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Primulaceae

Including Aegicerataceae, Maesaceae, Myrsinaceae

Androsace L. = Primula

Aegiceras Gaertn.


Photos
  1. Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 79; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 361; EPFP 3 (1923) 255. Photos
  2. Aegiceras floridum Roem. & Schultes, Syst. 4 (1819) 512; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 256. Photos

Amblyanthopsis Merr. (1923), non Mez = Loheria, Discocalyx

Ardisia Sw.

Photos
  1. Ardisia alvarezii Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 484; EPFP 4 (1925) 250. BABUYAN ISLS (CALAYAN), LUZON (Cagayan, Apayao). Forests at low elevations.
  2. Ardisia basilanensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 153; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 256. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Primary forests at low and medium elevation.
  3. Ardisia brevipetiolata (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 256; --Ardisia serrata var. brevipetiolata Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 296. --Type: Merrill 4049. Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Baco River near base of Mt Halcon. Ardisia sibuyanensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1497; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 263. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental, SIBUYAN: Mt Giting-giting. Primary forests, also reported along streams, 225-550m. A. sibuyanensis is a form with entire leaves.
  4. Ardisia calavitensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 423; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 256;  MINDORO. Primary forests at low and medium elevation.
  5. Ardisia castaneifolia Mez in Engl., Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 138; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 257. LUZON: Bulacan. Probably in forests at low and medium elevation.
  6. Ardisia confertiflora Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 213; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 257. BATAN, FUGA, MINDORO. Low elevation thickets. Photos
  7. Ardisia copelandii Mez, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 272; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 257. Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao, Bukidnon, Davao. Primary forests, 600-1000m.
  8. Ardisia crispa (Thunb.) A DC in Trans. Linn. Soc. 17 (1834) 124; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 257. India, S China, Vietnam, Taiwan, Ryukyus, Korea, and Japan, southward to Borneo, Sumatra, Java and the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Zambales. Chiefly in the mossy forest, 800-2200m.
  9. Ardisia cumingiana A DC, Prod. 8  (1844). 136; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 257. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Benguet, Cagayan, Batangas. Ravines, up to 1500m.
  10. Ardisia curranii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 214; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 258. LUZON: Camarines. Primary forests at low elevation.
  11. Ardisia curtipes Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 372; EPFP 3 (1923) 258. --Ardisia dataensis Mez, Fedde Repert. 16 (1920) 414. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet. Mossy forests,  1600-2400m.
  12. Ardisia curtiflora Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2778; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 258. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Mossy forests, c. 1600m.
  13. Ardisia cymosa Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 689; --CM Hu, Blumea 44 (1999) 393. --Ardisia cagayanensis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 323; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 256. Extra-Philippine distribution? LUZON: Cagayan, CATANDUANES. Primary forests at low elevation. (as A cagayanensis Merr.)
  14. Ardisia darlingii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 215; EPFP 3 (1923) 258; --CM Hu, Blumea 44 (1999) 398. --Ardisia gitingensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1498; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 258. var. darlingii LUZON: Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Tayabas, SIBUYAN. Mossy forests and ridges c. 800-1800m.
  15. Ardisia diffusa Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 215; EPFP 3 (1923) 258. MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental (Mt Malindang). Forests, probably at medium elevation.
  16. Ardisia elmeri Mez, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 273; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 258; --Type: Elmer 6493 (MO, NY, US, iso). Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, Jun 1904. Ardisia fragrans Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 664; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 258, syn. nov. –Type: Elmer 11647 (US, lecto, chosen by BC Stone, 1993; isolecto: BISH, GH, L, MO, NA). Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, Sept 1909. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet (Baguio), Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Humid lower and midmontane forests, damp ravines, 1200-1600m.
  17. Ardisia geissanthoides Mez, Fedde Repert. 16 (1920) 412; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 258. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon). Mossy forest, 1800-2000m.
  18. Ardisia ilocana Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 443; EPFP 3 (1923) 259 LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Bangui to Claveria). Forests, c. 500m.
  19. Ardisia iwahigensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1817; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 259. PALAWAN: Puerto Princesa (Mt Pulgar =Thumb Peak). Damp primary forests, c. 225m.
  20. Ardisia keithleyi Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 335; EPFP 3 (1923) 259. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao del Sur (between Malabang and Camp Keithley). Primary forests, c. 650m.
  21. Ardisia lanceolata Roxb., [Hort. Beng. (1814) 85, nom. nud.] Fl. Ind. ed. Carey 2 (1824) 275; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 259; --CM Hu, Blumea 44 (1999) 401. --Ardisia clementis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 665; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 257. --Ardisia lanaensis Mez, Fedde Repert. 16 (1920) 411. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao, Davao (Mt Apo). Primary forests, from the lowlands (sometimes near the seashore) to 1100m.
  22. Ardisia laxiflora Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 153; EPFP 3 (1923) 259. MINDANAO: Lanao. Primary forests at low elevation.
  23. Ardisia loheri Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 152; EPFP 3 (1923) 259. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Primary forests at medium elevation, ascending to 1200m.
  24. Ardisia longipetiolata Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 444; EPFP 3 (1923) 259. LUZON: Camarines Norte (Paracale). Damp primary forests at low elevation.
  25. Ardisia macgregorii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 217; EPFP 3 (1923) 260; --Type: BS 1722 McGregor (US, lecto, selected by BC Stone, 1993). Cebu: near Toledo. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, CEBU, SAMAR. In thickets and forests at low and medium elevation.
  26. Ardisia marginata Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 688. --Ardisia apoensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 663; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 256. Java, Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, BILIRAN, LEYTE, CAMIGUIN DE MINDANAO, MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Primary forests at low and medium elevation, also on forested ridges to 1200m.
  27. Ardisia mezii Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 440; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 260. LUZON: Tayabas, Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Primary forests, 700-1200m.
  28. Ardisia mindanaensis Mez in Engl., Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 102; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 260. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao, Bukidnon, Davao. Primary forests, 500-1000m.
  29. Ardisia mirandae Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 154; EPFP 3 (1923) 260. LUZON: Camarines. Exposed peaks and ridges in the mossy forest, c. 700m.
  30. Ardisia nigro-maculata Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 49; EPFP 3 (1923) 260. LUZON: Quezon (Mt Binuang), PANAY. Mossy forests, c. 1000m.
  31. Ardisia oreophila CM Hu, Blumea 47 (2002) 496; --Type: Soejarto, Fernando & Sagcal 8828 (holo: L). Palawan: Brookes Point, Mt Mantalingahan. Ridges and slopes of Sindurapi Peak, 1100m. PALAWAN. Known only from the type collection.
  32. Ardisia palawanensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 220; EPFP 3 (1923) 261. PALAWAN (c. 4.8km NE of Puerto Princesa). Undershrub in lowland flat forest.
