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Rubiaceae

Acranthera Arn.

No Photos
  1. Acranthera philippinensis Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 32; EPFP 3 (1923) 517; --Type: Merrill 8309 (L, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River, in ravines along small streams, 700- 900m, 27-Nov-1911. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao del Sur. In ravines along small streams, up to 900m.

Adina Salisb.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 March 2014

Photos

  1. Adina multifolia Havil., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 33 (1897) 45; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 507; --Pertusadina multifolia (Havil.) Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 356; --Metadina multifolia (Havil.) Ridsdale, Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1970) 250; --Type: Vidal 2948 (K, holo), Philippines. Philippines, Moluccas, New Guinea. LUZON, MINDORO, SIBUYAN, TICAO, SAMAR, MINDANAO. In forests at low and medium elevation.
  2. Adina trichotoma (Zoll. & Mor.) Benth & Hook. f. ex B.D.Jacks., Index Kew. 1 (1893) 43; --Metadina trichotoma (Zoll. & Mor.) Bakh.f., Taxon 19 (1970) 472; --Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 350-351; --Type from Indonesia. --Adina zschokkei Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 987; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 507; --Type: Elmer 12176. India (Assam), Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea. PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Lowland thickets.

Aidia Lour.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Aidia acuminata (Blume) Wong, Malayan Nat. J. 38 (1984) 54; --Ridsdale, Blumea 41 (1996) 167; --Gymnopachys acuminata Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenzorg (1823) 48; --Type from Java. --Randia umbellata Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 31; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 528; 4 (1925) 247; --Type: EB Copeland 1302 (US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Todaya, Apr-1904. --Randia boerlagei Koord. & Valeton., Bijdr. Boomsoort. Java 8 (1902) 269. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo (Sarawak, Kalimantan, Sabah), Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Seram). LUZON, MINDORO, CATANDUANES, SIBUYAN, PANAY, BOHOL, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO.
  2. Aidia auriculata (Wall.) Ridsdale, Blumea 41 (1996) 161; --Randia auriculata (Wall.) Steudel, Nom. Bot. 2 (1841) 430; --K.Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 44 (1891) 75; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 527; --Type from Peninsular Malaysia (Penang).
  3. Aidia bakeri (Merr.) Ridsdale, Blumea 41 (1996) 165; --Anomanthodia bakeri (Merr.) Tirveng. in Tirveng. & Sastre, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., B, Adansonia, 4e sér., 8 (1986) 279; --Randia bakeri Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 109; EPFP 3 (1923) 527; --Type: CF Baker 3253 (cited but not seen by Ridsdale, 1996), Luzon: Quezon prov., hills near Malinao, 7 May 1914. --Anomanthodia alveolata (Elmer) Tirveng. in Tirveng. & Sastre, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., B, Adansonia, 4e sér., 8 (1986) 279; --Randia alveolata Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3266; --Type: Elmer 16050 (distributed as Randia faveodehiscens Elmer) (A, L, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, forest along a ridge at 1000ft, May-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), SAMAR. Lowland primary forests.
  4. Aidia foveata Ridsdale, Blumea 41 (1996) 166; --Type from Sabah. Borneo (Kalimantan, Sarawak, Sabah) and Philippines. MINDANAO, RS Williams 2161.
  5. Aidia pulcherrima (Merr.) Ridsdale, Blumea 41 (1996) 173; --Gymnopachis pulcherrima (Merr.) Tirveng. in Tirveng. & Sastre, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., B, Adansonia, 4e sér., 8 (1986) 285; --Randia pulcherrima Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 164; EPFP 3 (1923) 528; --Lectotype (Tirvengandum & Sastre, 1986): Clemens 765; syntypes: FB 7863 (US), Elmer 9127 (A, L, NY, US). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon (Lucban; Mt Banahaw), Camarines, CATANDUANES, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Medium elevation primary forests. Photos
  6. Aidia racemosa (Cav.) Tirveng., Nord. J. Bot. (1983) 455; --Tirveng. & Sastre, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., B, Adansonia, 4e sér., 8 (1986) 262; --Ridsdale, Blumea 41 (1996) 149; --Petunga racemosa (Cav.) K.Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 44 (1891) 80; --Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 426; --Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1007; ibid. 4 (1912) 1345; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 533; --Randia racemosa Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 15, nom. nud.; Fl. Ind. ed. 2 (1824) 144; --Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 108; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 528; --Stylocoryna racemosa Cav. Icon. 4 (1798) 45, t. 368; --Type: Nee sn, 1793 (MA, cited but not seen by Ridsdale, 1996). --Petunga roxburghii DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 399; --Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1880) 120. Nicobar Isls, Peninsular Thailand, Vietnam, Hainan, Taiwan, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Christmas Is, New Guinea, Solomon Isls, Australia (Northern Territory; Queensland; Western Australia), Nauru, Samoa, Tonga, Wallis-Futuna Isls, Caroline Isls, Marianas, Marshall Isls. N LUZON (Cagayan) to PALAWAN and MINDANAO, in most islands and provinces. Chiefly in secondary forests at low elevation.

Amaracarpus Blume

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  1. Amaracarpus pubescens Blume, Bijdr. 16 (1826) 954.

Antherostele Bremek.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos

  1. Antherostele banahaensis (Elmer) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 27, 28; --Urophyllum banahaense Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 70; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) EPFP 522; --Type: Elmer 7746 ‘7946’ in the protologue (L, holo), Luzon: Quezon prov., Lucban, May-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela (Palanan), Rizal (Mt Lumutan), Quezon (Mt Binuang; Mt Banahaw de Lucban), Laguna (Mt Makiling), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan). In damp primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1000m. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  2. Antherostele callophylla Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 29; --Type: BS 33326 Ramos (A, holo), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Mt Palimlim. Aug-1918. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Mt Palimlim). Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  3. Antherostele grandistipula (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 30; --Urophyllum grandistipulum Merr. PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 61; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) EPFP 522; --Type: BS 15372 Ramos (US, holo), Leyte: Leyte prov., mountains near Dagami, in forests, 13-Aug-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, MINDORO, CATANDUANES, LEYTE: Leyte (Mtns near Dagami), Southern Leyte (Cabalian), SAMAR: Catubig River. In damp primary forests at low or medium elevation. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  4. Antherostele luzoniensis (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 30; --Urophyllum luzoniense Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 161; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) EPFP 523; --Type: BS 26522 Ramos & Edaño (US, holo; A, iso), Luzon: Aurora prov., Mt Dingalan, in forest, elevation at least 300m, 8-Sep-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela (Mt Moises), Aurora (Mt Dingalan). Primary forests, probably above 300m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  5. Antherostele samarensis Obico & Alejandro, Phytotaxa 104 (2013) 54; --Type: Obico & Alejandro 25107 (USTH, holo; L, NY, PUH, US, iso), Samar: Mt. Sohoton foothills, Basey, Barangay Guirang, Sitio Wespal. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO, SAMAR: Basey. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos

Antirhea Comm. ex Juss.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos

  1. Antirhea attenuata (Elmer) Chaw in Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 28 (1992) 75; --Timonius attenuatus Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 34; --Type: FB 1867 Ahern’s Collector (NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Rizal prov., Bosoboso, Sep-1904. --Antirhea hexasperma (Roxb.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 540; --Guettardella hexasperma (Roxb.) ME Jansen, Blumea 29 (1984) 575. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Rizal, Batangas, Camarines. Lowland forests.
  2. Antirhea benguetensis (Elmer) Valeton, Beih Bot. Centralbl. 34, 2, (1916) 44, in obs.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 540; --Timonius benguetensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 35; --Type: Elmer 6396 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Twin Peaks, on bluffs along Bued Rivers, May-1904. --Guettardella microphylla (Bartl. ex DC) ME Jansen, Blumea 29 (1984) 577; --Antirhea microphylla sensu Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 540, pro parte. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Rizal. Low elevation thickets or forests, c. 300m.
  3. Antirhea bombysia Chaw in Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 28 (1992) 78; --Type: PNH 12400 Sulit (L, holo), Palawan: Victoria Mtns, SE slopes, stunted ridge forest, 1000m, 18-May-1950. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN: Victoria Mtns. Ridge forest, presumably on ultramafics.
  4. Antirhea caudata (ME Jansen) Chaw in Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 28 (1992) 80; --Guettardella caudata ME Jansen, Blumea, 29 (1984) 572; --Type: PNH 12315 Sulit (L, holo; iso L), Palawan: Victoria Mtns, SE base, dense forest along Karaniogan River, 100m, 10-May-1950. --Antirhea philippinensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1009; ibid. 4 (1912) 1329, non Rolfe. --Guettardella microphylla (Bartl. ex DC) ME Jansen, Blumea, 29 (1984) 577. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN.
  5. Antirhea edanoi Chaw in Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 28 (1992) 83; --Type: BS 44015 Ramos & Edaño (NY, iso), Tawi-tawi, Jul/Aug-1924. --Antirhea livida Merr. EPFP 3 (1923) 540, pro parte. Endemic to the Philippines. SULU.
  6. Antirhea foveolata Chaw in Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 28 (1992) 85. --Antirhea microphylla sensu Merr. (1923) non Bartl. ex DC. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON.
  7. Antirhea livida Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1327; --Type: Elmer 12768 (BISH, L, NA, NY, U, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (=Thumb Peak), ‘good moist soil with gravelly subsoil in humid woods or forests along the river at 250ft’, Apr-1911. --Guettardella livida (Elmer) ME Jansen, Blumea 29 (1984) 576. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  8. Antirhea microphylla (Bartl. ex DC) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 540; --Guettardella microphylla (Bartl. ex DC) ME Jansen, Blumea 29 (1984) 577. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON.
  9. Antirhea paxillata Chaw in Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 28 (1992) 100. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mt Babatgin.
  10. Antirhea philippinensis (Benth.) Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. 21 (1884) 312; --Guettardella philippinensis Benth. in Hook., Kew J. 4 (1852) 197. Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL.
  11. Antirhea ramosii Chaw in Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 28 (1992) 103; --Type: BS 46597 Ramos & Edaño (NY, iso), Luzon: Cagayan prov., Peñablanca, Apr-1926. Antirhea microphylla sensu Merr. (1923), pro parte, non Bartl. ex DC. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON.
  12. Antirhea surigaoensis Salamanes & Alejandro, Acta Botanica Gallica: Botany Letters (2015) 1; --Type: Lemana, Manaig, Salamanes & Santos 13-908 (PNH, holo; PNH, USTH, iso), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, Bucas Grande Island, Socorro, 20 m, 20-May-2013. Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, DINAGAT. Conservation status: CR B2ab(iii) (Salamanes et al. 2015).
  13. Antirhea tayabensis Chaw in Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 28 (1992) 109; --Type: BS 28869 Ramos & Edaño (NY, holo), Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Binuang, May-1917. --Antirhea livida Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 540, pro parte, non Elmer (1912), as to BS 28514, 28869 & 28982 Ramos & Edaño. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON.
  14. Antirhea ternata Chaw in Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 28 (1992) 113. Endemic to the Philippines. SIARGAO. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).

Anthocephalus A.Rich. = Neolamarckia

Argostemma Wall.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos

  1. Argostemma arachnosum Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 465; EPFP 3 (1923) 504; --Type: BS 36830 Ramos & Edaño. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Along streams at low elevation.
  2. Argostemma distichum Valeton, Nova Guinea 8 (1911) 447. Endemic to the Philippines.
  3. Argostemma maquilingense Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3242; --Type: Elmer 17637 (PNH, holo, lost; iso BISH, L, MO, NY, US), Luzon: Laguna prov., Mt Makiling, Jun/Jul-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna (Mt Makiling), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan). Synonym of Argostemma bryophilum K.Schum.?
  4. Argostemma neesianum Walp., Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 349; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 503; --Type: FB 3368 Ahern’s Collector. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna. On damp shaded ledges and banks along small streams at low elevation.
  5. Argostemma rupestrinum Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3244; --Type: Elmer 16175 (PNH, holo, lost; iso MO, NY, US), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan, May-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon.
  6. Argostemma pedicellatum Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3243. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, LEYTE, MINDANAO. Along shaded streams and in dense forests at medium elevation, ascending to 1200m. Synonym of Argostemma timorense Benn.?
  7. Argostemma solaniflorum Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 2; --Merr. PJS 2 (1907) Bot. 305, 3 (1908) Bot. 436; --Type: Elmer 6211 (US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Sablan, damp shady streambanks, Apr 1904. Ryukyus, Taiwan, Lanyu, and the Philippines. BATAN ISLS; N LUZON and MINDANAO and the SULU Archipelago. Chiefly in the mossy forest at and above an elevation of 900m, but also along mountain streams at lower elevation. According to Merrill (1923), not certainly distinct from the Malayan A. montanum Blume. Photos
  8. Argostemma stenophyllum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 100; EPFP 3 (1923) 504; --Type: BS 20566 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., San Antonio, on rocks along the river, 10-Mar-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, CATANDUANES. On damp banks along shaded streams at low or medium elevation.
  9. Argostemma wallichii Walp., Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 350; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 504. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Batangas. On damp banks and cliffs along small shaded streams at low elevation.

