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Rafflesia R.Br.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 February 2017

  1. Rafflesia aurantia Barcelona, Co & Balete, Gard. Bull. Sing. 61(1) (2009) 18, Fig. 1-3; --Type: Bartolome & Balete 2543 (PNH, holo, spirit collection, 1 male and 1 female flowers; PUH, SING, US, iso), Luzon: Quirino prov., Sierra Madre Mtn Range, Quirino Protected Landscape, Nagtipunan municip., Barangay Matmad, Sitiio Mangitagud, c. 450m, disturbed lowland dipterocarp forest, c. 5m away from embankment of boulder-strewn creek, 11-Jun-2004. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quirino (Nagtipunan). Known only from the type collection. Photos (Parasitic Plant Connection)
  2. Rafflesia baletei Barcelona, Cajano & Soligam-Hadsall, Kew Bull. (2006) 231-237, Fig. 1-5; --Type: Candelaria et al. 5526 (PNH, holo; CAHUP, K, SING, US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur prov., Ocampo municip., Barangay del Rosario, Mt Isarog National Park, ridge above Luksohon River (loco dicto), secondary forest dominated by abaca (Musa textilis Nees), 545-560m, 14-Mar-2005. --Rafflesia camarinensis Valenzuela, Jaucian-Adan, Agoo & Madulid, Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology 10 (2016) 2; --Type: Jaucian-Adan & Valenzuela 101 (PNH, holo), Luzon: Camarines Sur Prov., Mt. Asog, 400 m, 11-Feb-2016. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Sur (Mt Isarog National Park, ridge along Luksohon and Tabuan Rivers; Mt Iriga). Rocky riparian habitats and secondary vegetation covered with Musa textilis and bamboos, 500-560m. Peak flowering from December to May. Photos (Parasitic Plant Connection)
  3. Rafflesia consueloae Galindon, Ong & Fernando, PhytoKeys 61: 39; --Type: Fernando & Galindon 3373 (PNH, holo; PUH, iso), Luzon: Nueva Ecija Province, Municipality of Pantabangan, Brgy. Fatima, Mt Balukbok, 19-Mar-2014. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija. Conservation status: CR B1+2bc (Galindon et al., 2016). Photos (Parasitic Plant Connection)
  4. Rafflesia lagascae Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 595; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 120, pro parte, as to Luzon plants only; --Pancho, Vasc. Fl. Mt Makiling & Vicinity 1 (1983) 312; --Meijer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 27, pro parte, as to Luzon plants only; --Type: Azaola s.n. (not extant); --Neotype: Barcelona 3819 with Pelser (CHR), Luzon, Quezon Prov., Dolores Municipality, Barangay Kinabuhayan, Bangkong Kahoy Valley, Mts. Banahaw – San Cristobal Protected Landscape, ca. 700 m, 3-April-2013. --Rafflesia panchoana Madulid, Buot & Agoo, Luzon: Laguna prov., Mt Makiling, Acta Manillana 55 (2008, ‘2007’) 43; --Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 535 (leg. WH Brown (US 904212, holo, cited in error in the protologue as ‘US0090412’). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan (Bolos Point), Bataan (Mt Natib), Laguna (Mt Makiling; Majayjay), Quezon (General Nakar, Mt Kayapo; Mt Banahaw), Camarines Norte (Mt Labo). Lowland and hill forests, up to c. 1000m. Photos Photos (Parasitic Plant Connection)
  5. Rafflesia leonardi Barcelona & Pelser, Blumea 53 (2008) 223, Fig. 1, plate 1; --Type: Barcelona et al. 3355 (PNH, holo; L, US, PUH, iso), Luzon: Cagayan prov., Baggao, Bolos Point. Lowland dipterocarp forest, 270-300m. --Rafflesia banaoana Malabrigo, Asia Life Sciences. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Kalinga-Apayao (Balbalasang National Park), Cagayan (Baggao, Bolos Point). Photos (Parasitic Plant Connection)
  6. Rafflesia lobata Galang & Madulid, Folia Malaysiana 7 (2006) 1, pl. 1, 3-8; --Type: Galang et al. 001 (PNH, holo, spirits collection), Panay: Antique prov., Sebaste municipality, Barangay Idio, Mt Igtuog, 24-Jun-2006. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY: Antique (Pandan, Mt Igtuog; Sebaste, Mt Sakpaw), Iloilo (Leon, Mt Agua Coloña). Intact to severely degraded rainforests, 400-800m, mostly in gullies, on roots and climbing shoots of its host. Flowering the whole year round but optimally said to be between Feb-Jun. Photos (Parasitic Plant Connection)