  33. Ardisia polysticta Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 1 (1861) 576; --CM Hu, Blumea 44 (1999) 395. --Ardisia jagorii Mez in Engl., Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 148; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 259. --Ardisia pardalina Mez in Engl., Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 148; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 261. --Ardisia ramosii Merr., PJS 7 (1912) 148; --CM Hu, Blumea 44 (1999) 395. --Ardisia sinuato-crenata Mez in Engl., Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 148; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 263. Extra-Philippine Range? LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PANAY, BILIRAN, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Primary forests from low to high elevation, in mossy forest ascending to 2300m. (as A pardalina and A ramosii)
  34. Ardisia pulchella Mez, Fedde Repert. 16 (1920) 410; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 261. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Mossy forests, 2000-2400m.
  35. Ardisia pusilla A DC, Trans. Linn. Soc. 17 (1836) 126. --Ardisia reptans Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 220; EPFP 3 (1923) 262. Japan, Ryukyus, Korea, China, Taiwán, Thailand, and the Philippines. LUZON: Pampanga (Mt Abu, along Zambales Range). Forested ravines, c. 1350m.
  36. Ardisia pyramidalis (Cav.) Pers., Syn. 1 (1805) 233; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 261. Borneo and the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan to Albay, PALAWAN, MINDANAO, in most islands and provinces. Primary forests at low and medium elevation, often common. Photos
  37. Ardisia racemosopaniculata Mez, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 273; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 262. MINDANAO: Davao and North Cotabato (Mt Apo). Primary forests, c. 1600m.
  38. Ardisia reynosoi Stone, Sida 16 (1994) 263; --Type: Argent & Reynoso 89163 (AAU, iso), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, above Magdiwang on ridge leading to Mayo’s Peak, ‘grassy’ area above Camp 3, 1400m. SIBUYAN. Known only from the type collection.
  39. Ardisia rivularis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 50; EPFP 3 (1923) 262. LUZON: Quezon (Umiray, along Umiray River), in forests at low and medium elevation.
  40. Ardisia romanii Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1820; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 262. PALAWAN. Forests at low elevation. Photos
  41. Ardisia saligna Mez in Engl., Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 143; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 262. --Ardisia macropus Mez, Fedde Repert. 16 (1920) 415; EPFP 3 (1923) 260. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Mountain Province, Benguet, Tayabas, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Cavite, POLILLO. Primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1000m.
  42. Ardisia samarensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 151; EPFP 3 (1923) 263. SAMAR (Pinipisakan). Damp primary forests at low elevation.
  43. Ardisia scabrida Mez in Engl., Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 118; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 263. --Ardisia punctata Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 439, non Lindl. (1824); --Type: Elmer 10385 (A, iso?). Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, June 1908. NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Misamis, Bukidnon, Davao (Mt Apo). Forests, 600-1300m.
  44. Ardisia scalaris Mez in Engl., Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 142; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 263. LUZON: Rizal, Quezon. Primary forests along streams at low elevation. According to Merrill (1923, l.c.), very similar to A saligna Mez.
  45. Ardisia serrata (Cav.) Pers., Syn. 1 (1805) 233; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 263; --CM Hu, Blumea 44 (1999) 398. --Ardisia angustifolia A DC. in DC, Prodr. 8 (1844) 134; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 256. --Ardisia abanii Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 142 (1990) 53, Fig. 25. --Ardisia mindorensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 218; EPFP 3 (1923) 260. --Ardisia oligocarpa Merr., J. Arn. Arb. 35 (1954) 148. --Ardisia oligantha Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 146; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 260, non Baker (1885). --Ardisia whitfordii Mez, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 271; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 265. --Ardisia grandidens Mez in Engl., Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 137; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 259. Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Quezon, POLILLO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN, PANAY, BILIRAN, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Primary forests from lowland to mossy, on ridges, to 2400m.  (compiled from distribution range of above-cited synonyms, excepting A abanii Stone and A oligocarpa Merr.)
  46. Ardisia squamulosa C Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2 (1830) 65; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 263. --Ardisia pirifolia Mez in Engl., Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 129; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 261. --Ardisia verrucosa C Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 2 (1835) 66; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 265. ?Endemic to the Philippines. According to Merrill (1923, l.c.), a tree rather than a shrub, not certainly distinct from A. obovata Blume. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Isabela, Pangasinan, Tayabas, Cavite, Batangas, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, MINDANAO: Davao. In most or all islands and provinces. Common in primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1000m. Note by L.L.Co: A. verrucosa is hardly distinguishable from A. squamulosa.
  47. Ardisia stichantha Stone, Pacific Sci. 47 (1993) 290; --Type: BS 29315 Ramos & Edaño (US, holo). Luzon: Rizal prov., Mt Susong-Dalaga. Aug 1917.  LUZON: Rizal.
  48. Ardisia sulcata Mez in Engl., Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 112; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 264; --Type: Warburg 12286. LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, Tayabas, Camarines, BILIRAN, LEYTE, SAMAR. Damp primary forests at low elevation.
  49. Ardisia tayabensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 156; EPFP 3 (1923) 264. LUZON: Aurora (Mt Dingalan). Primary forests at or above 300m.
  50. Ardisia taytayensis Merr., J. Arnold Arbor. 35 (1954) 148. --Ardisia pachyphylla Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 154; EPFP 3 (1923) 260, non Dunn (1912). PALAWAN, BALABAC. Dry thickets and borders of forests at low elevation.
  51. Ardisia tomentosa C Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 2 (1835) 66; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 265; --CM Hu, Blumea 44 (1999) 397. --Ardisia philippinensis A DC, in DC, Prodr. 8 (1844) 128; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 261; --Type: Cuming 1467. --Ardisia cuprea Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2777; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 257; --Type: Elmer 13287 (iso in C, L, NY 2 sheets), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta. --Ardisia peninsula Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3764, not validly published, no Latin description; --Type: Elmer 16615 (iso in C, NA, NY), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan Sabah, Sarawak and the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Bulacan,  Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, PANAY, MINDANAO: Agusan  del Norte, Surigao. Primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 450m. Photos
  52. Ardisia villosa Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. Carey 2 (1824) 272. Thailand, Vietnam, Hongkong, China, Taiwan, Peninsular Malaysia and the Philippines to Indonesia.
  53. Ardisia warburgiana Mez in Engl., Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 143; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 265; --CM Hu, Blumea 44 (1999) 396. --Ardisia proteifolia Mez in Engl., Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 143; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 261. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Pampanga, Zambales, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PANAY, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Lanao, Bukidnon, Davao (Mt Apo, Todaya), Agusan. Forests from low elevation to 1700m.
  54. Ardisia yatesii Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 155; EPFP 3 (1923) 266. LUZON: Quezon near Camarines Norte border (Mt Cadig). Primary forests, 350-400m. Closely allied to A. tomentosa C Presl.
  55. Ardisia zambalensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 334; EPFP 3 (1923) 266. LUZON: Zambales (Mt Tapulao =High Peak). Exposed forested ridges, 1000-1400m.