Unplaced

  1. Argostemma umbellatum Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3245, nom. illeg., non Geddes, 1927.

Atractocarpus Schltr. & K.Krause

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

No Photos
  1. Atractocarpus obscurinervius (Merr.) Puttock, Austral. Syst. Bot. 12 (1999) 304; --Sulitia obscurinervia (Merr.) Ridsdale, Blumea 25 (1979) 301; --Gardenia obscurinervia Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 32; EPFP 3 (1923) 531; --Type: BS 23492 Ramos (A, L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Pocdal, 1-Aug-1915. --Sulitia longiflora Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 494; --Type: FB 29445 Sulit, Mindanao: Sultan Kudarat (formerly part of a bigger Cotabato) prov., near Lebak, Apr/May-1903. Reportedly epiphytic. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, CATANDUANES, MINDANAO: Sultan Kudarat. In primary forest at low elevation. Wong (2004) argues that this species is best placed in Sulitia. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11).

Badusa A.Gray

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

No Photos
  1. Badusa corymbifera (G.Forst.) A.Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 4 (1860) 308; --Soejarto et al., Taxon 45: 487-492. --Badusa philippica (Cav.) Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1888) 150; --Type: Nees s.n., prope Manila in Sta. Cruz de Laguna (not traced in MA). New Guinea to SW Pacific, Philippines.
  2. Badusa palawanensis Ridsdale, Blumea 28 (1982) 146; --Type: PNH 80766 HG Gutierrez & RA Espiritu (L), Palawan: Palawan prov., Quezon, Lipuun Point, rocky summit of limestone hill, 500ft, 24-Mar-1963. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN: Quezon, Lipuun Point. Rocky summit of limestone hill. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11).

Benkara Adans.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Benkara emanuelssoniana (Ridsdale) Ridsdale, Reinwardtia 12 (2008) 298; --Fagerlindia emanuelssoniana Ridsdale, Blumea 31 (1985) 243, t. 2; --Type: SMHI 1238 J Dransfield (L, holo), Palawan: Km 36, Puerto Princesa to Roxas, (erroneously cited in protologue as Mt Victoria). Extremely degraded forest on ultramafic rocks, 10m, 12-May-1984. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Apparently restricted to ultramafic rocks.
  2. Benkara fasciculata (Roxb.) Ridsdale, Reinwardtia 12 (2008) 298.
  3. Benkara microcarpa (Bartl. ex DC.) Ridsdale, Reinwardtia 12 (2008) 299; --Fagerlindia microcarpa (Bartl. ex DC) Ridsdale, Blumea 31 (1985) 243; --Randia microcarpa (Bartl. ex DC) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 527, comb. Illeg., non Sessé & Mociño (1888); --Type: Haenke sn (G-DC). --Randia cumingiana Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 179; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 153; --Merr., Philip. Bur. Forestry Bull. 1 (1903) 53; PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 130; Fl. Manila (1912) 449; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 32; --Type: Cuming 1366 (L, lecto); Syntypes: Vidal 388 (L), Herb. Propr. 39. --Randia ticaensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 245; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 528; --Type: BS 12547 Rosenbluth (US, iso), Ticao: Linadlaran Point, on steep hillside, c. 30m, 24-Dec-1908. Endemic to the Philippines. TICAO. Lowland forests. LUZON: widespread, in most provinces, GOLO, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Lowland thickets and secondary forests, common. (Merr., 1923)
  4. Benkara scandens (Thunb.) Ridsdale, Reinwardtia 12 (2008) 300.

Bikkia Reinw.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos

  1. Bikkia montoyae Mejillano, Santor & Alejandro, Philippine Science Letters 7 (2014) 92; --Type: Mejillano, Santor & Alejandro 11-082 (USTH, holo; PNH, CMUH, iso), Dinagat, Loreto, Mt. Redondo, 22-May-2011. Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT. Inland on ultramafic soils. Conservation status: Critically Endangered C2a(i) (Alejandro et al., 2014; DAO 2017-11). Photos
  2. Bikkia philippinensis Valeton, PJS 23 (1923) 6; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 492. Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU, SULU ARCHIPELAGO (SIBUTU), MINDANAO: Surigao. In thickets along the seashore. Conservation status: Critically Endangered C2a(i) (Alejandro et al., 2014; DAO 2017-11). Photos

Boholia Merr.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Boholia nematostylis Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 493; --Type: BS 43107 (A, US, iso), Bohol: Bilar, damp forest, c. 600m, Aug-1923. Sumatra, Lesser Sunda Island and C Philippines. BOHOL (Bilar; Kalingohan), CEBU (photos by Pelser & Barcelona). Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos

Borreria G.Mey. =Spermacoce

Caelospermum Blume = Coelospermum Blume

Canthium Lam.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos

  1. Canthium arboreum (Blanco) Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 119, 181; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 155; --Ronabea arborea Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 114; idem. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 204; --Syntype: Cuming 776 (L, NY), Luzon: Quezon prov. Philippines, N Sulawesi. LUZON: Quezon.
  2. Canthium bipinnatum (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 53; --Ronabea bipinnata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 162; --Type: not extant; “Illustrative specimen”: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 248, leg. M Ramos (US), Luzon: Rizal prov., Antipolo, 19-Jan-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal.
  3. Canthium brunneum (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 7; --Plectronia brunnea Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 441; EPFP 3 (1923) 535; --Type: BS 28791 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Binuang, May-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Camarines. Mossy forest, c. 1000m.
  4. Canthium confertum Korth., Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2 (1851) 235; --KM Wong in FS Ng (ed.) Tree Fl. Malaya 4 (1989) 342. Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and Philippines.
  5. Canthium culionense (Elmer) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 7; --Plectronia culionensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP (1923) 535; --Lasianthus culionensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 11; --Type: Merrill 615 (NY, US, iso), Culion: Halsey, in dry forests, Dec-1902. Endemic to the Philippines. CULION. Lowland dry secondary forests and thickets.
  6. Canthium edanoi ined.; --Canthium longistipulum Merr. & Quisumb., non Merr., Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 7 (1937) 291; --Type: PNH 151 Edaño (L), Palawan: Brookes Point, Mantalingahan Range, Mt Balabag, mossy forest, 1573m, 13-May-1947. PALAWAN: Brookes Point, Mt Mantalingahan.
  7. Canthium ellipticum (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; --Plectronia elliptica Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) 166; EPFP 3 (1923) 536; --Type: BS 29594 Ramos & Edaño. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija, Rizal. Medium elevation forests.
  8. Canthium fenicis (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; --Plectronia fenicis Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 166; EPFP 3 (1923) 536; --Type: BS 12693 Fenix, Luzon: Benguet prov., Sablan, growing on slopes, 23-Nov-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Tayabas, CEBU (Danao). Medium elevation secondary forests.
  9. Canthium glandulosum (Blanco) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; --Plectronia glandulosa (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 365; EPFP 3 (1923) 536; --Ixora glandulosa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 61; --Type: none extant; ‘illustrative specimen’: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 897 (US), --Polyozus bipinnatus Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 43; ibid. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 79; --Type: none extant; ‘illustrative specimen’: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 897 (US), --Plectronia viridis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 131; --Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1008; --Type: Merrill 3945 (US, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Mar-1905. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Bataan, Rizal, Quezon, MINDORO, SIBUYAN, NEGROS, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation forests.
  10. Canthium horridum Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 966; --KM Wong in FS Ng (ed.). Tree Fl. Malaya 4 (1989) 341; --Plectronia horrida (Blume) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Kurz in J. As. Soc. Beng. 46, 2 (1877) 153; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 537. --Canthium pauciflorum Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 165; --Type: not extant. ‘Illustrative specimen’: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 143 (US), Burma, Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan, Zambales, Bulacan, Rizal, Camarines, Sorsogon. Lowland dry thickets. Photos
  11. Canthium leytense (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; --Plectronia leytensis Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) 166; EPFP 3 (1923) 537; --Type: BS 15383 Ramos (US, iso), Leyte: Leyte prov., mountains back of Dagami, in the mossy forest, Aug-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (E coast), LEYTE. Primary forests, probably at c. 1000m.
  12. Canthium megacarpum (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; --Plectronia megacarpa Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 326; EPFP 3 (1923) 537; --Type: FB 8232 Curran & Merritt (US, iso), Luzon: Zambales prov., near Sta Cruz, 100m, Dec-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Zambales, Quezon. Lowland forests.
  13. Canthium merrillianum Mabb., Taxon 26 (1977) 532; --Canthium cordatum (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 7, nom illeg., non Dillwyn, 1839; --Plectronia cordata Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 166; EPFP 3 (1923) 535; --Type: BS 26549 Ramos & Edaño (A, US, iso), Luzon: Aurora prov., Mt Dingalan, Aug/Sep-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora. Forested slopes, c. 2000m.
  14. Canthium mite Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 474; --Plectronia mitis (Bartl. ex DC.) Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 28. Endemic to the Philippines.
  15. Canthium oblongifolium Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 200; --Type: BS 46109 Edaño (NY, US, iso), Panay: Capiz prov., Haman-ay, forested slopes at low elevation, 13-Oct-1925. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY: Capiz. Lowland forest.
  16. Canthium paucinervium (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; --Plectronia paucinervia Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 51; EPFP 3 (1923) 538; --Type: Merrill 8263, Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River mtns back of San Ramon, in damp forest, c. 900m, 29-Nov-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, BUCAS GRANDE. Mossy forest, c. 900m at the type locality. Possibly at lower elevation elsewhere.
  17. Canthium pedunculare Cav., Icon. 5 (1799) 21, t. 436; --Plectronia peduncularis (Cav.) Vidal, Cat. Pl. Prov. Manila (1880) 33; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 28; idem. 4 (1912) 1346; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 131; idem. 8 c (1913) Bot. 50; Fl. Manila (1912) 454; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 364; EPFP 3 (1923) 538. --Canthium monoflorum Blanco, Fl. Filip (1837) 166; --Type: not extant; ‘Illustrative specimen’: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 380 (US), Palawan: Taytay, dry thickets and open places, May 1913 Plectronia lycioides (A Rich.) Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 28; --Canthium lycioides A Rich., Mém. Rub. (1830) 108. LUZON: Pangasinan, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, PALAWAN. Lowland dry thickets. Photos
  18. Canthium sarcocarpum (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 9; --Plectronia sarcocarpa Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 114; EPFP 3 (1923) 539; --Type: BS 10968 Ramos, Luzon: Laguna prov., San Antonio, in thickets, Aug-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon. Lowland forests.
  19. Canthium subcapitatum (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 9; --Plectronia subcapitata Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 443; EPFP 3 (1923) 539; --Type: BS 28117 Fenix (L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Apayao prov., Ngagan, on forested slopes, 10-May-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao. Medium elevation forests.
  20. Canthium trichophorum Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 201; --Type: BS 46759 Ramos & Edaño (A, NY, iso), Luzon: Isabela prov., San Mariano, Ambulawan, along forested streams, c. 400m, 16-Mar-1926. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela (San Mariano, Ambulawan; Mt Moises). Along forested streams, 400-900m.
  21. Canthium villarii Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 120, 182. Endemic to the Philippines.

Ceriscoides (Hook.f.) Tirveng.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Ceriscoides curranii (Merr.) Tirveng., Nordic J. Bot. 3 (1983) 456; --Gardenia curranii Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 363. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan, Bataan, Rizal, Batangas. In thickets and forests at low elevation.

Chassalia Comm. ex Juss.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Chassalia curviflora (Wall.) Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeylan. (1859) 150; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 3; idem. 3 (1911) 1033; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 565; --Psychotria curviflora Wall. in Roxb. Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 167; --Type: from Sri Lanka. --Chasalia lurida (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 282; --Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 140; --Psychotria lurida Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 959; --Type: from Java. India, Sri Lanka, E Himalayas, Bangladesh, Nicobar Isls, Burma, Thailand, Borneo, Philippines. MINDORO, PALAWAN, BALABAC, TICAO, BANTON, SIBUYAN, PANAY, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Cotabato, BALUT. Lowland primary forests.
  2. Chassalia obscurinervia Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1033; --Type: Elmer 11200 (BISH, GH, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur prov., Mt Apo, Todaya, ‘dry forests of fertile soil along the Sibulan River and the Baracatan Creek from 1250-2500ft’, Jul-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur (Mt Apo).

Coelospermum Blume

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Coelospermum volubile (Merr.) J.T.Johansson, Blumea 33 (1988) 281, Fig. 11; --Morinda volubilis (Blanco) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 137; EPFP 3 (1923) 574; --Type: FB 2290 Meyer (K, lecto; F, NY, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, Dec-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales, Bataan, Laguna, CATANDUANES, MINDORO. Lowland secondary forests to above 100m. Fl. Jul, Aug, Dec. Photos

Coprosma J.R.Forst & G.Forst.: see Nertera

Coffea L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 August 2013

Photos
  1. Coffea mabesae (Elmer) J-F Leroy, J. Agric. Trop. Bot. Appl. 9 (1962) 419; --Plectronia mabesae Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3099; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 537; --Psilanthus mabesae (Elmer) J-F Leroy, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., B, Adansonia 3 (1981, publ. 1982) 256; --Canthium mabesae (Elmer) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; --Type: Elmer 17427 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., Montalban, Mar-1917. --Canthium lycioides A.Rich. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 475; --Plectronia lycioides (A.Rich. ex DC.) Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 28. Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Queensland (Torres Strait Isls). LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, PANAY. Lowland secondary forests and thickets.

Coptosapelta Korth.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Coptosapelta flavescens Korth., Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2(2) (1851) 113.
  2. Coptosapelta olaciformis (Merr.) Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1856; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 507; --Randia olaciformis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 163. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, LEYTE, MINDANAO. In primary forests at low and medium elevation. Photos

Cowiea Wernham

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Cowiea philippinensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 459; EPFP 3 (1923) 533; --Type: BS 36819. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Damp forests along streams at low elevation.

