: Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, POLILLO, CULION, LEYTE, CAMIGUIN. Usually if not always planted, and probably an introduced species in the Philippines. To be compared critically with the Malayan species. Photos

Guadua auct. mal. = Bambusa 

Hackelochloa granularis (L.) Kuntze = Mnesithea

Heteropholis C.E.Hubb. = Mnesithea

Heteropogon Pers.

No Photos
  1. Heteropogon contortus (L.) P Beauv. ex Roemer & Schultes, Syst. 2 (1817) 836; --Andropogon contortus L., Sp. PI. (1753) 1045; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 83; EPFP 1 (1922) 44; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 83, t. 32. Tropical America, Africa, India to S China, Japan, Australia, preferring regions with marked dry season. LUZON: IIocos Norte, La Union, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Pampanga, Rizal, Zambales, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, GUIMARAS, NEGROS, CEBU, MINDANAO: Misamis, Bukidnon. In open grasslands at low and medium elevation, often very abundant.
  2. Heteropogon triticeus (R.Br.) Stapf ex Craib, Kew Bull. (1912) 432; --Andropogon triticeus R.Br. Prodr. (1810) 201; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 48. E India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar to Vietnam, tropical Australia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Pangasinan, BUSUANGA, MINDANAO. Open grasslands at low or medium elevation.

Hierochloe R.Br. = Anthoxanthum

Holcus L.

[Not native]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 September 2012

Photos
  1. Holcus lanatus L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 1048. Not native to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Photos

Hymenachne P.Beauv.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge) Nees, Agrost. Bras. (1829) 276. --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 84, t. 33; --Panicum amplexicaule Rudge, PI. Guian. (1805) 21, t. 27; --Merr.; Fl. Manila (1912) 92; EPFP 1 (1922) 61. S America, India to S China, N Australia. LUZON, ALABAT, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Agusan del Sur. In open swamps and along swampy margins of lakes and streams at low elevation. Photos
  2. Hymenachne aurita (Presl ex Nees) Backer in K Heyne, Nutt. Pl. Ned.-Ind. ed. 2 (1922) 197; --Balansa, J. de Bot. 4 (1890) 144; --Dallwatsonia aurita (J.Presl ex Nees) J.R.Grande, Phytoneuron 2014-22 (2014) 3; --Panicum auritum J.Presl ex Nees in C.F.P.von Martius, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2 (1829) 176; --Presl, ReI. Haenk. 1 (1830) 305 (incl. var. procertus Presl), ex Nees, --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 92; EPFP 1 (1922) 61. Sri Lanka to S China, across Malesia to New Guinea. LUZON, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, CULION, PALAWAN, BALABAC, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO, SULU. Common in open, rather wet places, swampy margins of` lakes and sluggish rivers, at low and medium elevation. 

Hyparrhenia Andersson ex E.Fourn.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Hyparrhenia filipendula (Hochst.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Africa 9 (1918) 360; --Andropogon filipendulus Hochst., Flora 29 (1846) 115,
  2. Hyparrhenia newtonii (Hack.) Stapf in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 363; --Andropogon newtonii Hack., Bol. Soc. Brot. 3 (1885) 137.
  3. Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees) Stapf in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 304; --Trachypogon rufus Nees in C.F.P.von Martius, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2 (1829) 345.

Ichnanthus P.Beauv.

No Photos
  1. Ichnanthus pallens (Sw.) Benth., Fl. Hongk. (1861) 414.

Imperata Cyrillo

Photos

These two species appear to be indistinguishable.
  1. Imperata conferta (C.Presl) Ohwi, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 55 (1941) 549. --Imperata exaltata (Roxb.) Brongn., Voy. Coq. Bot. (1829) 101, excl. syn. Roxb.; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) SuppI. 322. --Imperata exaltata ssp. merrillii Hackel, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 264; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 31. SE Asia to New Guinea. LUZON, SAN MIGUEL (off Albay prov.), PALAWAN, NEGROS, BOHOL, MINDANAO, SULU,. probably much more widespread, although much less common than the next species. On exposed ridges, 1500-2250m. Probably not really distinct from Imperata cylindrica (Ms. D. Co, pers. comm.).
  2. Imperata cylindrica (L.) P Beauv., Agrost. (1912) expl. Pl. 5, t. 5, Fig. 1. --Imperata cylindrica var. koenigii (Retz.) Benth. ex Pilger in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 137; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 76. --Imperata cylindrica var. major (Nees) CE Hubb. & Vaughan, Grasses of Mauritius & Rodriguez (1940); --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) t. 34. Tropical parts of Africa, Asia to Australia and Polynesia. Throughout the Philippines. BATAN, CEBU, LUZON, ALABAT, MINDORO, PALAWAN, NEGROS, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Open slopes, often gregariously occupying enormous areas, forming characteristic kogonales, the name of these areas being taken from its almost universal local name kogon. Ascending to 2300m. Photos

Isachne R.Br.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Isachne albens Trin., Sp. Gram. Ix. 1 (1828) 85. --Isachne magna (Merr.) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 327; EPFP 1 (1922) 59. --Isachne stricta Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 463; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 60. India to Taiwan, Philippines, New Guinea. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, LEYTE, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Davao, Lanao. In the mossy forest, 600-2400m.
  2. Isachne arfakensis Ohwi, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 56 (1942) 4. New Guinea and the Philippines. LUZON. 2400m.
  3. Isachne brassii Hitchc., Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales liv. 146 (1929). Philippines to W New Guinea, Guam. LUZON, DINAGAT, 200-975m.
  4. Isachne clarkei Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 7 (1896) 24. --Isachne beneckei Hackel, Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 51 (1901) 459; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 350; EPFP 1 (1922) 58. Java, Lesser Sunda Isls LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Bataan, Pampanga. Open wet places, borders of cold pools and sphagnum swamps, and on narrow forested ridges, 800-2600m.
  5. Isachne clementis Merr., --J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 76 (1917) 76.
  6. Isachne globosa (Thunb.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 778; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 59; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 86, t. 35. --Isachne dispar Trin., Sp. Gram. [Trinius] 1(8) (1827) t. 86. India to Japan south to Australia and New Zealand. LUZON, GUIMARAS, MINDANAO: Lanao. Usually below 700m.
  7. Isachne kunthiana (Wight & Arn.) Nees ex Miq., Fl. Ind. Bot. 3 (1855) 460. India to Solomons. LUZON. Below 700m alt.
  8. Isachne minutula (Gaudich.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 2 (1831) t. 117; --Panicum minutulum Gaudich., Voy. Uranie (1829) 410. Tropical Asia to Australia, Philippines?
  9. Isachne myosotis Nees, in Hook. J. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 98; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 349; EPFP 1 (1922) 60. --Isachne debilis Rendle ex Forbes & HemsI. in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 36 (1904) 322; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) SuppI. 350; EPFP 1 (1922) 58. --Isachne depauperata (Hackel) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 58. --Isachne micrantha Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 168; EPFP 2 (1922) 59. --Isachne incrassata (Hackel) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 168; EPFP 1 (1922) 59. Taiwan to New Guinea. LUZON: Abra, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Aurora, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, MINDORO, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao. Open places, along streams, rice paddies, damp thickets along ravines and forested ridge, (250) 700-2800m.
  10. Isachne pangerangensis Zoll. & Mor., Syst. Verz. Zoll. Pflanz. (1845) 102.
  11. Isachne pauciflora Hackel, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 80; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 60. Taiwan. New Guinea, Philippines. Synonym of Isachne myosotis Nees?
  12. Isachne pulchella Roth ex Roemer & Schultes, Syst. Veg. 2 (1817) 476. --Isachne conferta Merr., PJS 9 (1914) Bot. 261; EPFP 1 (1922) 58. --Isachne miliacea Roth, Nov. PI. Sp. (1821) 58; --Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 89; EPFP 1 (1922) 59. India to the Pacific. Widespread in the Philippines. LUZON, BILIRAN, PANAY, MINDANAO. Open wet places, old rice paddies, boulders and ledges along streams at low or medium elevation, often abundant.
  13. Isachne villosa (Hitchc.) Reeder, J. Arn. Arb. 29 (1948) 314; --Henty, Man. Grasses New Guin. (1969) 114. New Guinea and the Philippines. Philippine materials determined by JV Santos as Isachne cf. brassii may belong to this species. This species mentioned by Henty (1969: 114) but not seen.