Ined. names

  1. Ardisia bicolana Stone, ined.
  2. Ardisia conklinii Stone, ined.

 Discocalyx (DC.) Mez

Photos
  1. Discocalyx amblyanthopsis [var. ssp.??] philippinensis Mez, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 274; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 266; --Type: Merrill 3881, Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles. LUZON: Bataan. Primary forests along small streams, c. 800m.
  2. Discocalyx angustifolia Mez in Engl. Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 214; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 266; --Type: Gaudichaud 299 (P). LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, ALABAT, PANAY. Low elevation damp primary forests.
  3. Discocalyx angustissima Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 143; EPFP 3 (1923) 267.  --Discocalyx longissima Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 302; EPFP 3 (1923) 268, synon. nov.; --Type: BS 34456 Ramos & Pascasio. LUZON: Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, MINDANAO: Surigao. Low and medium elevation primary forests, rocky slopes. D. longissima is said to differ from D. angustissima by its entire leaf margin. The type of the former in US has minute teeth.
  4. Discocalyx brachybotrys Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 424; EPFP 3 (1923) 267; --Type: BS 37463 Ramos & Edaño. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Low elevation forests along streams.
  5. Discocalyx cybianthoides (A DC) Mez in Engl. Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 213; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 267; --Badula cybianthoides A DC, Prodr. 8 (1844) 107. Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDORO, MASBATE, LEYTE. Low and medium elevation primary forests, often common. Photos
  6. Discocalyx effusa Mez in Engl. Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 213; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 267. LUZON: Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, PANAY, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Davao. Low and medium elevation damp primary forests. Photos
  7. Discocalyx euphlebia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 144; EPFP 3 (1923) 267; --Type: BS 17646 Ramos. SAMAR. Low elevation damp primary forests.
  8. Discocalyx filipes Mez, Fedde Repert. 16 (1920) 422; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 267; --Type: BS 1857 Ramos. LUZON: Rizal. Medium elevation primary forests.
  9. Discocalyx hymendroides Mez, Fedde Repert. 16 (1920) 422; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 267; --Type: FB 5096 Curran. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Rizal. Medium elevation damp forests, ascending to 1400m in Benguet.
  10. Discocalyx insignis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 221; EPFP 3 (1923) 268; --Type: FB 7616 Hutchinson (not seen by L.L. Co), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Agusan River valley near Amparo, in forests, c. 130m, 26 Aug 1907.  --Discocalyx congestiflora Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2780; --Type: Elmer 13724 (BISH, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Sep-1912. LUZON: Tayabas, Camarines, NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Marapara), LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Agusan River valley near Amparo). Low elevation primary forests. Photos
  11. Discocalyx leytensis Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 485; EPFP 4 (1925) 250; --Type: BS 41709 Edaño (US, iso), Leyte: Mt Abucayan. Feb 1923. LEYTE. In primary forests.
  12. Discocalyx linearifolia Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 441; --Merr.,  EPFP 3 (1923) 268; --Type: Elmer 7674 (A, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Lucban. May 1907. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Kalinga, Mountain Province, Sierra Madre Range from Isabela to Quezon, Laguna, Sorsogon, POLILLO, CATANDUANES, SAMAR, SIARGAO. Photos
  13. Discocalyx longifolia Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 325; EPFP 3 (1923) 268; --Type: BS 13181 Foxworthy & Ramos, Luzon: Quezon prov., Quinatacutan, March 1911. LUZON: Quezon. Low elevation forests.
  14. Discocalyx luzoniensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 145; EPFP 3 (1923) 268; --Type: BS 26474 (US, iso), Luzon: Nueva Ecija prov., Mt Umingan, forested slopes between 300-400m, 16 Aug  1916. LUZON: Nueva Ecija (Mt Umingan). Primary forests, c. 350m.
  15. Discocalyx macrophylla Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 222; EPFP 3 (1923) 268; --Type: FB 17237 Curran (US, iso), Luzon: Cagayan prov., near San Vicente, forest at sea level, 8 Mar 1909. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan. Low elevation forests.
  16. Discocalyx maculata Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 326; EPFP 3 (1923) 268; --Type: BS 13967 Ramos, Luzon: Cagayan prov., Abulug River, in forest, Feb 1912. LUZON: Cagayan. Low elevation forests.
  17. Discocalyx merrillii Mez, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 274; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 268; --Syntypes: Merrill 3745 (US), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Jan. 1904;  Whitford 213, FB 139 Barnes, FB 1348 Borden, Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles along Lamao River. LUZON: Cagayan, Pangasinan, Zambales, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Quezon. Medium elevation primary forests, ascending to 1000m.
  18. Discocalyx micrantha Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 146; EPFP 3 (1923) 268; --Type: BS 27132 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Burgos. Low elevation forests along stream, 12 Mar 1917. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Isabela (Palanan), MINDANAO: Surigao. Low elevation primary forests. Photos
  19. Discocalyx mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 674; --Merr.,  EPFP 3 (1923) 269; --Type: Elmer 11294 (PNH, holo, lost; iso: A, GH, MO, US), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, Aug 1909. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley), Bukidnon, Davao (Mt Apo), Agusan del Norte. Medium elevation primary forests, ascending to 1200m.
  20. Discocalyx minor Mez in Engl. Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 213; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 269; --Type: Comision de la Flora Forestal de Filipinas 427 (L, iso), Luzon: Bulacan prov., Angat.
  21. Discocalyx montana Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 443; --Merr.,  EPFP 3 (1923) 269. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Apayao, Cagayan, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Laguna, MINDORO. Stream gullies and forested slopes, 1000-2000m.
  22. Discocalyx pachyphylla Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 146; EPFP 3 (1923) 269. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Quezon (Guinayanagan). Damp forested slopes at medium elevation, ascending to 1000m.
  23. Discocalyx palawanensis Elmer, in sched., ex Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 269; --Discocalyx merrillii Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1821, non Mez, 1906; --Type: Elmer 12825 (PNH, holo, lost; iso: A, MO, US), Palawan: Mt Pulgar (=Thumb Peak), Mar 1911. MINDORO, PALAWAN, BANCALAN. Low elevation primary forests.
  24. Discocalyx phanerophlebia Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 425; EPFP 3 (1923) 269; --Type: BS 38690. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Forests along streams, 1200-1400m.
  25. Discocalyx philippinensis (A DC) Mez in Engl. Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 212; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 269; --Badula philippinensis A DC, Prodr. 8 (1844) 108.  LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, PANAY. Damp ravines and primary forests, extending into the mossy forest, 600-1400m.
  26. Discocalyx psychotrioides Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 442; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 270. LUZON: Isabela, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon. Primary forests, 300-800m. Photos
  27. Discocalyx samarensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 147; EPFP 3 (1923) 270; --Type: FB 24004 Lasquety, Samar: Northern Samar prov., San Jose de Buan, along streams, 300m, 7 May 1915. SAMAR: Northern Samar (San Jose de Buan). Lowland forest, 300m.
  28. Discocalyx sessilifolia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 149; EPFP 3 (1923) 270; --Type: FB 20735 Rafael & Ponce (US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov. (indicated in label as Butuan Subprovince), near Butuan (according to protologue). Swamp forest at low elevation, 12 Sept 1913. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Swamp forest at low elevation.
  29. Discocalyx stenophylla Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 148; EPFP 3 (1923) 270; --Type: FB 24815 Pascual (US, iso), Luzon: Pangasinan prov., Mangatarem. Among undergrowth in forests, c. 300m, 23 Nov 1915. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Rizal. Primary forests, 300-700m.
  30. Discocalyx suluensis Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 420; --Type: BS 44293 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Tawi-tawi. Damp forests at low elevation, Jul 1924. TAWI-TAWI. Lowland forests.
  31. Discocalyx tecsonii Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 150; EPFP 3 (1923) 270; --Type: FB 24683 Tecson (US, iso), Basilan: Tumakis, in forest, 20m, locally common, teste Tecson, 4 Nov 1915. BASILAN (Tumakis; Mt Singal), MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental (Mt Malindang). Low elevation primary forests, 10-100m.
  32. Discocalyx vidalii Mez in Engl. Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 213; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 270; --Type: Vidal 423, Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Banahaw. LUZON: Quezon (Mt Banahaw). Perhaps also represented by BS 33312 Ramos, 29288 Ramos & Edaño from primary forests, c. 300m.
  33. Discocalyx xiphophylla Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 185; --Type: BS 45678 Ramos & Edaño, Luzon: Aurora prov., Mt Alzapan, in forests, c. 1800m, 6 Jun 1925. LUZON: Aurora (Mt Alzapan). Montane forests, c. 1800m.  Comments from the original protologue: Belonging to the group of D. linearifolia Elmer, but totally different in its vegetative and inflorescence characters. Notably differs from D. angustissima Merr. in its entire leaves.