Damnacanthus C.F.Gaertn.

Photos
  1. Damnacanthus indicus Gaertn., Fruct. 3 (1805) 18, t. 182. India (Assam), Bangladesh, Burma, S China, Taiwan, C & S Japan, Korea (Cheju Do), Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (Mt Banahaw). On forested slopes, 1400-2000m. Photos

Debia Neupane & N.Wikstr.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 May 2015

No Photos

  1. Debia ovatifolia (Cav.) Neupane & N.Wikstr., Taxon 64 (2015) 315; --Oldenlandia ovatifolia (Cav.) DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 427; --Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 46; EPFP 3 (1923) 494; --Hedyotis ovatifolia Cav., Icon. 6 (1801) 52, t. 573, Fig. 1; --Type: Cavinellus s.n. (MA, lecto), Manila. --Oldenlandia nudicaulis Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. (1821) 95; --Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 107; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 20; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 127. Sri Lanka, India, W & E Himalayas, Nepal, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Laguna, MINDANAO: Davao. Lowland grasslands and clearings.

Dentella J.R.Forst & G.Forst.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 August 2013

No Photos
  1. Dentella repens (L.) Forst., Char. Gen. (1776) 26, t. 13; –Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 447, EPFP 3 (1923) 492; --Oldenlandia repens L., Mant. 1 (1767) 40. Mauritius, Sri Lanka, India, E Himalayas, Bangladesh, S China, Taiwan, Burma, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, Northern Territory, Queensland, New Caledonia. Throughout the Philippines in open waste places in and about towns at low and medium elevation. Introduced in Mexico.

Dimetia (Wight & Arn.) Meisn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Dimetia capitellata (Wall. ex G.Don) Neupane & Wikstr., Taxon 64 (2015) 315; --Hedyotis capitellata Wall. ex G.Don, Gen. Hist. 3 (1834) 527; --Oldenlandia capitellata (Wall. ex G Don) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 292. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11 as Hedyotis capitellata Wall. ex G.Don). Photos

Diplospora DC.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Diplospora fasciculiflora (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 113; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 534; --Tricalysia fasciculiflora (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 13; EPFP 3 (1923) 534, pro parte.; --Randia fasciculiflora Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 4; --Type: Elmer 6900 (NY, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Nov-1904. --Tricalysia fasciculiflora (Elmer) Merr. var. oblongifolia Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 534; --Type: FB 1117 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., Bosoboso, Jul-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Batangas, Quezon, Camarines, CULION, PALAWAN, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Cotabato. Low and medium elevation primary forests, ascending to 1600m. Photos
  2. Diplospora puberula (Merr.) Ali & Robbrecht, Blumea 35 (1991) 299; --Tricalysia puberula Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 113; EPFP 3 (1923) 535; --Type: BS 20431 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., San Antonio, Feb-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Laguna, CATANDUANES. Lowland primary forests, ascending to 300m.
  3. Diplospora sessilis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1329; --Type: Elmer 13139 (L, NY, US, iso); --Tricalysia sessilis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 535. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. On gravel bar along Iwahig River, c. 150m. Photos
  4. Diplospora sorsogonensis (Elmer) A.P.Davis, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 157 (2008) 121; --Tricalysia sorsogonensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3269, note by L.L. Co: "not validly published, no Latin descr. --Voucher: Elmer 17164 (iso in NY), in Hypobathreae. Generic position yet to be determined. Although in habit very similar to Tricalysia, fruit characters (pendulous seeds with superior embryo radicle, folded exotesta with elongated cells thickened along radial walls) leave no doubt about the placement in Hypobathreae. –Ali & Robbrecht, op. cit."; --Type according to Ruhsam et al. (2008): Elmer 17261, Luzon, Sorsogon, Irosin (Mt. Bulusan), 1916. Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  5. Diplospora tinagoensis (Elmer) Ali & Robbrecht, Blumea 35 (1991) 299; --Tricalysia tinagoensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 34; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 535; --Type: Ahern 417, leg. Quadras (US, iso), Tinago Island, Mar-May 1901. --Phaleria axillaris Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2840. NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao del Sur, Agusan del Norte, DINAGAT, TINAGO. Low and medium elevation primary forests, ascending to 900m. Photos

Generic position to be determined:

  1. Diplospora negrosensis (Elmer) ined.; --Tricalysia negrosensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 518; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 535; --Type: Elmer 9685 NEGROS. Primary forests, c. 1050m. Presumably to be placed in Diplospora sensu str. (fide Ali & Robbrecht, Blumea 35 (1991) 303). 

Discospermum Dalzell

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Discospermum philippinensis Arriola & Alejandro, Phytotaxa 206 (2015) 44; --Type: Arriola T016 (PNH, holo; PNH, USTH, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Tayabas, Mt. Banahaw, 623 m.a.s.l., 11-Feb-2010. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Conservation status: CR-D (Arriola & Alejandro 2015).
  2. Discospermum whitfordii (Elmer) Ali & Robbrecht, Blumea 35 (1991) 301; 302; --Randia whitfordii (Elmer) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 130; EPFP 3 (1923) 529; --Gardenia whitfordii Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 4; --Type: Elmer 6643 (NY, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, common in the woods at 600m, Nov-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Rizal, Sorsogon, PALAWAN.

Dolicholobium A.Gray

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Dolicholobium philippinense Trelease, LPB 3 (1911) 984; --Jansen & Ridsdale, Blumea 29 (1983) 278. --Dolicholobium hirsutum Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3247. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, SIBUYAN, SAMAR. In rainforest understorey, but often in more open situations like streambanks or exposed ridges; on well-drained to swampy soils, sea level to 1500(-1900)m.