Ischaemum L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Ischaemum australe R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 205. Indo-China to Australia, Philippines?
  2. Ischaemum barbatum Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) vi. (1791) 35. --Ischaemum barbatum var. gibbum (Trin.) Jansen; --Ischaemum aristatum L., Sp. PI. (1753) 1049 var. gibbum (Trin.) Hackel in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 204; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 80; EPFP 1 (1922) 37.
  3. Ischaemum ciliare Retz., Obs. 6 (1791) 36; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 37, excluding Batan specimens cited (= I. setaceum). --Ischaemum indicum auct. Africa, Madagascar, India to China and Taiwan to Moluccas. BATAN, LUZON.
  4. Ischaemum glaucescens Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 263; EPFP 1 (1922) 37. Borneo (Sabah), PALAWAN, Merrill 9459. In shallow water, borders of Lake Manguao, at low elevation.
  5. Ischaemum merrillii Hackel, PJS 1 (1906) SuppI. 266; Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 38. --Ischaemum timorense auct. --Ischaemum arundinaceum F.Muell. var. radicans Hackel. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. In open rather wet places, c.1500m.
  6. Ischaemum minus J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 (1829) 329. South America, Ogasawara-shoto to Philippines. Native?
  7. Ischaemum muticum L., Sp. PI. (1753) 1049; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 330; EPFP 1 (1922) 38. India to Australia. LUZON, PALAWAN, BALABAC, LEYTE, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO, SULU. In the Philippines, a common beach grass.
  8. Ischaemum philippinense Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 11 (1942) 175. Endemic to the Philippines.
  9. Ischaemum polystachyum C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 328. --Ischaemum digitatum Brongn. in L.I.Duperrey, Voy. Monde, Phan. (1831) 70. --Ischaemum intermedium Brongn. in Duperr. Voy. Coqu. (1829) Bot. 73; Fl. Manila (1912) 80; EPFP 1 (1922) 38. --Ischaemum todayense Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2678; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 39. Peninsular Malaysia to New Guinea and Micronesia. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna, Sorsogon, POLILLO, MINDORO, LEYTE, SAMAR , MINDANAO: Davao, Surigao. Open wet grassy places, ravines in secondary forests, etc. at low elevation to c. 900m.
  10. Ischaemum pubescens Merr., PJS 9 (1914) Bot. 264; EPFP 1 (1922) 38. New Guinea (Irian Jaya) and Philippines. DUMARAN. Twice found. open grasslands at low elevation.
  11. Ischaemum rugosum Salisb., Icon. (1791) 1, t. 1; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 87, t. 36. --Ischaemum rugosum var. distachyum (Cav.) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 330; Fl. Manila (1912) 80; EPFP 1 (1922) 38. India to China, Malesia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Rizal, Bataan, POLILLO, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, GUIMARAS, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Annual. Open usually rather wet grasslands.
  12. Ischaemum setaceum Honda, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 38 (1924) 54; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 57. --Ischaemum ciliare Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 37, as to Batan specimens cited only, non Retz. Taiwan (S tip and Lanyu) and the Philippines. BATAN, Open grasslands and wet littoral cliff, locally rare. Hatusima 29167; BS 9169 Mearns.
  13. Ischaemum timorense Kunth India to Pacific. (BS 48106, fide Jansen msc, without provenance).

Koordersiochloa Merr.

No Photos
  1. Koordersiochloa longiarista (A.Rich.) Veldkamp, Reinwardtia 13 (2012) 301 (2012); --Streblochaete longiarista (A.Rich.) Pilger, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 516; --Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 22-15. --Koordersiochloa javanica Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 67, t. 1; --PJS 30 (1926) 390. E Africa, Mascarenes, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Lombok), N Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Mt Pulag). Mossy forest, c. 2400m.

Leersia Sw.

Photos
  1. Leersia hexandra Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 21; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 78; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 88, t. 37. Pan(sub)tropical. Widespread from N LUZON to MINDANAO. Open freshwater wetlands, rice paddies, etc. at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1500m. Photos

Leptaspis R.Br.

No Photos
  1. Leptaspis banksii R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1 (1810) 211. --Leptaspis cumingii Steud., Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 416; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 76. Australia to W New Guinea, Goodenough Isls, Java, Philippine Taiwan. MINDANAO: Misamis, Davao, JOLO, BONGAO. In forests at low or medium elevation.
  2. Leptaspis zeylanica Steud. Tropical Africa to the Solomons. MINDANAO.

Leptochloa P.Beauv.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees, Syll. Ratisb. 1 (1824) 4; --Hook., J. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 102; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 105; EPFP 1 (1922) 86; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 90, t. 39. E Africa to China, New Guinea. LUZON: Cagayan to Camarines, in most provinces, MINDORO, PALAWAN, CEBU, PANAY: Iloilo, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Aquatic to semi- aquatic annual to short-lived perennial. In open usually wet places along or near streams.
  2. Leptochloa mucronata (Michx.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1 (1829) 91. Americas. Not native to the Philippines. Naturalized?
  3. Leptochloa panicea (Retz.) Ohwi, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 55 (1941) 311.
  4. Leptochloa neesii (Thwaites) Benth., Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 19 (1881). India to N Australia. CEBU.

Lepturus P.Beauv.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser. 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Lepturus repens (G.Forst.) R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 207; -- Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 91, t. 40; --Monerma repens (G.Forst.) Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 117; --Hackel, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 81; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 93. Photos

Lolium L.

[Not native]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Lolium multiflorum Lam., Fl. Franç. 3 (1779) 621. Macaronesia, Mediterreneam, Eurasia. Not native to the Philippines. Naturalized? Photos
  2. Lolium temulentum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 83. Macaronesia, Mediterreneam, Eurasia. Not native to the Philippines. Naturalized?

Lophatherum Brongn.

Photos
  1. Lophatherum gracile Brongn., Bot. Duperr. Voy. (1829) 50, t. 8; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 91; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 92, t. 41. --Lophatherum gracile var. pilosum Camus in Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 25 (1919) 495; --Merr., EPFP 1(1922) 91. India to Japan, across Malesia to Australia (Queensland). LUZON: Aurora, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon, POLILLO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, NEGROS, LEYTE, MINDANAO, BASILAN, JOLO. In forests, along trails, and in old clearings, chiefly at medium elevation. Photos

Manisuris auct. non L. = Coelorhachis

Massia Balansa = Eriachne

Melinis P.Beauv.

Photos
  1. Melinis minutiflora P.Beauv., Ess. Agrost. (1812) 54, pl. 11, Fig. 4; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 94, t. 43. Tropical and S Africa, also in Brazil; introduced to many tropical countries as forage grass. 'Throughout the Philippines' (Santos: 94), but only seen from LUZON.
  2. Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka, Biblioth. Bot. 55 (1988) 138; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 118, t. 70; --Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd.) CE Hubb., Kew Bull. (1934) 110. Africa and Arabia. Photos

Microchloa R.Br.

No Photos
  1. Microchloa indica (L.f.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 3 (1893) 356; --Hackel, Fedde Repert. 7 (1909) 373; --Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 74; EPFP 1 (1922) 83. Pan(sub)tropical. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Rizal. Open dry grasslands at low and medium elevation.

Microlaena R.Br. = Ehrharta

Microstegium Nees

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Microstegium eucnemis (Nees ex Steud.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n. s., 68 (1922) 200. Myanmar, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isl., LUZON.
  2. Microstegium fasciculatum (L.) Henrard, Blumea 3 (1940) 453. --Microstegium ciliatum (Trin.) Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon 68 (1921) 201; --Pollinia ciliata Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 42 (1832) 306. --Microstegium monanthum (Nees) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 257. --Pollinia glabrata (Brongn.) Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 64 (1836) 90; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1922) 34. --Pollinia glabrata var. elmeri (Hackel) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 34. Pakistan to Japan, New Guinea. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, MINDANAO. Thickets in damp ravines, 1200-1500m.
  3. Microstegium geniculatum (Hayata) Honda, J. Fac. Sc. Tokyo, sect. 3, Bot. 3 (1930) 410. Peninsular Malaysia to S China. 1000--2000m. Fide Jansen msc., no specimens seen by L.L.Co.
  4. Microstegium glabratum (Brongn.) Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n. s., 68 (1922) 201; --Pollinia glabrata (Brongn.) Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. vi, 4 (1836) 90; --Hackel in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 179; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 34. Philippines to Marianas Isls and Polynesia to New Caledonia. LUZON: Pangasinan, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, MINDORO, SAMAR, PANAY, MINDANAO, BALUT. Open ravines, thickets, and old clearings at low and medium elevation.
  5. Microstegium nudum (Trin.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon 68 (1921) 201; --Pollinia nuda Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. vi (1833) 307; --Hackel in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 178; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 34. Pakistan to China and SE Asia to New Guinea. LUZON: Benguet. Mossy forest clearings, 2000-2400m.
  6. Microstegium spectabile (Trin.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon 68 (1921) 200; --Pollinia spectabilis Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 42 (1832) 305. Micronesia, New Guinea, the Philippines and Borneo: LUZON, MINDANAO. Usually in rather wet grasslands, particularly in gullies and at forest margins.
  7. Microstegium tenue (Trin.) Hosokawa, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 28 (1938) 150; --Pollinia tenuis Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. vi, 2 (1833) 307; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 35. Caroline Islands, Taiwan and the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Bataan, Rizal. Annual. Dry open slopes, on and about cliffs, etc., alt. 0-1200m.
  8. Microstegium vagans (Nees ex Steud.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n. s., 68 (1922) 200. --Microstegium gratum (Hackel) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo -Chine 7 (1922) 258. --Micostegium montanum (Nees ex Steud.) Henrard, Blumea 3 (1940) 455. E India to S China, to Lesser Sunda Isl. LUZON, MINDORO. Perennials.
  9. Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 260; --Pollinia viminea (Trin.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 35. Caucasus to India, S China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan and the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Rizal. Annuals. Open wet slopes and in the mossy forest, 1200-2200m. Photos.