Check status

  1. Discocalyx loheri Merr., --Not in IPNI!

Embelia Burm.f.

Photos
  1. Embelia bataanensis Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 29 (1905) 44; EPFP 3 (1923) 271. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Bataan. Ravines and forested ridges, 600-1300m.
  2. Embelia coriacea Wall., Cat. (1830) No. 2314 nom. nud.; --A DC, Trans. Linn. Soc. 17 (1834) 135; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 271. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Moluccas, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Bukidnon, Davao, Agusan del Norte. Low and medium elevation primary forests.
  3. Embelia elliptica Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 426; EPFP 3 (1923) 271; --Type: BS 39069 Ramos & Edaño. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Streamside thickets, 900m.
  4. Embelia loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 45; EPFP 4 (1925) 253; --Type: Loher 13845 (PNH, holo,  possibly lost; iso UC), Luzon: Rizal prov., Mt Oriud, Mar 1914. LUZON: Rizal (Mt Paningtingan; Mt Oriud).
  5. Embelia luzoniensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 427; EPFP 3 (1923) 271; --Type: BS 20098 McGregor. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya. Medium elevation thickets or forests.
  6. Embelia nigro-punctata Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 326; EPFP 3 (1923) 271. LUZON: Bataan, Rizal, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Low and medium elevation thickets and forests.
  7. Embelia obtusiuscula Mez, Fedde Repert. 16 (1920) 422; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 271; --Type: Elmer 5881. LUZON: Benguet. Steep slopes in thickets, c. 1200m.
  8. Embelia ovatifolia Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 428; EPFP 3 (1923) 272; --Type: BS 39001 Ramos & Edaño. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Forested slopes, c. 1200m.
  9. Embelia philippinensis A DC, Prodr. 8 (1844) 83; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 272. --Rhamnus lando Llanos, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1851) 57; --Fern.-Villar & Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 41 (1880) 41. --Samara philippinensis Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 30, t. 61, Fig. D. Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Pangasinan, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Rizal. Laguna, Sorsogon. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao, Bukidnon, Davao. Medium elevation forests, often common. Photos
  10. Embelia whitfordii Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 113; EPFP 3 (1923) 272. –Type: Whitford 453. Embelia urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2783; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 272; --Type: Elmer 13745. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Bataan, Laguna, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte.

Labisia Lindl.

Edited by Derek D. Cabactulan & Pieter B. Pelser, 2 June 2012

Photos
  1. Labisia pumila (Blume) Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 123; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 266. Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO, MINDORO, LEYTE, JOLO. Damp primary forests up to 500m. Very rare and local in the Philippines. Photos

Loheria Merr.

Photos
  1. Loheria bracteata Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 374; EPFP 3 (1923) 270; --Type: Merrill 4783. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Mossy forests, 1900-2400m. Photos
  2. Loheria crassifolia (Merr.) Stone, Micronesica 24 (1991) 72; --Amblyanthopsis crassifolia Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 445; EPFP 3 (1923) 266. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Aurora. Forested slopes, c. 1000m. Photos
  3. Loheria jubilaria Stone, Micronesica 24 (1991) 74; --Loheria radlkoferi (Mez) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 271, nom. illeg.. --Jubilaria radlkoferi Mez, Fedde Repert. 16 (1920) 421; --Type: Merrill 5743 (US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Alag River, Nov 1906. MINDORO. Low elevation damp primary forests.
  4. Loheria porteana (Mez) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 271. –Type:  LUZON: Quezon, Rizal, POLILLO. Low elevation damp primary forests.

 Rapanea Aubl. = Myrsine

Lysimachia L.