  7. Rafflesia manillana Teschem., Boston J. Nat. Hist. 4 (1841) 63, t. 6; --Madulid & Agoo, Philip. Scientist 44 (2008, ‘2007’), 57-70; --Type: Navarro s.n. (A, not seen by Meijer), Leyte (but most likely Samar), Basei (=Basey); --Rafflesia cumingii R.Br., nom. illeg. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR: Western Samar (Basey). Lowland forests, up to c. 1000m. Photos (Parasitic Plant Connection)
  8. Rafflesia mira Fernando & Ong, Asia Life Sciences 14 (2005) 267, Fig. 1-2; --Type: Fernando & Ng 1654 (LBC, holo), Mindanao: Compostela Valley prov., Mt Candalaga, midmontane forest, c. 900m, on steep slopes c. 15m from a waterfall. --Rafflesia magnifica Madulid, Tandang & Agoo, Acta Manillana 53 (2005) 1, Fig. 1-3; --Type: PNH 173373 Badilla (PNH, holo), Mindanao: Compostela Valley prov., Maragusan municip., Barangay New Leyte, Mt Candalaga, lowland evergreen forest, 880-900m. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Compostela Valley (Maragusan municip., Mt Candalaga). In semi-open habitats, especially near waterfalls, in mid-montane rain forests at c. 900 m. Photos (Parasitic Plant Connection)
  9. Rafflesia mixta Barcelona, Manting, Arbolonio, Caballero & Pelser, Phytotaxa 174 (2014) 273; --Type: Arbolonio & Caballero 5 (PNH, holo; Mindanao State University - Iligan Institute of Technology, iso), Mindanao: Caraga Region, Surigao del Norte Province, Mainit Municipality, Barangay Cantugas, loco dicto Sarawag, lowland evergreen forest interior, on steep slopes with loose soil, c. 622 m, 7-Jun-2014. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Photos (Parasitic Plant Connection)
  10. Rafflesia philippensis Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 565; --Barcelona et al. Blumea 54 (2009) 77-93, Pl. 1a, b, 2e, 3b; --Type: Azaola s.n. (not preserved); neotype (designated by Barcelona et al. 2009). Barcelona, Cajano & Mendua 3345 (PNH; iso, CAHUP). --Rafflesia banahawensis Madulid, Villariba & Agoo, Philipp. Scientist 43 (2007, ’2006’) 45; --Type: MEUF 101 (PNH, holo). --Rafflesia banahaw Barcelona, Pelser & Cajano, Blumea 52 (2007) 346; --Type: Barcelona, Cajano & Mendua 3345 (PNH, holo; CAHUP, iso). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (Dolores, base of Mt Banahaw). Disturbed lowland dipterocarp forest, on steep slopes, along trails and beside seasonal creeks and rivers on well-drained sandy soil with dense herbaceous covering or thick leaf litter. Photos (Parasitic Plant Connection)
  11. Rafflesia schadenbergiana Göppert ex Hieron., Gartenflora 34 (1885) 3, t. 1177; --Merr., EPFP   2 (1923) 121; --Meijer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 27; --Type: Schadenberg & Koch s.n. (=Hieronymus sn) (K, holo; WRSL, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur prov., near Mt Apo, 800m, 1882. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: South Cotabato (Mt Temlofung), Davao (Mt Apo), Bukidnon (lower slopes of Mt Kitanglad at Baungon). Primary as well as degraded secondary forest. Photos (Parasitic Plant Connection)
  12. Rafflesia speciosa Barcelona & Fernando, Kew Bull. 57 (2002) 648; --Type: Barcelona 1221 (PNH, holo; LBC, iso), Panay: Antique prov., Sibalom Natural Park, Mt Poras. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY: Antique (Sibalom; Mt Porras; Valderama), Iloilo (Leon), NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Canlaon). Photos Photos (Parasitic Plant Connection)
  13. Rafflesia verrucosa Balete, Pelser, Nickrent and Barcelona, Phytotaxa 10 (2010) 49-57; --Type: Balete 17 (PNH, holo; CAHUP, F, L, SING, US, iso), Mindanao Island: Davao Oriental Province: Manay (also known as Man-ay) Municipality: Mt. Kampalili. Southeastern slope of Mt. Kampalili, between 1350 and 1550 m in montane forest in relatively rocky and moderately sloping terrain. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO. Photos (Parasitic Plant Connection)