Miscanthus Andersson

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Miscanthus depauperatus Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 170; EPFP 1 (1922) 32. Endemic to the Philippines. Synonym of Miscanthus sinensis Andersson?
  2. Miscanthus floridulus (Labill.) Warb., Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. Sudsee (1901) 166. --Miscanthus japonicus auct., non (Thunb.) Anders. (1855); --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 32. --Miscanthus sinensis auct., non Anders. (1855); --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 32. China to Pacific, New Guinea. BATAN, BABUYANES, LUZON, MINDORO, PANAY, NEGROS, SAMAR, MINDANAO. In thickets, exposed ridges, road cuts and ravines, along streams, volcanic craters, fumaroles, etc. from 300-2700m, often gregarious. Photos
  3. Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Oefvers. Vet. Akad. Stockh. (1855) 166. Japan, China, Korea, Borneo. MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (Mt Halcon), NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Canlaon, 1800-2000m), occurs along volcanic crater vegetation on Mt Canlaon. Cultivated forms with striped leaves are possibly also present. Merrill (1910) 170. Photos

Mnesithea Kunth

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 January 2014

Photos
  1. Mnesithea glandulosa (Trin.) Koning & Sosef, Blumea 31 (1986) 290; --Coelorachis glandulosa (Trin.) Ridl., Fl. Mal. Penins. 5 (1925) 204; --Rottboellia glandulosa Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. vi, 2 (1833) 250; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 40; --Santos, Guide to Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 67, t. 16; --Type from Java. Myanmar to New Guinea. LUZON: Benguet (once collected: Elmer 5823), MINDORO, CULION, PALAWAN, BALABAC, BUSUANGA, PANAY: Antique, GUIMARAS, CAMIGUIN, CAGAYAN DE SULU, BOHOL, SIARGAO, MINDANAO, JOLO, TAWI-TAWI. In thickets, old clearings, along roads and railroads, etc., up to 1525m.
  2. Mnesithea granularis (L.) Koning & Sosef, Blumea 31 (1986) 295; --Hackelochloa granularis (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 776; --Cenchrus granularis L., Mant. Pl. Altera (1771) 575; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 329; Fl. Manila (1912) 79; EPFP 1 (1922) 41; --Santos, Guide to Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 83, t. 31. Pantropic. 'In most islands and provinces' (Santos: 83). BATAN, LUZON, MINDORO, NEGROS, CEBU, GUIMARAS, MINDANAO, JOLO. In disturbed soil, open waste places, old clearings, etc., at low and medium elevation.
  3. Mnesithea laevis (Retz.) Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 154.
  4. Mnesithea mollicoma (Hance) A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 25 (1919) 57; --Rottboellia mollicoma Hance, J. Bot. 9 (1871) 134; --Lectotype: Hance 7558 (G, holo; K, fragm. L, W, iso). --Rottboellia triflora FT Hubbard, PJS 9 (1914) Bot. 257; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 40; --Type: Ledesma s.n. (BH, holo; A, US, W, iso). Vietnam and Thailand to S China, Sumatra, Java, Philippines. PALAWAN. Borders of thickets at low elevation.
  5. Mnesithea rottboellioides (R.Br.) Koning & Sosef, Blumea 31(1986) 291; --Coelorhachis rottboellioides (R.Br.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon 68 (1921) 197; --Ischaemum rottboellioides R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 206; --Rottboellia ophiuroides Benth. (nom. superfl.), Fl. Austral. 7 (1878) 514; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 40; --Type: R. Brown 6156 (BM, holo (photo BRI); CANB (?), MEL (photo BRI), NSW (photo BRI)). --Rottboellia ophiuroides var. intermedia Hackel, PJS 1 (1906) SuppI. 265; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 40; --Lectotype: Elmer 6393 (BO, K, PNH lost, W). Philippines to Pacific, N Australia. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Tarlac, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Zambales, Rizal, MASBATE, PANAY, GUIMARAS, CEBU, BOHOL, SIARGAO, MINDANAO. In open grasslands at low and medium elevation, pine forest, disturbed sites, ascending to 2320m, often common. Photos

Monerma P.Beauv. = Lepturus

Monostachya Merr. = Danthonia

Muhlenbergia Schreb.

Photos
  1. Muhlenbergia huegelii Trin., Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. 6, 62 (1845) 293. --Muhlenbergia arisanensis Hayata, Icon. PI. Taiwan 7 (1918) 87, Fig. 54; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 80. India to China and Taiwan. Malesia: New Guinea and the Philippines. LUZON: Cordillera Highlands. Along small streams, in old clearings, and in the mossy forest, 1300-3000m.

Neololeba Widjaja

[Not native]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Neololeba atra (Lindl.) Widjaja, Reinwardtia 11 (1997) 114; --Bambusa atra Lindley, Penny Cyclop. 3 (1835) 357; --Widjaja in Dransf. & Widjaja (ed.), PROSEA No. 7. Bamboos (1995) 53. Native of New Guinea, Moluccas and Sangihe Is. Reportedly in S part of MINDANAO. Planted in gardens and bambuseta. Not naturalized?

Ophiuros Gaertn.

No Photos
  1. Ophiuros exaltatus (L.f.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 780; --Merr. in PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 329; EPFP  1 (1922) 41; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 96, t. 46; --Rottboellia exaltata L.f. SuppI. (1781) 114; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 78; EPFP 1 (1922) 39. Ophiuros tongcalingii (Elmer) Henrard, Blumea 4 (1941) 520, in obs. India to China, across Malesia to tropical Australia. LUZON: Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDORO, PALAWAN, NEGROS,. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. In open rather damp places, borders of thickets, etc. at low and medium elevation. Common.

“Ophiurus” = Ophiuros

Oplismenus P.Beauv.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Oplismenus burmanni (Retz.) Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 54; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 94; EPFP 1 (1922) 71. Pantropical. LUZON: Pangasinan. Rizal, Bataan, PANAY, GUIMARAS, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. In thickets at low elevation.
  2. Oplismenus compositus (L.) P. Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 54; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 94; EPFP 1 (1922) 71; --Santos, Guide to Philip. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 98, t. 47. --Oplismenus compositus var. lasiorhachis Hackel, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 81; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 71. --Oplismenus compositus var. rariflorus (C.Presl) U. Scholz, Phanerogam. Monogr. 13 (1981) 96 Pan(sub)tropical. 'Throughout the Philippines' (Santos: 98), seen from BATAN, LUZON, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, CULION, PALAWAN, PANAY, GUIMARAS, CEBU, BOHOL, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, JOLO, MINDANAO. In thickets, old clearings, etc., at low and medium elevation; often common. Photos
  3. Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) Beauv., Ess. Agrost. 54 (1812) 168. --Oplismenus undulatifolius auct. and its var. imbecillis (R.Br.) Hackel. --Oplismenus undulatifolius var. imbecillis (R.Br.) Hackel, Govt. Lab. PubI. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 81; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 72. --Oplismenus aemulus (R.Br.) Kunth, Enum. Plant. 1 (1833) 142; --Orthopogon aemulus R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1 (1810) 194. Pantropical. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Benguet, Mountain Province, Ifugao, La Union, Cagayan, Pangasinan, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, NEGROS, CEBU, LEYTE, MINDANAO, SULU. In thickets and forests at low and medium elevation. Along streams in shaded places and on ridges in the mossy forest, at low and medium elevation, ascending to 2400m. A variable species.
  4. Oplismenus undulatifolius (Ardwino) P. Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 54; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 72. Eurasia, Arabia, Africa, Malesia, Australia, Philippines. Synonym of Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) Beauv.?

Oryza L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Oryza meyeriana (Zoll. & Moritzi) Benth. ex Pilger in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 145; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 77. --Oryza meyeriana var. granulata (Watt) Duistermaat, Blumea, 32 (1987) 185. Sri Lanka to China, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS.
  2. Oryza minuta C.Presl, ReI. Haenk. 1 (1830) 208; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 77. --Oryza manilensis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 219; Fl. Manila (1912) 98. Philippines to New Guinea. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, BOHOL, LEYTE, SAMAR. In open wet places at low and medium elevation.
  3. Oryza officinalis Wall. ex Watt, Dict. Econ. Prod. India 5 (1891) 501; --Steud., Syn. Pl. Gram. (1854) 3. --Oryza minuta var. silvatica (A.Camus) Veldkamp, Blumea 37 (1992) 232. Sri Lanka to S China, Queensland. MINDORO, NEGROS, BOHOL, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Zamboanga
  4. Oryza rufipogon Griff., Not. Pl. As. 3 (1851) 5, pl. 144, Fig. 2. Sri Lanka to China, N Australia. MINDANAO.
  5. Oryza sativa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 333; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 97; EPFP 1 (1922) 77; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 98, t. 48. Extensively cultivated throughout the Philippines but not a native of the Archipelago, although of prehistoric introduction. The rice plant is enormously variable and probably several hundred distinct cultural forms occur in the Archipelago. No attempt has been made to compile the very numerous local names currently applied to special varieties. Rice. Photos

Ottochloa Dandy

Photos
  1. Ottochloa nodosa (Kunth) Dandy, J. Bot. 69 (1931) 55; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 92; EPFP 1 (1922) 65; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) t. 49. Africa, India to China, across Malesia to Australia (Queensland). 'In most islands and provinces' (Santos: 100), seen from LUZON, ALABAT, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR, MINDANAO, SULU. Shaded places, .thickets, old clearings, etc., low and medium elevation; common. Photos
Note by L.L.Co.: The following two spp are not true Ottochloa; in Leptochloa?

Panicum L.  