Photos
  1. Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 26 (1889) 48; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 274; --Bentvelzen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 179. China (Yunnan; Guizhou; Sichuan; Hubei), Taiwan, N Philippines. N LUZON. Damp thickets along streams, 1300-1500m.
  2. Lysimachia decurrens G Forst., Prodr. (1786) 12; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 274; --Bentvelzen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 185, Fig. 10 (map). E Himalaya, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, S China, Japan, Taiwan, W Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Timor), N Philippines, Vanuatu, New Caledonia. LUZON: Benguet.
  3. Lysimachia japonica Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 83; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 275; --Bentvelzen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 182, Fig. 8 (map).
  4. Lysimachia mauritiana Lam., Encycl. 3 (1789) 592; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 275; --Bentvelzen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 183, Fig. 9 (map). Mauritius and Réunion, E China, Korean islands, Japan, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, N Philippines, Bonin Isls, Marianas, Hawaiian Isls, New Caledonia, Loyalty Isls. BATANES. Coastal coral rocks and beaches. Photos
  5. Lysimachia sikokiana Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 121; --Bentvelzen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 178, Fig. 2a-d, Fig. 3 (Map). --Lysimachia ramosa Wall., Cat. (1828) No. 1490, nom. nud.; --Duby in DC, Prodr. 8 (1844) 65; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 275. S Japan, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwán, S China (Yunnan; Guangdong), Hainan, N Thailand, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, MINDORO, NEGROS, CAMIGUIN. Mossy forests, damp ravines, 1200-2300m. Photos

Maesa Forssk.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 August 2012

Photos
  1. Maesa cumingii Mez in Engl., Pflanzenreich  9 (1902) 49; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 253; --Utteridge &  Saunders, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145 (2004) 20; --Type: Cuming 1474 (K, lecto; iso BM, K, W), Luzon: Camarines Sur prov., 1836–1839. --Maesa pachyphylla Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) 328; EPFP 3 (1923) 255; --Type: BS 11030 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost; lecto: BM; isolecto: A (fragment), Cebu: [Hills behind the City of Cebu fide Merrill, 1912: 328], March 1912. --Maesa undulata Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 422; EPFP 3 (1923) 255; --Type: BS 26872 Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; lecto: K), Luzon: Quezon Prov., near Pagbilao, March 1917. Endemic to the Philippines, but widespread throughout the archipelago. Along clearings and streams, secondary growth; 50–900m. Flowering between October and May; fruiting throughout the year. IUCN conservation status: NT. Photos
  2. Maesa davaensis Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 341, t. 14; --Utteridge & Saunders, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145 (2004) 22; --Type: BS 49123 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, lost; lecto: UC; iso: A, NY, P), Mindanao: Davao Oriental prov., Mati, Dawau Streams, 9 April 1927. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental. Low elevation forests. Flowering and fruiting in April. IUCN conservation status: CR B1a+b(iii). This species is only known from a single locality, from a single collection made in 1927.
  3. Maesa denticulata Mez in Engl., Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 48; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1953) 253; --Utteridge &  Saunders, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145 (2004) 23; --Type: Warburg 15025. Sulu Archipelago, 1888, (E,  lecto, iso: B, lost fide Hiepko, 1978: 392),  Luzon: Bataan prov., (Mt Mariveles),  Rizal prov.  (Montalban); Jolo; Mariveles [?Marivales], Mt Alban’ (fide Mez, 1902: 49): Warburg 13528, 13529 (lectoparatypes: both B, lost fide Hiepko, 1978: 392).  --Maesa vulcanica Elmer in Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 253 (1923), nom. nud.  --Voucher: Elmer 14966 (GH, L, PNH, UC). Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin (Mt Bulusan), Nov. 1915,  Borneo (Sabah), Sulawesi and the Philippines: BATAN and N LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. Forest edges, disturbed forests, secondary forests, lowland, submontane and mossy forests; 100–1550m. Flowering between December and August; fruiting throughout the year. IUCN conservation status: LC. Photos
  4. Maesa ferruginea Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) 327; EPFP 3 (1923) 254; --Utteridge & Saunders, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145 (2004) 24; --Type: BS 7109 Ramos (holo: PNH, lost; lecto: NY, designated by Utteridge & Saunders), Luzon: Abra prov., Mt Paraga, 7 Feb. 1909. LUZON (Abra). In forest, c. 3000m. Only known from two collections. Flowering in Feb. and May; fruiting in May. IUCN conservation status: EN B1a+b(iii). Maesa ferruginea is only known from Abra Province (c. 4000km2). The narrow distribution range of the species, combined with the forest habitat degradation in the Philippines, suggests that M. ferruginea faces a very high risk of extinction in the wild.
  5. Maesa gaudichaudii A. DC, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. Sér. II, 16: 80 (1841); --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 254; --Utteridge & Saunders, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145 (2004) 25; --Type: Gaudichaud s.n. (holo: G- DEL), Luzon: Manila, Dec. 1836. --Maesa piscatorum Mez, Repert. Spec. Nov Regni Veg. 16: 309 (1920); --Type: BS 19 Foxworthy (holo: PNH, lost; lecto: K, designated by Utteridge & Saunders; isolecto: BO, GH, NSW, NY, PNH, lost), Luzon: Rizal prov., Jan. 1906; BS 955 Ramos (lectoparatype: NY, PNH, lost). Luzon: Rizal prov., Boso-boso, without date. LUZON, MINDORO, MINDANAO, NEGROS and PALAWAN. Forest edges, secondary growth; 100–300m. Flowering and fruiting throughout the year. IUCN conservation status: NT.