Balete DS, PB Pelser, DL Nickrent & JF Barcelona. 2010. Rafflesia verrucosa (Rafflesiaceae), a new species of small-flowered Rafflesia from Mindanao, Philippines. Phytotaxa 10: 49-57.

Barcelona JF & ES Fernando. 2002. A new species of Rafflesia (Rafflesiaceae) from Panay Island, Philippines. Kew Bulletin 57: 647-651.

Barcelona JF, MAO Cajano & AS Hadsall. 2006. Rafflesia baletei, another new Rafflesia (Rafflesiaceae) from the Philippines. Kew Bulletin 61: 231-237.

Barcelona, JF, LL Co, DS Balete & NA Bartolome. 2009. Rafflesia aurantia (Rafflesiaceae): a new species from northern Luzon, Philippines. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 61: 17-27.

Barcelona, JF, ES Fernando, DL Nickrent, DS Balete & PB Pelser. 2011. An amended description of Rafflesia leonardi and a revised key to Philippine Rafflesia (Rafflesiaceae). Phytotaxa 24: 11-18.

Barcelona JF, MME Manting, RB Arbolonio, RB Caballero & PB Pelser. 2014. Rafflesia mixta (Rafflesiaceae), a new species from Surigao del Norte, Mindanao, Philippines. Phytotaxa 174: 272-278.

Barcelona JF, PB Pelser, DS Balete & LL Co. 2009. Taxonomy, ecology, and conservation status of Philippine Rafflesia (Rafflesiaceae). Blumea 54: 77-93

Barcelona JF, PB Pelser, E Cabutaje & NA Bartolome. 2008. Another new species of Rafflesia (Rafflesiaceae) from Luzon, Philippines: R. leonardi. Blumea 53: 223-228

Barcelona JF, PB Pelser & MAO Cajano. 2008. Rafflesia banahaw (Rafflesiaceae), a new species from Luzon, Philippines. Blumea 52: 345-350

Barcelona JF, PB Pelser, AM Tagtag, RG Dahonog & AP Lilangan. 2008. The rediscovery of Rafflesia schadenbergiana Göpp. ex Hieron. (Rafflesiaceae). Flora Malesiana Bulletin 14: 162-165.

David, M, AC de Jesus & JF Barcelona. 2011. Rafflesia of the Philippines: a story of adventure, appetite, and affinity. Energy Development Corporation (EDC), Manila.

Fernando, ES & PS Ong. 2005. The genus Rafflesia R. Br. (Rafflesiaceae) in the Philippines. Asia Life Sciences 14: 263-270.

Galang R & DA Madulid. 2006. A second new species of Rafflesia (Rafflesiaceae) from Panay Island, Philippines. Folia Malaysiana 7: 1-8.

Galindon JMM, PS Ong & ES Fernando. 2016. Rafflesia consueloae (Rafflesiaceae), the smallest among giants; a new species from Luzon Island, Philippines. PhytoKeys 61: 37-46

Madulid DA, & EMG Agoo. 2007. On the identity of Rafflesia manillana Teschem. (Rafflesiaceae). Philippine Scientist 44: 57-70.

Madulid, DA & EMG Agoo. 2014. On the taxonomic status of Rafflesia magnifica and R. mira (Rafflesiaceae) in the Philippines. Folia Malaysiana 14:65-74.

Madulid, DA & EMG Agoo. 2015. A critical review of the taxonomic status of Rafflesia philippensis Blanco (Rafflesiaceae) from the Philippines. Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology 9: 1-6

Madulid DA, IE Buot & EMG Agoo. 2007. Rafflesia panchoana (Rafflesiaceae), a new species from Luzon Island, Philippines. Acta Manilana 55: 43-47.

Madulid, DA, IE Buot & EMG Agoo. 2012. The Philippine Rafflesia panchoana from Mt. Makiling, Luzon, and R. manillana from Basey, Samar, compared (Rafflesiaceae). Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology 6: 43-45

Madulid DA, DN Tandang & EMG Agoo. 2005. Rafflesia magnifica (Rafflesiaceae), a new species from Mindanao, Philippines. Acta Manilana 53: 1-6.

Madulid DA, C Villariba-Tolentino & EMG Agoo. 2006. Rafflesia banahawensis (Rafflesiaceae), a new species from Luzon, Philippines. Philippine Scientist 43: 43-51.

Malabrigo, P. 2010. Rafflesia banaoana (Rafflesiaceae): another new species from Luzon, Philippines. Asia Life Sciences Supplement 4: 139-145.

W. 1997. Rafflesiaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 13: 1-42

Nais, J. 2001. Rafflesia of the World. Sabah Parks, Kota Kinabalu.

Pelser, PB, DL Nickrent, JRC Callado & JF Barcelona. 2013. Mt. Banahaw reveals: The resurrection and neotypification of the name Rafflesia lagascae (Rafflesiaceae) and clues to the dispersal of Rafflesia seeds Phytotaxa 131: 35–40.

Pelser, PB, DL Nickrent & JF Barcelona. 2016. Untangling a vine and its parasite: host specificity of Philippine Rafflesia (Rafflesiaceae). Taxon 65: 739-758.

Valenzuela, FB, GG Jaucian-Adan, EMG Agoo & DA Madulid. 2017. Rafflesia camarinensis (Rafflesiaceae), a new species from Mt. Asog, Camarines Sur, Luzon Island, Philippines. Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology 10: 1-5

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Last updated 14 February 2017