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Panicum bisulcatum Thunb., Nov. Acta Soc. Sc. Upsal. 7 (1815) 141; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 188. --Panicum acroanthum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 87; --Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 315. NE India to Japan, S China, Indochina, Philippines and Sulawesi. Probably introduced in Australia (Queensland to Victoria). BALABAC (Mt Caunayan, BS 49704 Ramos & Edaño), MINDANAO: Davao. Secondary forest near stream at low alt.
  2. Panicum brevifolium L., Sp. PI. (1753) 59; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 61; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 189. Tropical Africa and Asia, possibly introduced in at least part of Malesia: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Banka, Java, Borneo (Sarawak, Sabah, W Kalimantan), and Philippines. BALABAC, TAWI-TAWI. In thickets, along trails in shaded places, etc., at low elevation.
  3. Panicum caudiglume Hackel, Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 51 (1901) 428; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 92; EPFP 1 (1922) 62; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 101, t. 51; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 190. Java, Kangean Archipelago, Lesser Sunda Isls, and Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Bataan, CULION, PALAWAN. MINDANAO. In open waste places at low elevation, in regions with distinct seasonal climate.
  4. Panicum curviflorum Hornem., Hort. Bot. Hafn. Suppl. (1819) 116; --Veldk., Eijs & Zoetemeyer, Blumea 34 (1989) 77.
  5. Panicum elegantissimum Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 7 (1896) 52. China to Indo-China and Philippines?
  6. Panicum flexuosum Retz., Observ. Bot. 3 (1783) 9. --Panicum sumatrense Roth ex Roemer & Schultes, Syst. Veg. 2 (1817) 434; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 108, t. 59; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 205. --Panicum psilopodium Trin., Gram. Pan. (1826) 17; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 93; EPFP 1 (1922) 66. Africa (Senegal & E part), Pakistan, Sri Lanka to N Vietnam. In Malesia along the ‘drought track’ through Wallacea: Sumatra (?Bengkulu), Java (E of Ceribon), Madura, SW Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (Flores, Roti, Timor) and the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Rizal. In open wet places, forest edge, edge of rice fields, grassy roadside, low and medium elevation, ascending to 1400m. Annual.
  7. Panicum humile Nees ex Steud., Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 84; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 64; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 100, t. 50; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 194. --Panicum walense Mez, Bot. Jahrb. 34 (1904) 146 (as ‘watense’). Tropical Africa, Madagascar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Andamans, S China, Taiwan. In Malesia: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Tarlac, Pangasinan, Zambales, Rizal, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, CULION, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, MINDANAO, Annual. In dry areas, open waste places, grasslands, etc., at low and medium elevation.
  8. Panicum incomtum Trin., Gram. Panic. (1826) 200. Tropical and subtropical Asia to Australia, Philippines?
  9. Panicum luzonense Presl, ReI. Haenk. 1 (1828) 308; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 64; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 102, t. 52; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 195. --Panicum tuberculatum Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 69, non Presl (1810). Sri Lanka, eastward across Malesia to N Australia, Solomon Isls (Bougainville). LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bataan, Rizal, Cavite, Laguna, PALAWAN, PANAY, MINDANAO, TAWI-TAWI. Annual. In open waste places, old clearings, etc., at low and medium elevation.
  10. Panicum maximum Jacq., Icon. PI. Rar. 1 (1781-86) t. 13; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 93; EPFP 1 (1922) 65; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) t. 53; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 197; --Urochloa maxima (Jacq.) R.D.Webster, Australian Paniceae (Poac.) (1987) 241. Tropical Africa, Mascarenes, Arabia, introduced (sub)pantropically. In Malesia widespread from Sumatra to New Guinea. Extensively cultivated for forage purposes. LUZON, PALAWAN, CEBU, MINDANAO. Large tufted perennial. Occasionally found as an escape or persisting from former cultivation, easily running wild in waste areas, road sides, etc. The correct name seems to be Urochloa maxima (Jacq.) R.D.Webster. Guinea grass. Photos
  11. Panicum miliaceum L., Sp. PI. (1753) 58; --Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 39; ed. 2 (1845) 28; ed. 3, 1 (1877) 52; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) SuppI. 358; EPFP 1 (1922) 65; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 198. Originally from C Asia, now cultivated as a cereal or fodder in warm and temperate regions, sporadically so in former times in Malesia.
  12. Panicum mindanaense Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 360; EPFP 1 (1922) 65; --Veldk., Blumea 41  (1996) 199. Philippines to New Guinea. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Rizal, Batangas, Zambales, BUSUANGA, CULION, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, MINDANAO: Lanao. In open places, abandoned gardens, grasslands, etc., 0-75m.
  13. Panicum notatum Retz., Obs. 4 (1786) 18; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 199. --Panicum cordatum Büse in Miq., PI. Jungh. (1854) 376; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 63; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 104, t. 54. India to S China and Taiwan. Malesia: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Riau, Banka, Java, Kangean Archipelago, Lesser Sunda Isls, Borneo, SW Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, La Union, Bataan, Bulacan, MINDORO, CULION, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS. Perennial. in thickets, roadsides, old clearings, steep slopes, etc., at low and medium elevation.
  14. Panicum paludosum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 310; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 93; EPFP 1 (1922) 66; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 104, t. 55; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 200. India, Sri Lanka to S China, across Malesia from Sumatra to New Guinea and Australia (Northern Territory to New South Wales). LUZON: Cagayan, Rizal, Laguna, PANAY: Iloilo, GUIMARAS, MINDANAO: Lanao. In shallow water along margins of streams and lakes, rice fields, often floating, locally dominant. Low and medium elevation.
  15. Panicum repens L., Sp. PI. ed. 2 (1762) 87; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 93; EPFP 1 (1922) 67; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 106, t. 56; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 202. Pan(sub)tropic, probably introduced in Malesia where it extends from Sumatra to W New Guinea. LUZON, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, PANAY: Iloilo, CEBU, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO. In open lowlands, sunny to slightly shaded, especially near the sea, but also inland locally and ascending to 1500m; common.
  16. Panicum sarmentosum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 311; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 68; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 106, t. 57; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 203. India to S China, Taiwan, across Malesia (from Sumatra to New Guinea) to tropical Australia (Queensland). LUZON: Bataan, Cavite, Zambales, Quezon, MINDORO, CULION, PALAWAN, BALABAC, PANAY, NEGROS. In thickets and secondary forests, old clearings, steep river banks, at low and medium elevation, often locally common.
  17. Panicum trichoides Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 24; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 68; --Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 207. Tropical America, introduced elsewhere. In Malesia extending from Java to New Guinea. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, CULION. Annual. In thickets at low and medium elevation.

Paspalidium Stapf = Setaria

Paspalum L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Paspalum conjugatum PJ Bergius, Act. Helvet. 7 (1772) 129, t. 8; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 87; EPFP 1 (1922) 56; --Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 (1985) 290, Fig. 1; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) xxx t. 62. Native of tropical America, now pantropic. Common throughout and widespread throughout the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, PALAWAN, CEBU, BILIRAN, MINDANAO, BASILAN, SULU. In the settled areas, about towns, along trails, streams, etc., often very abundant.
  2. Paspalum distichum L., Syst. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 855; --Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 (1985) 295, Fig. 3. Pantropical weed, probably introduced in Malesia: Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Moluccas (Buru) and the Philippines. LUZON. Wet marshlands, swamps, in polluted, shallow`water, along irrigation ditches, etc., up to 1725m.
  3. Paspalum dilatatum Poir., Tabl. Encycl. 5 (1804) 35; --Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 (1985) 293, Fig. 2. S American. Pantropical weed of unknown origin, probably introduced: LUZON. Photos
  4. Paspalum lindenianum A.Rich. in R.de la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Cuba, Bot. 11 (1850) 299. Greater Antilles. Not native to the Philippines. Naturalized?
  5. Paspalum longifolium Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 7, nom. nud.; Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 283; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 86; EPFP 1 (1922) 56; --Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 (1985) 297, Fig. 4; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 111, t. 63. --Paspalum longifolium var. trichocoleum Hackel, PJS 3 (1908) Bot. 167; EPFP 1 (1922) 56. E India to Vietnam, Pacific, Queensland. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Albay, POLILLO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, BALABAC, GUIMARAS, BOHOL, CEBU, LEYTE, SAMAR, JOLO, MINDANAO: Surigao, SULU. In open, usually rather wet lands, open level grasslands at low and medium elevation. Photos
  6. Paspalum notatum Flüggé, Gram. Monog. (1810) 106. Originally from S America, widely cultivated. LUZON.
  7. Paspalum paniculatum L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10 (1759) 855. Tropical South America and West Africa, introduced elsewhere in the tropics. LUZON.
  8. Paspalum plicatulum Michx., Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1 (1803) 45. S America. Said by 't Mannetje & Jones [Prosea 4 (1992) 183] to be widely cultivated in Malesia, but only two New Guinea collections have been seen. –Veldkamp.
  9. Paspalum scrobiculatum L., Mant. 1 (1767) 29; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 344; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 86; EPFP 1 (1922) 56; --Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 (1985) 302, Fig. 2. --Paspalum scrobiculatum var. auriculatum (C.Presl) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) SuppI. 345; Fl. Manila (1912) 86; EPFP 1 (1922) 57. --Paspalum scrobiculatum var. bispicatulum Hackel ex Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 86; EPFP 1 (1922) 57. --Paspalum scrobiculatum var. horneri (Henrard) Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 (1985) 307. --Paspalum orbiculare G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. Prodr. (1786) 7; --Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 (1985) 299, Fig. 5. --Paspalum longifolium Roxb. var. pseudo-orbiculare Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 321; --Type: Santos 5 (MICH, holotype). World distribution uncertain due to doubtful identifications in the literature: India, Sri Lanka to the Pacific (Vanuatu), Malesia: Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Philippines. Throughout the Philippines, in open grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1500m; common and somewhat variable. Photos
  10. Paspalum sumatrense Roth in J.J.Roemer & J.A.Schultes, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2 (1817) 316. --Paspalum scrobiculatum var. philippinense Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 345; EPFP 1 (1922) 57. Tropical and subtropical Asia to W Pacific, Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, In open, rather wet grasslands at medium elevation.
  11. Paspalum urvillei Steud., Syn. Pl. Gram. (1854) 24. Native to northern South America, cultivated and escaping: LUZON.
  12. Paspalum vaginatum Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 21; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 57. --Paspalum distichum Fernandez-Villar, Novis. App. (1882) 310; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 87, non L. (Sub)tropical sea coasts. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, La Union, Pampanga, Rizal, Laguna, PANAY, GUIMARAS, CEBU, LEYTE, SAMAR. In open wet lands, usually in places subject to the influence of salt or brackish water.