  6. Maesa haenkeana Mez in Engl., Pflanzenreich 9 (IV, 236): (1902) 32; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 254; --Utteridge & Saunders, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145 (2004) 26; --Type: Haenke 471 (PR, lecto, designated by Utteridge & Saunders ; isolecto: NY), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., 1792. --Maesa embelioides Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 2 (1908) 444. --Maesa longipetiolata Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) 28; EPFP 3 (1923) 254; --Type: BS 23358 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost; Lecto: L, designated by Utteridge & Saunders; isolecto: A, BO, K, NY, P), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Pacdal, 5 Aug. 1915. --Maesa brunnea Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 321; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 253; --Type: BS 30500 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost; Lecto: K, designated by Utteridge & Saunders ; isolecto: A, P), Catanduanes: Mt Mariguidon, 14 Nov.-11 Dec. 1917. --Maesa cuprifolia Elmer in Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 254, nom. nud.,  --Voucher: Elmer 16521 (A, K, L, PNH, US). Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin (Mt Bulusan), July 1916. --Maesa platyphylla var. minor Elmer in Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 254, nom. nud. --Voucher: Elmer 15558 (A, BO, GH, L). Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin (Mt Bulusan), Nov. 1915. --Maesa irosinensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3765, not validly published, no Latin descr.; --Utteridge & Saunders, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145 (2004) 37; --Type: Elmer 15558 (PNH, holo, lost; Lecto: US, designated by Utteridge & Saunders; isolecto: A [x2], BO, C, GH, L, MO, NY [x2]), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan, Nov. 1915.  LUZON: Quezon, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, CATANDUANES, SAMAR. Lowland forests; 150–760m. Flowering between March and July; fruiting throughout the year. IUCN conservation status: NT.
  7. Maesa indica (Roxb.) A. DC, Trans. Linn. Soc. 17 (1834) 133; --Utteridge & Saunders, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145 (2004) 29; --Baeobotrys indica Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 230. --Maesa laxa Mez in Engler, Pflanzenreich 9 (IV, 236): 32 (1902); --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 254; --Type: Cuming 983 (Lecto: P, designated by Utteridge & Saunders; isolecto: BM, E, K [x2: Herb. Benth. & Herb. Hook.], LE, MO, W [x2]), Luzon: Pangasinan prov., 1836–39. --Maesa elmeri Mez, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 271; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 253; --Type: Elmer 5925 (US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio. March 1904. --Maesa grossedentata Mez, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 16: 309 (1920); --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 255; --Type: BS 1769 Ramos (holo: PNH, lost; Lecto: NY, designated by Utteridge & Saunders), Luzon: Rizal prov., Jan. 1907. --Maesa ramosii Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 186; --Type: BS 47272 Ramos & Edaño (holo: PNH, lost;  Lecto: A, designated by Utteridge & Saunders; isolecto: K, NY). Luzon: Isabela prov., Mt Moises, 4  March 1926. Widespread in SE Asia, occurring throughout the Philippines. Secondary forests, mossy forests, and upper pine forests; 100–2000 m. Flowering and fruiting throughout the year. IUCN conservation status: LC.  Photos
  8. Maesa manillensis Mez  in Engl., Pflanzenreich 9 (IV, 236) (1902) 34; --Utteridge & Saunders, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145 (2004) 31; --Type: Calléry 2 (P, holo),  Luzon: Mountain Province (?), Mt Igorrotes, May 1840. N LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province. Forests; 150–1500m. Flowering specimens only known from February, March and November; fruiting specimens only known from August, October and November. IUCN conservation status: NT.
  9. Maesa megalobotrya Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 422; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 255; --Utteridge & Saunders, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145 (2004) 32; --Type: Merrill 9176 (PNH, holo, lost; lecto: L, designated by Utteridge & Saunders; isolecto: BO, K, NSW, NY, P), Palawan: Taytay, April 1913. PALAWAN. Closed broad-leaved forests over ultrabasic rock; 490–590m. Flowering specimens only known from April; fruiting specimens only known from April and May. IUCN conservation status: VU B1ab(iii). This species has only been collected twice.
  10. Maesa megaphylla Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 158; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 255; --Utteridge & Saunders, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145 (2004) 33;  --Type: Wenzel 1510 (PNH, holo, lost; lecto: A [x2], designated by Utteridge & Saunders; isolecto: BM, GH [x2], NSW, PNH), Leyte: Tigbao near Tacloban, 3 Aug. 1915.  BOHOL, LEYTE and MINDANAO. Dry forests; sea level to 600m. Flowering specimens only known from June and August; fruiting specimens only known from February, April, August and October. IUCN conservation status: VU B1ab(iii). This species is only known from seven collections, the last of which was made in 1923. It is endemic to BOHOL, LEYTE and the N area of MINDANAO (collectively c. 13 000 km2).
  11. Maesa platyphylla Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 667; --Utteridge & Saunders, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145 (2004) 34; --Type: Elmer 10570 (PNH, holo, lost; lecto: NY, designated by Utteridge & Saunders;  isolecto: E, GH [x2], K, L, LE, MO), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, May 1909.  MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Primary forests; 910–1200m. Only known from two collections. Fl. May; fr. May, July and August. IUCN conservation status: NT. This species is only known from two localities (approximately 150km apart) in southern MINDANAO. One of these localities is Mt Apo, which was designated a National Park in 1936; the other locality was discovered relatively recently, in 1972. Utteridge & Saunders recommend a rating of Near Threatened until more collections are made in the area.
  12. Maesa reflexa Utteridge & RMK. Saunders, Kew Bull. 55 (2000) 981, Fig. 1; Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145 (2004) 34, Fig. 4; --Type: BS 38973 Ramos & Edaño (A, holo; iso K). Mindanao: Bukidnon prov., Mt Dumalucpihan, June-July 1920 (fr.).  MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Habitat information not available but presumably from montane forests; c. 2350m. Flowering specimens only known from June and July; fruiting specimens only known from April, June and July. IUCN conservation status: VU B1ab(iii). Maesa reflexa is known from only two localities (three collections made in 1920 and 1949) from Bukidnon province (c. 9000 km2). The lack of collections from other areas on MINDANAO (especially Mt Apo, which has been relatively well collected) implies that this species has a very restricted distribution in specific mountain ranges. 
  13. Maesa stonei Utteridge & RMK Saunders, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145 (2004) 37, Fig. 5; --Type: PNH 109009 Gutierrez, Yen & Reynoso (PNH, holo; iso: BISH), Mindanao: South Cotabato prov., Tasaday forest, 6º18’N, 124º33’E, July-Aug.1972. MINDANAO: South Cotabato. Dipterocarp forests, c. 1220m. Flowering and fruiting between July and August. IUCN conservation status: DD. Maesa stonei is only known from a single locality, in an area which has not been extensively collected; the species is furthermore only known from one collection (dating from 1972).
  14. Maesa tenera Mez in Engl. Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 28; --S. Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 43. S Japan, Ryukyus, Taiwan, S China to Indochina, Philippines: BATAN (Mt Iraya). In thickets on the ridge of Mt Iraya, 400m. Locally rare. Hatusima 29109.