Exallage Bremek.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

No Photos
  1. Exallage angustifolia (DC.) Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Sect. 2, 48(2) (1952) 142; --Metabolos angustifolius DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 436. --Hedyotis bartlingii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 388; EPFP 3 (1923) 495; --Type: Haenke s.n. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Bulacan, Quezon, MINDORO, PANAY. Open places at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1300m.
  2. Exallage auricularia (L.) Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Tweede Sect. 48(2) (1952) 142; --Oldenlandia auricularia (L.) K.Schum. in HGA Engler & KAE Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(4) (1891) 25; --Metabolus auricularius (L.) Blume ex Bremek., Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Rijks Univ. Utrecht 56 (1939) 439; --Hedyotis auricularia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 101; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 495.
  3. Exallage buruensis (Miq.) Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Tweede Sect. 48(2) (1952) 142; --Spermacoce buruensis Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1869) 261.  --Hedyotis buruensis (Miq.) Valeton ex Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 496. Hedyotis magallanensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 976; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 498; --Type: Elmer 12205. Hedyotis parva Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 162; --Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 975; --Type: Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Ambon, Buru). SIBUYAN, PANAY. Low elevation forests, ascending to 400m.
  4. Exallage perhispida (Elmer) Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Sect. 2. 48(2) (1952) 142; --Hedyotis perhispida Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1333; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 498; --Lasianthus hispidus Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 10, non H. hispida Retz; --Type: Merrill 767 (NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Ewiig (= Iwahig) River, Feb-1903. Exallage perhispida (Elmer) Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Tweede Sect. 48(2) (1952) 142. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN (Iwahig River; Thumb Peak). Lowland streamside thickets or gravelly creeks, up to c. 75m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  5. Exallage radicans (Bartl. ex DC.) Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Sect. 2, 48(2) (1952) 142 (1952); --Hedyotis radicans (Bartl. ex DC.) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 181; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 499; --Metabolos radicans Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 435; --Oldenlandia radicans (Bartl. ex DC.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 292; --Type: Haenke s.n. BATANES, LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, Sorsogon, PANAY, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte. Low elevation forests.

Galium L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos

  1. Galium elegans Wall. ex Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 382. Himalaya to Taiwan and Java, Philippines.
  2. Galium innocuum Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 341. Tropical and subtropical Asia, Philippines?
  3. Galium philippinense Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 238; ibid. 5 c (1910) Bot. 391; --Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1046; --Type: Elmer 6557. --Galium ciliare Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 4, non Hook.f. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Open grassy slopes, 1600-2400m. Photos
  4. Galium subtrifidum Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. 16 (1826) 944. Galium gaudichaudii DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 607; Benth. Fl. Austral. 3 (1866) 446; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 4; --Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 391; EPFP 3 (1923) 575. N Sumatra, Java, N Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls (Buru), New Guinea. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. On rocks, ledges, and open banks, 1300-2000m.

Gardenia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos

  1. Gardenia barnesii Merr., Publ. Govt. Lab. (Philipp.) 17 (1904) 47; --Type: FB 163 Barnes (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov., Lamao River, Jan-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan. Photos
  2. Gardenia elata Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 79: 81 (1918). Photos
  3. Gardenia mutabilis Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1016. --Gardenia ramosii Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 489; --Type: BS 43323 Ramos (A, iso), Bohol. BOHOL. Photos
  4. Gardenia ornata K.M.Wong, Edinburgh J. Bot. 68 (2011) 25. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  5. Gardenia vulcanica K.M.Wong, Edinburgh J. Bot. 68 (2011) 26. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon (Mt. Bulusan). Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).

Doubtful name (Wong & Low, 2012)

  1. Gardenia pseudopsidium (Blanco) Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 109; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 531; --Sulipa pseudopsidium Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 497; -- --Gardenia segmenta Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1331; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 531; --Type: Elmer 13153 (A, L, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Mt Pulgar. May 1911. --Gardenia megalocarpa Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 463; EPFP 3 (1923) 530; --Type: BS 38919 Ramos (A, US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental prov., Paluan. In forest at low elevation, Apr 1921. LUZON: Cagayan, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Tarlac, Rizal, Bataan, Batangas, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, PALAWAN, MASBATE, NEGROS, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Davao. In primary forest at low elevation, common. 

Non-naturalized cultivated species

  1. Gardenia jasminioides (L.) Ellis, Philos. Trans. 51 (1761) 935. Gardenia Auga (L ) Merr., Interp. Herb. Amb. (1917) 485; EPFP (1923) 531. Gardenia florida L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 305;--Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 449. Cultivated for ornamental purposes, but nowhere spontaneous. Only the double-flowered form occurs in the Philippines. Photos
  2. Gardenia philastrei Pierre ex Pit. in Lecomte et al. (ed.) Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1923) 253.

Geophila D.Don

Photos
  1. Geophila repens (L.) IM Johnst., Sargentia 8 (1949) 281; --Geocardia repens (L.) Bakh.f. in CA Backer & RC Bakhuizen van der Brink, Bekn. Fl. Java 15(173) (1956) 144; --Carinta repens (L.) LB Sm. & Downs, Sellowia 7 (1956) 88; --Psychotria repens (L.) L., Amoen. Acad. 5 (1760) 377; --Rondeletia repens L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 928. --Geophila herbacea (Jacq.) K.Schum. in HGA Engler & KAE Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(4) (1891) 119; --Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 300; --Merr. EPFP 3 (1923) 565. --Geocardia herbacea (Jacq.) Standl., Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 17 (1914) 445; --Carinta herbacea (Jacq.) W.Wight, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 9 (1905) 216; --Mapouria herbacea (Jacq.) Muell.-Arg. in CFP von Martius & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Bras. 6(5) (1881) 427; --Cephaelis herbacea (Jacq.) Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 46(2) (1877) 140; --Psychotrophum herbaceum (Jacq.) Crantz, Inst. Rei Herb. 2 (1766) 259; --Psychotria herbacea Jacq., Enum. Syst. Pl. (1760) 16. Pantropic. BATAN, LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, BALABAC, BILIRAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO, BASILAN, SULU. Chiefly in forest at low elevation. Photos

Greeniopsis Merr.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Greeniopsis discolor Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 163; --EPFP 3 (1923) 504; --Type: BS 26448 Ramos & Edaño. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija. In primary forest at or above 300m elevation. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  2. Greeniopsis euphlebia Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 319; --EPFP 3 (1923) 504; --Type: BS 35134 Ramos & Pascasio. Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE. Lowland open forests. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  3. Greeniopsis megalantha Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 164; --EPFP 3 (1923) 505; --Type: BS 34587 Ramos & Pascasio. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Low and medium elevation forests. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  4. Greeniopsis multiflora (Elmer) Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 325; --Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 981; --EPFP 3 (1923) 505; --Mussaendopsis multiflora Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 14; --Type: FB 490 JF Quadras. Dinagat, Mar/May-1905. --Greeniopsis philippinensis Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 324; --EPFP 3 (1923) 505; --Type: Merrill 5216 (L 2 sheets, NY, US, iso), Samar: Eastern Samar prov., Borongan, along border of a nipa swamp, Oct-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Camarines, Sorsogon, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Surigao, DINAGAT. Low elevation forests. Often on ultramafics. Photos
  5. Greeniopsis pubescens Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 230; --EPFP 3 (1923) 505. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  6. Greeniopsis sibuyanensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 982. Endemic to the Philippines.