Pennisetum Rich. = Cenchrus

Perotis Aiton

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Perotis hordeiformis Nees ex Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. (1838) 248. China to tropical Asia, Philippines?
  2. Perotis indica (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 787; --Merr. , EPFP 1 (1922) 51. India to Queensland. LUZON: Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, MINDORO, MINDANAO: Agusan. In open grasslands at low and medium elevation.
  3. Perotis rara R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 172; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 51; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 113, t. 65. Thailand and N Peninsular Malaysia through the Philippines to Australia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Zambales, MINDORO. On dry open slopes at low and medium elevation.

Phalaris L.

No Photos
  1. Phalaris minor Retz., Obs. 3 (1783) 8; --Merr. in PJS 2 (1907) Bot. 421; EPFP 1 (1922) 78; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 114, t. 66. Originally from the Mediterranean, cultivated elsewhere. LUZON: Benguet, BS 2785 Mearns, alt. c. 1500m; probably a mere casual here. Annuals.

Phragmites Adans.

Photos
  1. Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud., Nomencl. ed. 2, 2 (1840) 324; Merr. in PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 381; EPFP 1 (1922) 87. --Phragmites vallatorius (Pluk. ex L.) Veldk., Blumea 37 (1992) 233. --Phragmites vulgaris auct., non (Lam.) Trin. (1820); --Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 100; EPFP 1 (1922) 87. Tropical W Africa to Japan, Polynesia, Australia (W Australia to Queensland). LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Bataan, Laguna, Camarines, PALAWAN, NEGROS, CEBU, MINDANAO, TURTLE ISLS., no doubt elsewhere. Along slow streams and margins of lakes at low and medium elevation, often forming dense thickets. Photos

Phyllostachys Siebold & Zucc.

[Not native]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Phyllostachys edulis (Carrière) J.Houz., Bambou (Mons) 1 (1906) 39. China and Taiwan. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated. Naturalized?
  2. Phyllostachys nigra (Lodd. ex Lindl.) Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26 (1868) 38.

Poa L. 

Photos
  1. Poa annua L., Sp. PI. (1753) 68; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 181; 386; EPFP 1 (1922) 92; --Santos,  Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 115, t. 67. Cosmopolitan temperate areas. LUZON: Benguet. Very common in open waste places, 1500-2400m. Annuals.  Photos
  2. Poa pratensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 67. --Poa luzoniensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 180; 386; EPFP 1 (1922) 92. Temperate regions of the Old World; introduced elsewhere. LUZON: Benguet. Borders of cold marshes and streams, c. 2400m. Perennials.  Photos

Pogonatherum P.Beauv.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Pogonatherum crinitum (Thunb.) Kunth, Enum. 1 (1833) 478. --Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hackel, Allg. Bot. Zeitschr. 12 (1906) 178; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 76; EPFP 1 (1922) 35. India to China through Malesia to Australia. BATAN, LUZON, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, CEBU, BOHOL, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO. Common on banks of ravines, along streams on cliffs and steep banks, etc., at low and medium elevation, ascending to 2000m. Photos

Pollinia Trin. non Spreng. = Microstegium

Polytoca R.Br.

No Photos
  1. Polytoca digitata (L.f.) Druce, Rep. Bot. Exch. Cl. Brit. Isles, 1916 (1917) 641. --Polytoca heteroclita (Roxb.) Koord., Exksfl. Java 1 (1911) 99; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 29. India to New Guinea. BUSUANGA, BOHOL, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. In open grasslands at medium elevation.

Polytrias Hack.

Photos
  1. Polytrias indica (Houtt.) Veldk., Blumea 36 (1991) 180. --Polytrias amaura (Büse) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 788; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 35 (as ‘amaurea’); --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 116, t. 68. Malesia (widespread), originally apparently from Java, introduced and escaping pantropically. Commonly used as a lawn grass (Santos: 116), seen from LUZON, MINDORO, CEBU, MINDANAO, JOLO. In open grasslands in and about towns at low elevation.  Photos

Pseudechinolaena Stapf

No Photos
  1. Pseudechinolaena polystachya (Kunth) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 495. --Panicum uncinatum Raddi, Agrost. Bras. (1823) 41; --Trin., Gram. Pan. (1826) 174, Icon. t. 216; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) SuppI. 362; EPFP 1 (1922) 69. Pantropic. In the Philippines known from PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Davao. Occurring as ground cover under plantation shade or thickets, also on open land, alt. c. 650m.

Pseudopogonatherum A.Camus

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Pseudopogonatherum contortum (Brongn.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 255; --Pollinia contorta (Brongn.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 33. --Pseudopogonatherum koretrostachys (Trin.) Henrard, (not found in IPNI); --Eulalia koretrostachys (Trin.) Henrard, Blumea 4 (1941) 521, in obs. China, Indochina, Thailand to Aru Isls. LUZON (Abra, Mountain Province, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. In open grasslands chiefly at medium elevation. Weak annual.
  2. Pseudopogonatherum irritans (R.Br.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon ser. 2, (1922) 68; --Pollinia irritans (R.Br.) Hackel in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 155; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 34. Thailand to N Australia. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. In open grasslands, c. 1000m. Perennial.
  3. Pseudopogonatherum quadrinerve (Hack.) Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. 18 (1947) 3; --Eulalia quadrinervis (Hackel) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 775; --Pollinia quadrinervis Hackel in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 158; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 35. India to S China, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Open slopes in pine forest, 1400-2200m.
  4. Pseudopogonatherum speciosum (Debeaux) Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. 18 (1947) 3. India to Japan and Peninsula Malaysia, Philippines?
  5. Pseudopogonatherum trispicatum (Schult.) Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. 18: 3 (1947); --Eulalia trispicata (Schult.) Henrard, Blumea 3 (1940) 453; --Andropogon trispicatus Schult., Mant. 2 (1824) 452. --Eulalia lagopus (Hackel) Henrard, Blumea 4 (1941) 521; --Pollinia argentea var. lagopus Hackel, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 79; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 33. --Pollinia argentea (Brongn.) Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. vi, 4 (1836) 90; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 77; EPFP 1 (1922) 33. China to New Guinea, Australia, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Pampanga, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO, MINDORO, CULION, PALAWAN, SEMIRARA. Open grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1600m.

Pseudoraphis Griff.

No Photos
  1. Pseudoraphis brunoniana (Wall. & Griffith) Pilger, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 10 (1928) 209, 210. India to Philippines. LUZON.
  2. Pseudoraphis spinescens (R.Br.) Vickery, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 62 (1952) 69; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 116, t. 69. --Chamaeraphis muricata (L.f.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 75. --Chamaeraphis aspera Nees in Wall Cat. (1849) No. 8679; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 96. --Chamaeraphis squarrosa auct. India to China through Malesia to tropical Australia. Central LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. In shallow stagnant water, floating in ponds, ride fields, ditches, etc. at low elevation.

Pseudosorghum A.Camus

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Pseudosorghum fasciculare (Roxb.) A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 26 (1920) 662. India to China and Philippines?
  2. Pseudosorghum zollingeri (Steud.) A.Camus, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 26 (1920) 663. Indochina to Java. Not in Taiwan! BATAN, LUZON. 

Pseudostachyum Munro

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Pseudostachyum polymorphum Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 142, t. 4; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 22, t. 17. Himalayas to China and Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines?

Ramosia Merr. = Centotheca

Rhaphis Lour. = Chrysopogon

Rhynchelytrum Nees = Melinis

Rottboellia L.f.

No Photos
  1. Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Kew Bull. 35 (1981) 817. --Rottboellia exaltata L.f., Suppl. (1781) 114; –Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 39. African tropics, widely introduced. BATAN, LUZON, MINDORO, NEGROS, BOHOL, CAGAYAN DE SULU, MINDANAO, JOLO, TAWI-TAWI.
  2. Rottboellia paradoxa Sosef & Koning, Blumea 31 (1986) 306. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Mt Sto. Tomas), once found. 

Rytidosperma Steud.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Rytidosperma oreoboloides (F.Muell.) H.P.Linder, Telopea 6 (1996) 614; --Danthonia oreoboloides (F.Muell.) Stapfin Hook. Icon. Pl. (1901) t. 2606. --Monostachya centrolepidioides Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 331; EPFP 1 (1922) 92; --Santos, Guide Philip.  Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 95, t. 45 Widespread on high mountains in N and E Malesia: N Sumatra, Borneo (Sabah), N Philippines, Sulawesi, New Guinea. LUZON: Benguet (near summit of Mt Pulag). Cushion-forming perennial in open grasslands, 2800m.

Saccharum L.