Doubtful and Excluded Names

  1. Maesa lobuligera Mez, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 16: 310 (1920); Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 421. –  Utteridge & Saunders, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145 (2004) 39. --Type: Palawan: without date, BS 727 Foxworthy (holo: PNH, lost); Philippines; Mindanao: Lanao del Sur prov., Camp Keithley, Lake Lanao, Clemens A (paratype: PNH, lost). No duplicates of the type specimens have been traced, although there are three sheets of M. gaudichaudii that were collected by MS Clemens from Camp Keithley, Lake Lanao: two of them lack any collection number (BO, M), and the third is numbered 770 (US). As there is no indication of the ‘A’ (as cited in the protologue) nor any annotation by Mez, these sheets cannot be regarded as ‘original material’ (sensu Greuter et al., 2000: art. 9, note 2). An understanding of Mez’s (1920) delimitation of M. lobuligera can consequently only be achieved by reference to the description. Mez states that M. lobuligera is ‘moderately close to M. piscatorum [= M. gaudichaudii] and M. cumingianae [= M. cumingii]’; these species, together with M. megalobotrya, are scrambling species with a hairy indumenta throughout. Although this is congruent with the somewhat ambiguous protologue of M. lobuligera, the name cannot be unequivocally associated with any particular species without examining original material. Merrill (1922) regarded the name M. lobuligera as a synonym of the name M. megaphylla; this is clearly erroneous, however, as M. megaphylla entirely lacks hairs, whereas Mez (1920) describes M. lobuligera as possessing a hairy indument.
  2. Maesa membranacea A DC, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. Sér. II, 16: 80 (1841). --Utteridge & Saunders, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145 (2004) 39.  –Type from Vietnam, 1836–1837, Gaudichaud, number not cited (syntypes: G-DEL [x2]). In the protologue, de Candolle (1841: 80) stated that one of the collections by Gaudichaud was from the Philippines; a loan of the types of M. membranacea from G-DEL, however, revealed that both sheets were collected from Cochinchina (Vietnam). Subsequent authors (e.g. Merrill, 1923: 253) erroneously interpreted the later citation of Cuming 1474 by de Candolle (1844: 78) as a type of the name M. membranacea; this collection was not cited in the protologue, however, and is not a type. Maesa membranacea is a scrambling species with distinct serrate leaf margins, found in Indochina and Hainan.
  3. Maesa philippinensis Gaudich.,  Bull. Soc. Bot. France 60: 24 (1913). --Utteridge & Saunders, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145 (2004) 39. –Type from Peninsular Malaysia. Malacca, 1839–1840, Cuming 2286 (iso: L). [= M. ramentacea (Roxb.) A.DC.] Although the specific epithet implies that the species occurs in the Philippines, the type of the name is from Malacca, Peninsular Malaysia. The specimen was one of several incorrectly labelled when Cuming was distributing his specimens (see Merrill, 1915: 192; van Steenis-Kruseman, 1950: 121).

Myrsine L.