Guettarda L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Guettarda hermosa Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 499. Endemic to the Philippines.
  2. Guettarda speciosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 991; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 450, Tropical Asia and Australia to Polynesia. Throughout the Philippines along seashore. Photos

 Guettardella Champ. & Benth. =Antirhea

 Gynopachis Blume =Aidia

Gynochthodes Blume

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Gynochthodes alejandroi Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 297; --Morinda philippinensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1044; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 573; --Type: Elmer 12460 (A, holo; L, NY, US, iso). N Borneo, Philippines. MINDORO, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Lowland thickets and forests.
  2. Gynochthodes bartlingii (Elmer) Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 287; --Morinda bartlingii Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1340; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 572; --Type: Elmer 13037 (BISH, holo; F, NY, US, iso). Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Lowland thickets. According to Merrill (1923), very close to M. celebica Miq.
  3. Gynochthodes celebica (Miq.) Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 288; --Morinda celebica Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 246; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 572; --Type from Indonesia. Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. BUSUANGA, PALAWAN, SULU ARCHIPELAGO (UBIAN).
  4. Gynochthodes cochinchinensis (DC.) Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 288; --Morinda cochinchinensis DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 449; --Type: description of Morinda umbellata Lour., non L., Flora Cochinchinensis (1790) 140. --Morinda trichophylla Merr., PJS 23 (1923) 267; --Type: Yik Tsok Mau, 17 & 19-May-1922, McClure 8755 (A, holo; US, iso).
  5. Gynochthodes elliptifolia (Quisumb. & Merr.) Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 290; --Morinda elliptifolia Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 204; --Type: BS 48909 Ramos & Edaño (BR, holo; NY, iso). Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO.
  6. Gynochthodes elmeri (Merr.) Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 290; --Morinda elmeri Merr., University of California Publications in Botany 15 (1929) 297; --Type: Elmer 21114 (UC, holo; F, NY, S, ido), Philippines, near Tawao. Borneo?, Philippines.
  7. Gynochthodes lenticellata (C.B.Rob.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 571; --Tetralopha lenticellata C.B.Rob; --Type: FB 13689 Curran. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS. Lowland forests.
  8. Gynochthodes leonardii Chavez, Venturina & Alejandro, Phytotaxa 222 (2015) 68; --Type: Pineda & Dimatatac 012 (PNH, holo; USTH, FEUH, iso), Palawan: Narra, Mt. Victoria, along Trident Mining Company concession area, 24-May-2011. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: EN B1&2 ab(iii&v) (Chavez et al. 2015).
  9. Gynochthodes microcephala (Bartl. ex DC.) Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 292; --Morinda microcephala Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 449; --Type: T. Haenke s.n. (G-DC, holo). --Morinda microphylla D.Dietr., Syn. Pl. 1 (1839) 784. Endemic to the Philippines.
  10. Gynocthodes mindanaensis Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 425; EPFP 3 (1923) 571; --Type: BS 34677 Ramos & Pascasio. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao. Forests, 400-700m.
  11. Gynocthodes nigra (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 571; --Tetralopha nigra Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 58; --Type: BS 15877 Fenix (L, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., near Butuan, 30-Aug-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Lowland forests along streams.
  12. Gynochthodes nitida (Merr.) Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 293; --Morinda nitida Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 435; EPFP 3 (1923) 573; --Type: BS 35074 Ramos & Pascasio (A, holo; US, iso). Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE. Lowland dry forest.
  13. Gynochthodes parvifolia (Bartl. ex DC.) Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 293; --Morinda parvifolia Bartl. ex DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 499; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 573; --Type: T. Haenke s.n. (PR or PRC?, holo; MO, iso). --Morinda cumingiana Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 184; --Lucinaea cumingiana Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 216; --Type: H. Cuming 1242 (BM, holo; L, iso). SE China, Hainan, Taiwan, Vietnam, and the Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan. Lowland thickets.
  14. Gynochthodes philippinensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 571; --Tetralopha philippinensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1043; --Type: Elmer 12563. Endemic to the Philippines.
  15. Gynochthodes platyphylla (Merr.) Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 294; --Morinda platyphylla Merr., PJS 11 c (1920) Bot. 33; EPFP 3 (1923) 573; --Type: BS 23414 Ramos (A, holo; BISH, L, NY, US, iso). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Forest, c. 1000m.
  16. Gynochthodes polillensis (Hook.f.) Ruhsam, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 157 (2008) 121; --Tetralopha polillensis C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 226; --Type: Robinson BS 9064, Polillo, about 1.5 km south of the town. Endemic to the Philippines.
  17. Gynochthodes umbellata (L.) Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 296; --Morinda umbellata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 176; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 574; --Type: Herb. Hermann 3: 11, no. 81 (BM-000621833, lecto). --Morinda padavara Juss. ex Schult., Systema Vegetabilium 5 (1819) 216. --Morinda scandens Roxb., Flora of India 2 (1824) 201. --Morinda umbellata L. var. scortechinii King & Gamble, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Part 2. Natural History 73 (1904) 88; --Morinda scortechinii (King & Gamble) Ridl., Flora of the Malay Peninsula 2 (1923) 118. --Morinda umbellata L. var. tonkinensis Pit., in Lecomte H. & Humbert H., Flore Générale de l’ Indochine 3 (1924) 323. --Morinda umbellata L. var. accuminatissima Valeton, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61 (1927) 153. --Morinda boninensis Ohwi, Feddes Repertorium 36 (1934) 57; --Morinda umbellata L. var. boninensis (Ohwi) T.Yamaz., Journal of Japanese Botany 61 (1986) 343. --Morinda umbellata L. var. archboldiana Fosberg, Sargentia 1 (1942) 123; --Morinda umbellata L. var. forsteri Seem., Sargentia 1 (1942) 123. --Morinda umbellata L. var. hahazimensis T.Yamaz., Journal of Japanese Botany 61 (1986) 343. --Morinda umbellata L. var. obovata Y.Z.Ruan, Flora Republicae Popularis Sinicae 71 (1999) 325. Sri Lanka, India, S China, Hainan, Taiwan, Ryukyus, Thailand, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Isls, Australia (Queensland), Marianas, Samoa. LUZON: Cagayan, Zambales, Sorsogon, MINDORO, CULION. Lowland thickets and forests.
  18. Gynochthodes wongii Razafim. & B.Bremer, Adansonia 33 (2011) 297; --Morinda coriacea Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 435; EPFP 3 (1923) 573; --Type: BS 34439 Ramos & Pascasio (A, holo; US, iso). Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Lowland thickets and forests.