Photos
  1. Saccharum arundinaceum Retz., Obs. 4 (1786) 14; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1922) 32; --Erianthus arundinaceus (Retz.) Jeswiet, Arch. Suikerind. Ned.-Ind., Meded. Proefst. Javasuikerind. (1925) 399, in obs. India to S China. LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SAMAR, MINDANAO.
  2. Saccharum officinarum L., Sp. PI. (1753) 54; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 78; EPFP 1 (1922) 32; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 118, t. 71. Cultivated throughout the Philippines, in some islands and provinces very extensively, being one of the major crops of the Philippines. Not a native of the Archipelago. Sugar cane. Photos
  3. Saccharum spontaneum L., Mant. 2 (1771) 183. --Saccharum spontaneum ssp. indicum Hackel in DC., Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 117; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 77; EPFP 1 (1922) 32. Photos

Sacciolepis Nash

Photos
  1. Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 21 (1908) 8; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 120, t. 72; --Panicum indicum L., Mant. 1 (1767) 184; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 92; EPFP 1 (1922) 64. --Saccolepis indica var. angustum (Trin.) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 7 (1897) 42; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 64. Tropical Africa to Japan, Australia. LUZON, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, PALAWAN, BALABAC, PANAY, GUIMARAS, NEGROS, BOHOL, MINDANAO, SULU. Common in open wet grasslands at low and medium elevation. Photos
  2. Sacciolepis myosuroides (R.Br.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 460; --  Panicum myosuroides R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 189; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 65. India to the W Pacific, Australia. PANAY, MINDANAO: Misamis. Open wetlands at low and medium elevation.

Saccolepis = Sacciolepis

Schizachyrium Nees

Photos
  1. Schizachyrium brevifolium (Sw.) Nees ex Büse, Pl. Jungh. (1854) 359; --Andropogon brevifolius Sw., Prodr. (1788) 26; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 335; EPFP 1 (1922) 43. --Schizachyrium paradoxum Buse in Miq. Pl. Jungh. (1852) 359; --Schizachyrium brevifolium var. paradoxum (Buse) Henrard, (Not found in IPNI) Pantropic. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Bulacan, Zambales, Bataan, Laguna, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, PALAWAN, BOHOL, MINDANAO: Lanao, Bukidnon, Davao. In open grasslands at low and medium elevation. Annual.
  2. Schizachyrium fragile (R.Br.) A.Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon. 70 (1924) n.s. 87; --Andropogon fragilis R.Br. Prodr. (1810) 202; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 82. --Schizachyrium fragile (R.Br.) A.Camus var. luzoniense (Hackel) Jansen, xxxxx. ; --Andropogon fragilis var. luzoniensis Hackel, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 267; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 45. Pacific, Australia, Aru Isls, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, MANAMOC. In dry open grasslands at medium elevation. Annual.
  3. Schizachyrium pseudeulalia (Hosokawa) ST Blake, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 80 (1969) 77. --Schizachyrium fragile (R.Br.) A.Camus var. malayanum (Merr.) Jansen, xxxx Andropogon fragilis var. malayanus Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 45. Philippines to N Australia. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDANAO (Lanao), MINDORO, BOHOL. Annual. Very close to the preceding.
  4. Schizachyrium sanguineum (Retz.) Alston in Trimen, Handbook Fl. Ceylon 6 (1931) Suppl. 334; --Andropogon sanguineus (Retz.) Merr., in PJS 12 (1917) Bot. 101; EPFP 1 (1922) 47. Madagascar, India to S China, New Guinea. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, CULION. On open slopes at low elevation. Perennial.

Schizostachyum Nees

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Schizostachyum brachycladum Kurz, J. As. Soc. Beng. 392 (1870) 89, pl. 6, Fig. 2; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 23. Native of tropical Asia. Cultivated mainly as an ornamental in the Philippines and has spread out in the settled areas of the archipelago.
  2. Schizostachyum curranii Gamble, PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 277; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 97; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 24, t. 19. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Benguet. Mossy forest edges, c. 2000m.
  3. Schizostachyum lima (Blanco) Merr.,  Am. J. Bot. 3 (1918) 62; EPFP 1 (1922) 98; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 29, t. 23. Philippines, New Guinea, Solomon Isls. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Bataan, Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO, BASILAN. In thickets and secondary forests at low and medium elevation, sometimes gregarious; a species having unusually long internodes, these being up to 120 cm in length.
  4. Schizostachyum lumampao (Blanco) Merr., Am. J. Bot. 3 (1916) 65; EPFP 1 (1922) 99; --Santos, Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna 4 (1986) 30, t. 24. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: IIocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Pangasinan, Pampanga, Rizal, Bataan, Quezon, Camarines, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, LEYTE, MINDANAO, BASILAN. In secondary forests, but more frequently gregarious and occupying extensive areas at low and medium elevation where forests have been destroyed.  Photos
  5. Schizostachyum textorium (Blanco) Merr., Am. J. Bot. 3 (1916) 64; EPFP 1 (1922) 99. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Batangas. In secondary forests at low elevation.

Sclerachne R.Br. = Chionachne (all spp.?)

Scrotochloa Judz.

Photos
  1. Scrotochloa urceolata (Roxb.) Judz., Phytologia 56 (1984) 300; --Leptaspis urceolata (Roxb.) R.Br. in Benn., PI. Jav. Rar. (1838) 23, t. 6; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 76; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 89, t. 38; --basionym? Sri Lanka across Malesia to New Guinea and the Solomon Isls. In the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, Sorsogon, POLILLO, PALAWAN, SAMAR, LEYTE, NEGROS, MINDANAO. In thickets and forests at low and medium elevation.

Sehima Forssk.

No Photos
  1. Sehima nervosum (Willd.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1917) 36; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 120, t. 73. --Andropogon philippinensis Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 367; EPFP 1 (1922) 47. Africa to Australia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Dry open rocky slopes at low elevation. Indigenous in Ilocos Norte. An introduced grass cultivated in some improved grasslands in LUZON and MINDANAO (fide Santos).

Setaria P.Beauv.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 November 2016

Photos
  1. Setaria barbata (Lam.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1 (1829) 47. W Africa, pantropically introduced. CEBU, no doubt elsewhere. Annuals.
  2. Setaria clivalis (Ridl.) Veldk., Misc. Pap. Landbouwhogesch. Wageningen 19 (1980) 317. Setaria laxa Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 366; Fl. Manila (1912) 96; EPFP 1 (1922) 73. Sumatra to Christmas Is. (Indian Ocean.). LUZON: Rizal, Laguna, MINDANAO. Thickets and fallow lands at low elevation.
  3. Setaria flavida (Retz.) Veldk., Blumea 39 (1994) 376; --Paspalidium flavidum (Retz.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 419; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 108, t. 60; --Panicum flavidum Retz., Obs. 4 (1786) 15; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 90; EPFP 1 (1922) 64. Mascarenes to the Pacific. LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN, CEBU, BOHOL, LEYTE, CAGAYAN DE SULU, MINDANAO, SULU ARCHIPELAGO Terrestrial perennials. A common weed in open waste places in and about towns at low elevation. Photos
  4. Setaria helvola (L.f.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2 (1817) 491. Old World, Philippines?
  5. Setaria italica (L.) Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 51; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 73; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 122, t. 74. C Asia, formerly widely cultivated. Very rarely cultivated in the Philippines, and nowhere spontaneous. Seen in BATAN, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS. SULU. Annuals. Italian Millet. Photos
  6. Setaria palmifolia (Koenig) Stapf, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 42 (1914) 186; EPFP 1 (1922) 73. Photos
  7. Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen, Lejeunia 120 (1987) 161 Setaria pallidefusca (Schumach.) Stapf & CE Hubb., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew (1930) 259; Fl. Trop. Africa 9 (1930) 815. Setaria geniculata auct., non (Lam.) Beauv. (1812); --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 72. Setaria flava Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 46; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 95. Setaria glauca auct., non (L.) P. Beauv. (1812). Pan(sub)tropical. Widespread in the Philippines. LUZON, CATANDUANES, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, NEGROS, CEBU, BOHOL, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Open grasslands at low and medium aItitudes, ascending to 1800m.  Photos
  8. Setaria punctata (Burm.f.) Veldk., Blumea 39 (1994) 381; --Paspalidium punctatum (Burm.f.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-chine 7 (1922) 419; -- Santos: 109, t. 61; --Panicum punctatum Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 26; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 90; EPFP 1 (1922) 67. E Africa to Mauritius, China Malesia. In the Philippines, LUZON: Rizal, Laguna, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Misamis, Davao, Agusan). In shallow water and in open muddy places at low elevation.
  9. Setaria sphacelata (Schumach.) Stapf & CE Hubb. ex Chipp, Kew Bull. (1929) 184, 195. Setaria splendida Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Africa 9 (1930) 799; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 123, t. 75. Africa, now widely cultivated. LUZON, MINDANAO.
  10. Setaria verticillata (L.) Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 51; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 74. --Setaria adhaerens (Forssk.) Chiov., Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital., n. s., 26 (1919) 77; --vide Henrard in Blumea 3 (1940) 415 Old World, perhaps native in Malesia, now widely cultivated. BATAN, LUZON: Rizal, CAMIGUIN. Open waste places.
  11. Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv., Agrost. (1812) 51; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 95; EPFP 1 (1922) 74. Old World, widely cultivated, but may become a noxious weed. LUZON: Mountain Province, Cagayan, Rizal, PALAWAN. occurring rarely in open waste places.  Photos