Photos
  1. Myrsine amorosoana Pipoly, Sida 17 (1996) 126, Fig. 1E-G; --Rapanea retusa Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 297; EPFP 3 (1923) 274, non Aiton, 1789, nec M. africana var. retusa (Aiton) A DC, 1834; --Type: Merrill 5734 (US, lecto; K, NY, isolecto). LUZON: Benguet (Mt Pulag), Quirino (Mt Alzapan), Aurora (Mt Dingalan), Quezon (Mt Binuang; Quezon National Forest Park, Atimonan), Rizal (Angilog), Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur (Bicol National Park; Mt Isarog), Sorsogon, MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (N coast, Subaan River headwaters, inland from San Teodoro; Mt Halcon), SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting), NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Kanlaon), MINDANAO: Bukidnon (Mt Candoon; Mt Lipa; Kitanglad Range at Mt Kinasalapi and Mt Dulang-dulang). Mid- to high-montane mossy forests, 1400-2825m. Photos
  2. Myrsine apoensis (Elmer) Pipoly, Sida 17 (1996) 125, Fig. 1D; --Rapanea apoensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 669; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 273. –Type: Elmer 10629 (A, lecto, designated by Pipoly, 1996; isolecto at BISH, GH, 2 sheets, K, L, NY). Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, May 1909. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo, Todaya; Mt McKinley), North Cotabato (Mt Apo, Kidapawan, Geothermal Project Site). High-montane mossy forest, 1666-2900m. 
  3. Myrsine aralioides (Philipson) Pipoly, Sida 17 (1996) 152, Fig. 3A, B; --Rapanea aralioides Philipson, J. Bot. (London) 78 (1939) 104. –Type from Sabah. Borneo (Sabah), Philippines: MINDANAO: Davao Oriental (Mt Hamiguitan; Mati, South Basiao; along Biga Creek), Surigao (del Sur prov.?), PALAWAN (Mt Bloomfield). 150-200m in Palawan. Seen at c. 1200m on Mt Hamiguitan. On ultramafics.
  4. Myrsine avenis (Blume) A DC, Trans. Linn. Soc. 17 (1834) 107; --Pipoly, Sida 17 (1996) 144, Fig. 2H, I; --Rapanea avenis (Blume) Mez in Engl., Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 357; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 273, excl. Rapanea fastigiata (in synonymy); --Ardisia avenis Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 691. --Type from Java. Sumatra, Java, Buru, Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; E & W Kalimantan), Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Mt Palimlim), Abra, Mountain Province, Ifugao (Banawe, Bayninan), Benguet (Mt Pulogloco; Mt Sto Tomas; Baguio and vicinity), Bataan (Mt Mariveles, Lamao River), Rizal (Mt Susong Dalaga; Sumag; Montalban), Laguna (Mt Makiling); Laguna-Quezon (Mt Banahaw), Quezon (Lucban), Camarines Norte (Paracale), Camarines Sur (Mt Isarog), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon; Mansalay, Mt Yagaw), NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Kanlaon), MINDANAO: Bukidnon (Mt Kitanglad), Davao (Mt Apo). Hill to mossy forests and wind-swept ridges, (300-)1400-2400m.
  5. Myrsine cruciata (Philipson) Pipoly, Sida 17 (1996) 130, Fig. 1H, I; --Rapanea cruciata Philipson, J. Bot. (London) 77 (1939) 105. –Type from Mt Kinabalu, Sabah. Philippines, Borneo (Sabah: Mt Kinabalu). LUZON: Abra, Zambales, PALAWAN (Mt Beaufort). At least recorded between 490-815m in Palawan, on presumably ultramafic habitat.
  6. Myrsine densiflora Scheffer, Comm. Myrs. Archipelago Ind. (1876) 50; --Pipoly, Sida 17 (1996) 132, Fig. 2A, D. Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, Papua New Guinea. BATAN, LUZON: Pangasinan, Zambales, PALAWAN, PANAY: Capiz, NEGROS, SAMAR, DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Surigao.
  7. Myrsine fastigiata (Elmer) Pipoly, Sida 17 (1996) 149, Fig. 3E, H; --Rapanea fastigiata Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 670; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 273, under synonymy of Rapanea avenis. –Type: Elmer 11447 (GH, lecto, designated by Pipoly, 1996; isolecto: A, K, L, NY). Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, 2000m, Aug 1909. LUZON: Ifugao (Mt Polis), Mountain Province (Bontoc; Mt Caua), Benguet (Atok, Pauai and vicinity; Mt Tabayoc; Mt Pulag; Mt Singakalsa; Mt Nangaoto; Baguio; Mt Sto Tomas), Zambales (Sta Cruz),  Bataan (Mt Mariveles, upper Lamao River), Camarines Norte (Paracale), BILIRAN (Mt Suiro), MINDANAO: Bukidnon (Mt Lipa), Davao (Mt Apo). Low to high montane sites, but most conspicuous at 2000-2500m.
  8. Myrsine glandulosa (Elmer) Pipoly, Sida 17 (1996) 154, Fig. 3C,D; --Rapanea glandulosa Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2784; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 273. –Type: Elmer 14148 (A, lecto, designated by Pipoly, 1996; isolecto: BISH, GH, L, K, NY). Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, 1524m, Oct-1912.  NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Kanlaon, SW slopes), Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), LEYTE, MINDANAO: Bukidnon (Malaybalay, Kaatoan; Davao del Sur (Mt McKinley), South Cotabato (Mt Matutum), Agusan del Norte. Montane forests, 1350-2242m.
  9. Myrsine mediciloae Pipoly, Sida 17 (1996) 122, Fig. 1A, B; --Rapanea angustifolia Merr., PJS 20  (1922) 429, non Myrsine angustifolia (A DC) D Dietr., 1839, nec Myrsine angustifolia E Meyer ex Schimper, 1872, nom. nud., nec Myrsine angustifolia Heller, 1897, nec Myrsine angustifolia (Mez) Hosaka, 1940. --Suttonia angustifolia Mez, Pflanzenreich 9 IV.236 (1902) 337. –Type: BS 33243 Ramos (A, lecto, designated by Pipoly, 1996). Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Mt Nagapatan, Aug 1918.  LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Mt Nagapatan; Burgos; Sicapoo Range, en-route from miner’s camp to Mt Burnay), Zambales (Mt Tapulao), Bataan (Mt Mariveles, Lamao River). Submontane mossy forests, 1000-1800m.
  10. Myrsine mindanaensis (Elmer) Pipoly, Sida 17 (1996) 140, Fig. 2G; --Rapanea mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 671; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 273. –Type: Elmer 11332 (K, lecto, designated by Pipoly, 1996; isolecto: A, BISH, GH, L, NY). Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, Aug 1909.  LUZON: Camarines Sur (Mt Isarog), BILIRAN: Biliran (Naval, Libtong), LEYTE: Leyte (Cabalian), MINDANAO: Davao del Sur; Davao-North Cotabato (Mt Apo). Low to high montane forests, 895-2200m. Photos
  11. Myrsine oblongibacca (Merr.) Pipoly, Sida 17 (1996) 129, Fig. 1C; --Rapanea oblongibacca Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 429; EPFP 3 (1923) 273. –Type: BS 33256 Ramos (A, lecto, designated by Pipoly, 1996; isolecto: K, US). Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Mt Palimlim, Aug 1918. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Mt Palimlim), Cagayan (Mt Cagua; Mt Dos Cuernos; Mt Tabuan, Bauan district; Mt Balatongan), Nueva Ecija (Mt Umingan [=Mingan], Aurora (Mt Dingalan), Rizal (Mt Susong Dalaga), DINAGAT. Possibly a submontane species at perhaps 800-1500m elevation. In Ilocos Norte and Dinagat possibly growing on ultramafics.
  12. Myrsine penibukana (Philipson) Pipoly, Sida 17 (1996) 147, Fig. 31; --Rapanea penibukana Philipson, London J. Bot. 78 (1939) 105. –Type from Mt Kinabalu, Sabah.  Borneo (Mt Kinabalu) and the Philippines. LUZON: Abra (Mt Posuey), Aurora (Mt Dingalan), Rizal. 1000-1200m.
  13. Myrsine peregrina (Mez) Pipoly, Sida 17 (1996) 136, Fig. 3F, G; --Rapanea peregrina Mez, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 16 (1920) 424. –Type: MS Clemens 917 (US, lecto, designated by Pipoly, 1996; isolecto: A). Mindanao: Lanao del Sur prov., Camp Keithley, Lake Lanao, Jun 1907. Rapanea venosa Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 672; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 274, non  Rapanea venosa (A DC) Mez, 102, nec Myrsine venosa A DC, 1841. –Type: Elmer 11445 (GH, lecto, designated by Pipoly 1996; isolecto: A, BISH, K, L, NY). Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, 2000m, Aug 1909. BATAN (Mt Iraya), LUZON: Mountain Province (Mt Caua; Mt Data), Nueva Ecija (Mt Umingan [=Mingan], MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon), PALAWAN: Palawan (Lipuun Peak), PANAY: Capiz (Mt Bulilao), Iloilo (Iwa Ilaya [=Iwaya] to Coyaoyao [=Koya], MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental (Mt Malindang, Lake Duminagat), Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley), Bukidnon (Mt Kitanglad; Mt Kinasalapi; Kaatoan), Davao-North Cotabato (Mt Apo, Todaya and Kidapawan approaches, respectively), Davao del Sur (Mt McKinley), Davao Oriental (Mt Kampalili), South Cotabato (Mt Matutum). Submontane and montane “mossy forests, up to 2800m.
  14. Myrsine philippinensis A DC, Prodr. 8 (1844) 94; --Pipoly, Sida 17 (1996) 141, Fig. 2E, F. –Type: Cuming 869 (G, holo, not seen; fragm. in A, iso: K-2sheets, L). Luzon: Albay prov., 1841.  Rapanea philippinensis (A DC) Mez, in Engl., Pflanzenreich 9 (1902) 364; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 273. LUZON: Batangas, Quezon (Infanta; Tagkawayan; Calauag Bay), Camarines Norte (Paracale), Albay, POLILLO, MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Baco), SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting), CUYO ISL GROUP (PAMALICAN), GUIMARAS, LEYTE, SAMAR: Northern Samar, JOLO, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Coastal forests and secondary vegetation, on sands and mangrove swamps, sea level to 305m.  Photos

Primula L.

Photos
  1. Primula umbellata (Lour.) Bentvelzen, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1962) 191, Fig. 15, 16 (map); --Androsace umbellata (Lour.) Merr., PJS 15 (1919) 237; EPFP 3 (1923) 274; --Drosera umbellate Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 186. India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, N Vietnam, China (Yunnan; Sichuan; Guizhou; Guangdong; NE China), Korea, Japan, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, N Philippines, E New Guinea. LUZON: Mountain Province. Montane forests in shaded moist places, 1300-1500m.

Literature

Bentvelzen, PAJ. 1962. Primulaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 6: 173-192

Dubéarnès, A, A Julius & TA Utteridge. 2015. A synopsis of the genus Embelia in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Studies in Malaysian Myrsinaceae III. Kew Bulletin 70: 1-33.

Hu Chi Ming, 1999. New synonyms and combinations in Asiatic Ardisia. Blumea 44: 391-406

Pipoly III, J. J. 1996. Contributions towards a new flora of the Philippines: I. A synopsis of the genus Myrsine (Myrsinaceae). Sida 17: 115-162.


Utteridge, TMA & RMK Saunders. 2004. The genus Maesa (Maesaceae) in the Philippines. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 145: 17–43.


Acknowledgements                             

Derek Cabactulan and Racquel Tan Chua-Barcelo kindly provided some photographs for this webpage.

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Last updated 24 December 2016