Sorghum Moench

Photos
  1. Sorghum X almum Parodi, Rev. Argent. Agron. 10 (1943) 361. Hybrid of S. bicolor and S. halepense. 'Introduced in the Philippines' ['t Mannetje & Jones (1992: 203), but no specimens have been seen. Rhizomatous perennial. Johnson grass, a back-cross of this with S. halepense is reported for Malesia as a noxious weed, but no records seen.
  2. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, Methodus (1794) 207. --Andropogon sorghum (L.) Brot., Fl. Lusit. 1 (1804) 88; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 84; EPFP 1 (1922) 48. Sorghum vulgare Pers. Syn. 1 (1804) 101; A native of Asia or Africa, now cultivated in all warm countries. Widely cultivated in the Philippines with innumerable forms. Annual. Photos
  3. Sorghum laxiflorum FM Bailey, Syn. Queensl. Fl. SuppI. 3 (1890) 84. --Andropogon baileyi F.-Muell., Vict. Nat. 7 (1891) 16; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 43. N Australia. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Rizal. MINDANAO. Annual. Open grassy slopes at medium elevation, ascending to 1200m.
  4. Sorghum nitidum (Vahl) Pers., Syn. 1 (1805) 101; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 174, t. 76; --Andropogon nitidus (Vahl) Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 166; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 84; EPFP 1 (1922) 47. --Andropogon nitidus forma hirsuta Pilger in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 140, nomen; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 47. --Andropogon serratus Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 41; --Hackel in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 520; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 337; Fl. Manila (1912) 84; EPFP 1 (1922) 48. Sri Lanka to SE China, Taiwan, Japan, across Malesia to N Australia. Widespread in the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Rizal, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Lanao, Bukidnon, Davao. Perennials. Open grasslands at low and medium elevation.  Photos
  5. Sorghum propinquum (Kunth) A Hitchc., Lingnan Sc. Journ. 7 (1931) 249; --Andropogon halepensis (L.) Brot. var. propinquus (Kunth) Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 84; EPFP 1 (1922) 45. Sri Lanka to S China, Palau. Widespread in the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON, PALAWAN, BALABAC, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Rhizomatous perennials. Often common.

Sphaerobambos S.Dransf.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Sphaerobambos philippinensis (Gamble) S.Dransf., Kew Bull. 44 (1989) 432; --Bambusa philippinensis (Gamble) McClure, Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 9 (1973) 68; --Guadua philippinensis Gamble, PJS 8 (1913) Bot. 203; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 96. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental (Mati), Piper 475. Probably from thickets or secondary forests.

Sphaerocaryum Nees. ex Hook.f.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Sphaerocaryum malaccense (Trin.) Pilg., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 45 (1938) 2. Sri Lanka to China and Philippines?

Spinifex L.

Photos
  1. Spinifex littoreus (Burm.f.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 229; Fl. Manila (1912) 97; EPFP 1 (1922) 76. India to China, across Malesia to Australia. BATAN, LUZON, HERMANA MAYOR, MINDORO, APO IS., PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, NEGROS, CEBU, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO, JOLO. Common on sandy sea shores. Inflorescences unisexual, forming large spiny balls. Magsaysay Isl. Photos

Sporobolus R.Br.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Sporobolus africanus (Poir.) Robyns & Tournay, Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 25 (1955) 242. Africa, Peninsular Arabia, Sri Lanka. Not native to the Philippines. Naturalized?
  2. Sporobolus diandrus (Retz.) P.Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. (1812) 26; --Merr. EPFP 1 (1922) 80. --Sporobolus indicus var. diandrus (Retz.) Jovet & Guédès, Taxon 22 (1973) 163; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 125, t. 77. --Sporobolus indicus var. flaccidus (Roemer & Schultes) Veldk., Blumea 35 (1991) 433. Arabia, W Indian Ocean, tropical and subtropical Asia. BATAN, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Pampanga, Rizal, Quezon, Albay, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, GUIMARAS, CEBU, CAGAYAN DE SULU, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Lanao, JOLO, TURTLE ISLS. Common in open grasslands, lawns and waste places about towns, ascending to 2000m.
  3. Sporobolus fertilis (Steud.) Clayton, Kew Bull. 19 (1965) 291. --Sporobolus indicus var. major (Buse) Baaijens, Blumea 35 (1991) 437. --Sporobolus indicus auct., -- Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 80. Tropical and subtropical Asia, Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, GUIMARAS, CEBU, MINDANAO.
  4. Sporobolus hancei Rendle, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 36 (1904) 387. China to Philippines?
  5. Sporobolus humilis C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 241.
  6. Sporobolus indicus (L.) R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 170; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 98; EPFP 1 (1922) 80. Americas. Not native to the Philippines. Naturalized? Photos
  7. Sporobolus pilifer (Trin.) Kunth, Enum. 1 (1833) 611; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 80. Africa to India, Peninsular Malaysia to LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. On banks, in open grasslands, etc., at medium elevation, ascending to 1800m.
  8. Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 67; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 99; EPFP 1 (1922) 81. Pan(sub)tropical. LUZON: Cagayan, Rizal. Sandy beach, along tidal streams within the influence of salt or brackish water.

Stenotaphrum Trin.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 November 2016

Photos
  1. Stenotaphrum helferi Munro ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 7 (1896) 91. China to Peninsular Malaysia to Philippines?
  2. Stenotaphrum micranthum (Desv.) CE Hubb. in CE Hubb. & RE Vaughan, Grasses of Mauritius & Rodriguez (1940) 73. Réunion to the Pacific, Australia. Spratly Isl. This species has 'a curious affinity for small islands' and so may be expected on small islands in the Philippines.
  3. Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 794 (sphalm. secundum). Tropical Atlantic sea shores. Grown as a lawn grass, e.g. in LUZON. Photos

Streblochaete Hochst. ex A.Rich. = Koordersiochloa

Themeda Forssk.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 May 2016

Photos
  1. Themeda arguens (L.) Hack. in DC. Monogr. Phan. 6 (1889) 657; --Jansen, Act. Bot. Neerl.1 (1952) 479. Andamans to N Vietnam and N Australia, Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, MINDANAO. Photos
  2. Themeda arundinacea (Roxb.) Ridl., Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, 2 (1893) 401; --A.Camus in Lecompte, Fl. Gén. Indochine 7 (1922) 363; --Jansen, Act. Bot. Neerl. 1 (1952) 481; --Sajise et al., Kalikasan 3 (1974) 73. N India to S China, Malesia: Peninsular Malaysia (Kelantan, Pahang, Perak), W Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali, Timor), Borneo (Sabah). LUZON.
  3. Themeda gigantea (Cav.) Hack. in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 670 (var. genuina Hackel); --Merr. EPFP 1 (1922) 50. --Themeda gigantea var. vulpina (Anderss.) Hackel, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 670; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 50. --Themeda arundinacea auct. Moluccas, Solomon Isls., Philippines. BATAN, LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, MINDANAO, SAMAR. Open grasslands on dry steep slopes, up to 2000m. Photos
  4. Themeda triandra Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. (1775) 178; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 81; EPFP 1 (1922) 50;  --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 125, t. 78. --Themeda australis (R.Br.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 420, in obs. S. Africa to Australia, Indonesia, Moluccas, New Guinea, Thailand, Philippines. BATANES, GOLO, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Albay, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, SEMIRARA, MINDANAO. Open grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 2300m. Frequently abundant and gregarious over large areas. Photos
  5. Themeda villosa (Poir.) A.Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 364; --Dur. & Jacks., Index Kew. Suppl. 1 (1906) 424.

Thuarea Pers.

Photos
  1. Thuarea involuta (G.Forst.) Roemer & Schultes, Syst. 2 (1817) 782; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 97; EPFP 1 (1922) 75. Sri Lanka to Madagascar through Malesia to Australia and Polynesia. Widespread in the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON, MINDORO, PALAWAN, URSULA, BALABAC, CAGAYAN DE SULU, KEENAPUSAN, GUIMARAS, CEBU, SAMAR, MAGASAYSAY (off E of Camiguin), SIARGAO, MINDANAO, Cagoacan, Tangao. On sandy beaches and in thickets back of the beach, often common. Photos

Thysanolaena Nees

Photos
  1. Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 3, 3 (1930) 312; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 127, t. 79. --Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 794; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 53. India, S China, Indochina, across Malesia to New Guinea. Widespread in the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Apayao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Zambales, Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, CATANDUANES, SAN MIGUEL (off Albay prov.), MINDORO, PALAWAN, NEGROS, CEBU, BILIRAN, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Banks of ravines, slopes, about cliffs, etc., at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1600m. Photos

Trichachne Nees = Digitaria

Tricholaena Stapf non Schrader =  Melinis

Tripogon Roem. & Schult.

No Photos
  1. Tripogon chinensis (Franch.) Hackel, Bull. Herb. Boiss. ii, 3 (1903) 503; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 85; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 128, t. 80. C Asia to China, Korea, Taiwan and LUZON: Ilocos Norte, BS 33237 Ramos. On dry open rocky slopes at low elevation.

Tripsacum L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 November 2016

Photos
  1. Tripsacum andersonii JR Gray, Phytologia 33 (1976) 204 (-205), fig. 1. --Tripsacum lanceolatum auct., non Fourn., --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 129, t. 81. --Tripsacum laxum auct. non Nash (1909). From C America. Introduced in the Philipines in 1909 and is cultivated in improved pastures 'throughout the archipelago' (Santos: 129). According to Veldkamp (Checklist, only seen from LUZON.
  2. Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 1261. Americas. Not native to the Philippines. Naturalized? Photos
  3. Tripsacum laxum Nash in N.L.Britton & al. (eds.), N. Amer. Fl. 17 (1909) 81. C America. Not native to the Philippines. Naturalized?

Triticum L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 November 2016

Photos
  1. Triticum aestivum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 85; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 130, t. 82. --Triticum vulgare Vill., Hist. PI. Dauph. 2 (1779) 153; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 93; Native to Mediterranean and SW Asia.

Urochloa P.Beauv.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 November 2016

Photos
  1. Urochloa brizantha (A.Rich.) R.D.Webster, Australian Paniceae (Poac.) (1987) 233; --Brachiaria brizantha (A.Rich.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 531. Africa, Arabia, Indian Ocean. Not native to Philippines.
  2. Urochloa decumbens (Stapf) R.D.Webster, Austral. Paniceae (1987) 234; --Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 528. Africa, now widely cultivated, seen from LUZON, MINDANAO. Not native to the Philippines.
  3. Urochloa distachya (L.) T.Q.Nguyen, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 3 (1966) 13; --Brachiaria distachya (L.) Stapf in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 565. Arabia, Tropical Asia to Pacific, Philippines?
  4. Urochloa fusiformis (Reeder) Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 420; --Brachiaria fusiformis Reeder, J. Arnold Arb. 29 (1948) 274, pl. 1; --Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 236. --Brachiaria fusiformis var. pilicoronata (Ohwi) Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 236; --Type: Merrill 11606 (BO). Papua New Guinea, Timor and the Philippines. LUZON, CULION, MINDANAO.
  5. Urochloa glumaris (Trin.) Veldk., Blumea 41 (1996) 420. --Brachiaria paspaloides (C.Presl) CE Hubb., in Hook. Icon. (1938) Pl. 34 sub t. 3363, p. 2, in adnot.; --Urochloa paspaloides C.Presl, ReI. Haenk. 1 (1830) 318; --Scribn., Rept. Missouri Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 54, t. 14, non Beauv. --Panicum ambiguum Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. vi, 32 (1835) 243; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 61. --Panicum distachyum auct., non L. (1767); --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 63. Mascarene Isls to India, across Malesia to Polynesia. Widespread in the Philippines. LUZON, PALAWAN, PALMAS, BOHOL, MINDANAO. Open, more or less waste places, old clearings, etc., at low and medium elevation.
  6. Urochloa mutica (Forssk.) T-Q Nguyen, Novit. Syst. Pl. Vasc., Acad. Sci. URSS (1966) 13; --Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Africa 9 (1919) 526; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 60, t. 10. Originally from Brazil, now planted as pasture grass throughout the tropics. ‘Widely established' in the Philippines (Santos: 62), seen from LUZON, PANAY. Perennials.
  7. Urochloa ramosa (L.) T.Q.Nguyen, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 3 (1966) 13; --Brachiaria ramosa (L.) Stapf in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 542. Africa, tropical and subtropical Asia, Philippines?
  8. Urochloa reptans (L.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1920) 601; --Panicum reptans L., Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 871; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 67; --Brachiaria reptans (L.) Gardn. & CE Hubb. in Hook., Icon. Pl. (1938) t. 3363; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 62, t. 11. Pantropic. 'Throughout the Philippines (Santos: 63), seen from LUZON, ALABAT, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PALMAS, PANAY, GUIMARAS, CEBU, CAGAYAN DE SULU, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. A weed of cultivation and overgrazed pasture. Low and medium elevation.
  9. Urochloa ruziziensis (Germain & Evrard) Morrone & Zuloaga, J. Arn. Arb. Suppl. Ser. 1 (1991) 269; --Brachiaria ruziziensis Germain & Evrard, Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux. 23 (1953) 373. Tropical Africa. Widely cultivated. LUZON.
  10. Urochloa subquadripara (Trin.) R.D.Webster, Australian Paniceae (Poac.) (1987) 252; --Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) A Hitchc., Lingnan Sc. J. 7 (1928) 21; --Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 239. --Brachiaria miliiformis (C.Presl) Chase, Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb. 22 (1920) 35. --Brachiaria distachya auct., non Stapf. --Panicum distachyum auct. non L., (1767); --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 91; EPFP 1 (1922) 63. Kashmir to S China, through Malesia to tropical Australia (Queensland). Widespread in the Philippines. LUZON, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, NEGROS, CEBU, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO. Annuals. Open waste places in and about towns at low and medium elevation; common. Withstands dry conditions and a useful lawn grass on gravelly soil.
  11. Urochloa villosa (Lam.) T-Q Nguyen, Novit. Syst. Pl. Vasc., Acad. Sci. URSS (1966) 14; --Brachiaria villosa (Lam.) Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gén. Indochine 7 (1922) 433; --Jansen, Reinwardtia 2 (1953) 236. --Panicum coccospermum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1 (1854) 62; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 62. W Africa to Japan. Probably introduced in the Philippines where found before 1905. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, CULION, MINDANAO: Lanao. Open grassy slopes and banks chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 1500m.

Vetiveria Bory = Chrysopogon

Vulpia C.C.Gmel.

Photos
  1. Vulpia myuros (L.) Gmel., Fl. Bad. 1 (1806) 8; --Festuca myuros Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 369, non L. --Festuca megalura Nutt., J. Acad. Sci. Phila. ii, 1 (1847) 188; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 92. --Vulpia megalura (Nutt.) Rydb., Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 36 (1909) 358. forma megalura (Nutt.) Stace & Cotton, xxx; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 131, t. 84. Native of Europe and W Asia, now widespread worldwide. LUZON: Benguet. In open grassy places, 1460-2300m. Merrill (1922): “A native of the west coast of North and South America, introduced in Portugal, and a recent introduction in Benguet”. Photos
  2. Vulpia bromoides (L.) JE Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. ii. 124. Probably originally from W Europe, introduced elsewhere, e.g. LUZON: Benguet (Mt Pulog, probably at high alt.).

Yushania Keng

Photos
  1. Yushania niitakayamensis (Hayata) Keng f., Acta Phytotax. Sin. 6 (1957) 357; --Arundinaria niitakayamensis Hayata, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 21 (1907) 49; --Merr.,  EPFP 1 (1922) 94. China (Sichuan, Yunnan), Taiwan and the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Mt Sto Tomas, Mt Pulog; Pauai; MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (Mt Halcon). In mossy thickets, sphagnum swamps, and open grasslands, 2200-2700m.  Photos

Zea L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 November 2016

Photos
  1. Zea mays L., Sp. PI. (1753) 971; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 74; EPFP 1 (1922) 28; Santos: 132, t. 85. Introduced from America.
  2. Zea mexicana (Schrad.) Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan. (Dec. 1903) 600. --Euchlaena luxurians Durieu & Aschers., Bull. Soc. Linn. Paris 1 (1877) 107. Native of Mexico, introduced into the Philippines in the late years of the Spanish occupation and again in the early years of the American occupation and was cultivated experimentally for forage purposes. It has not persisted in cultivation. Mexico, 'cultivated in LUZON and in other islands' (Santos: 81). Santos: t. 30.  Photos

Zoisia = Zoysia

Zoysia Willd.

Photos
  1. Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 230; Fl. Manila (1912) 85; EPFP 1 (1923) 51; --Santos, Guide Philip. Fl. & Fauna 4 (1986) 133, t. 86. Photos

Literature       

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Bor, NL. 1960. The grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan.

Buitenhuis, AG & JF Veldkamp. 2001. Revision of Eremochloa (Gramineae-Andropogoneae- Rottboelliinae). Blumea 46: 399-420

Gilliland, HB. 1971. Flora of Malaya 3.

Henty, A. 1969. A Manual of the Grasses of New Guinea.

Korthof, AM & JF Veldkamp. 1985 (1984). A revision of Aniselytron with some new combinations in Deyeuxia in SE Asia (Gramineae). Gard. Bull. Singapore 37: 227.

Koning, R and MSM Sosef. de. 1985. The Malesian species of Paspalum L. (Gramineae). Blumea 30: 279-318

MacClure, FA. 1966. The Bamboos. Pancho, JV & SR Obien. 1988. New records of bamboos for the Philippines. Philippine Agriculturist 71:199-223.  

Schouten, Y. & JF Veldkamp. 1985. A revision of Anthoxanthum including Hierochlöe (Gramineae) in Malesia and Thailand. Blumea 30: 319-351

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Sunarko, S. 1977. Cymbopogon. Reinwardtia 9: 225.

Veldkamp, JF. 1973. A revision of Digitaria Haller (Gramineae) in Malesia. Notes on Malesian grasses VI. Blumea 21: 1-80


Veldkamp, J.F. 1982. Agrostis (Gramineae) in Malesia and Taiwan. Blumea 28: 199-228


Veldkamp, JF. 1992. Miscellaneous notes on Southeast Asian Gramineae. VII. Blumea 37: 227-237

Veldkamp, JF. 1993. Deyeuxia stenophylla and D. suizanensis (Gramineae) in Malesia and Taiwan. Taiwania 38: 1-4.

Veldkamp, JF. 1996. Revision of Panicum and Whiteochloa in Malesia (Gramineae-Paniceae). Blumea 41: 181-216

Veldkamp, JF. 199xx. An annotated checklist of Philippine herbaceous gramineae. Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Universiteit Leiden branch.

Veldkamp, JF. 2014. A revision of Cenchrus incl. Pennisetum (Gramineae) in Malesia with some general nomenclatural notes. Blumea 59: 59-75

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Veldkamp, JF, MEB van den Boogaart, J Heidweiller, MAF van der Klaauw, R de Koning, AR Kraaijeveld, MSM Sosef & RCW Strucker. 2013. A revision of Mnesithea (Gramineae; Rottboelliinae) in Malesia and Thailand. Blumea 58: 277-292

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Last updated 31 December 2016