Hedyotis L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos

  1. Hedyotis atropurpurea Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 426; EPFP 3 (1923) 495; --Type: BS 28578 Ramos & Edaño. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (Mt Binuang). Forests, c. 1000m.
  2. Hedyotis bambusetorum Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 469; EPFP 3 (1923) 495; --Type: Merrill 9214. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Low elevation bamboo thickets along trails. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  3. Hedyotis benguetensis (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 976; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 496; --Oldenlandia benguetensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 18; --Type: Elmer 6243 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Sto Tomas, May-1904. Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Mountain Province, Benguet. Mossy forest, 1400-2400m. Photos
  4. Hedyotis brachyantha Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 427; EPFP 3 (1923) 496; --Type: BS 28769 Ramos & Edaño. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (Mt Binuang). Forested slopes, c. 200m.
  5. Hedyotis cagayanensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 231; EPFP 3 (1923) 496; --Type: BS 7502 Ramos. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan. Low elevation forests.
  6. Hedyotis camarinensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 468; EPFP 3 (1923) 496; --Type: BS BS 33604 Ramos & Edaño. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte (Paracale). Lowland clearings near thickets.
  7. Hedyotis cardiophylla Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 202; --Type: BS 45585 Ramos & Edaño. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quirino (Mt Alzapan).
  8. Hedyotis catanduanensis Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 428; EPFP 3 (1923) 496; --Type: BS 30443 Ramos. Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES. Low elevation primary forests.
  9. Hedyotis caudata Merr., PJS 8c (1913) Bot. 33; EPFP 3 (1923) 496; --Type: Loher 6419, without locality data. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Probably Rizal. Possibly from medium elevation forest.
  10. Hedyotis culasinensis Alejandro. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY.
  11. Hedyotis davaoensis Alejandro. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO.
  12. Hedyotis diffusissima Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 429, EPFP 3 (1923) 497; --Type: BS 28387 Fenix. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Apayao. Primary forests, c. 1000m.
  13. Hedyotis edanoi Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 203; --Type: BS 47327 Ramos & Edaño. LUZON: Isabela (Mt Moises).
  14. Hedyotis eucapitata Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 303; EPFP 3 (1923) 497; --Type: Merrill 5726. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon). Mossy forests, 1500-1800m.
  15. Hedyotis humilis Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 33; EPFP 3 (1923) 497; --Type: BS 14691 Ramos, Camiguin: Camiguin prov., Mt Mahinog, in mossy forests, Apr-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Mossy forests above 1000m.
  16. Hedyotis longipedunculata Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 430; EPFP 3 (1923) 498; --Type: BS 30551 Ramos. Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES. Low elevation forests along streams.
  17. Hedyotis luzoniensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 160; EPFP 3 (1923) 498; --Type: BS 26580 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Aurora (Mt Dingalan). Forests, at least 300m. Photos
  18. Hedyotis macgregorii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 160; EPFP 3 (1923) 498; --Type: BS 8490 McGregor (US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Pauai, Jun-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Mossy forest, c. 2100m.
  19. Hedyotis mindorensis Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 361, t. 25; --Type: BS 46363 Ramos (PNH, holo, possibly lost; iso in A), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Puerto Galera, forested slopes, 700m, Nov/Dec-1925. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Puerto Galera). Known only from the type collection.
  20. Hedyotis montana Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 304; EPFP 3 (1923) 498; --Type: Merrill 5782. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon). Open heaths, c. 2400m.
  21. Hedyotis oligantha Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 431; EPFP 3 (1923) 498; --Type: BS 29425 Ramos & Edaño. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Bataan, Pampanga, Rizal. Shaded banks in forests, 300-900m.
  22. Hedyotis papafranciscoi Alejandro. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY
  23. Hedyotis pauciflora Bartl. ex DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 419; --Scleromitrion pauciflorum (Bartl. ex DC.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 187. Endemic to the Philippines.
  24. Hedyotis phanerophlebia Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 34; EPFP 3 (1923) 499; --Type: FB 4552 Mearns & Hutchinson (US, iso), Mindanao: Misamis Occidental prov., Mt Malindang, in forests, c. 1800m, May-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental (Mt Malindang). Forest, c. 1700m.
  25. Hedyotis philippensis (Willd. ex Spreng.) Merr. ex C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 222; --Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 37; EPFP 3 (1923) 499; --Exallage philippensis (Willd. ex Spreng.) Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Tweede Sect. 48(2) (1952) 142; --Spermacoce philippensis Willd. ex Spreng., Syst. Veg. (ed. 16) 1 (1824) 401; --Type: ‘Malaspina’ (B-Willd.), Luzon: without definite locality.
  26. Hedyotis pilosissima Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 232; EPFP 3 (1923) 499; --Type: Merrill 6704, Panay: Capiz prov., Dumarao. Damp shaded ravines along streams, c. 100m, 25-Mar-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines Sur (Maagnas), Albay, CATANDUANES, PANAY, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Agusan, Zurriago del Norte. Lowland forests and damp ravines.
  27. Hedyotis rigida (Blume) Walp., Ann. Bot. Syst. 2 (1852) 772; --Exallage rigida (Blume) Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Tweede Sect. 48(2) (1952) 142; --Oldenlandia rigida (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 292, nom. illeg.; --Scleromitrion rigidum (Blume) Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 46(2) (1877) 136; --Hedyotis rigida (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 181, nom. illeg.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 500; Backer & Bakhuizen f., Fl. Java 2 (1963) 287; --Metabolus rigidus Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 992; --Type: from Java. --Hedyotis asperrima (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 495; --Hedyotis philippensis var. asperrima Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 38; --Type: Merrill 7252 (L, iso), Palawan: Malampaya Bay. --Hedyotis gitingensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 979; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 497, syn. nov.; --Type: Elmer 12434. --Hedyotis leucocarpa Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 524; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 500; --Type: Elmer 9434 (L, MO, NY, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, in damp soil of shaded woods, 4000ft, Mar 1908. --Hedyotis pulgarensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1333; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 499, syn. nov; --Type: Elmer 13212 (L, MO, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (= Thumb Peak), May 1911. E Himalayas, Assam, Bangladesh, Burma, Nicobar Isls, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Moluccas, New Guinea, Australia (Queensland). Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces: LUZON: Pangasinan, Benguet, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Bataan (Mt Mariveles), Pampanga (Mt Arayat), Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon, POLILLO, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, CULION, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN, PANAY, NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Kanlaon), Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), CAMIGUIN, BASILAN, MINDANAO: Lanao, Bukidnon, Surigao. Chiefly in low and medium elevation forests, thickets and grasslands, to 1000m, often common. Photos
  28. Hedyotis scaberrima Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 432; EPFP 3 (1923) 500; --Type: BS 30940 Ramos & Edaño (A, US, iso), Panay: Capiz prov., Jamindan, thickets along streams, 27-May-1918. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY: Capiz (Jamindan). Low elevation thickets along streams.
  29. Hedyotis sibuyanensis Elmer, LPB 3(1911) 977; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 500; --Type: Elmer 12311 (PNH, holo, lost; iso GH, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, Magallanes (= Magdiwang), clayey soil of a forested ridge, 1500ft, Apr-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN. Ridge forest, c. 450m.
  30. Hedyotis simplex Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 433; EPFP 3 (1923) 500; --Type: BS 30389 Ramos (US, iso), Catanduanes: in forests, Nov-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, BILIRAN (Mt Suiro), MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Primary forests, 300-600m.
  31. Hedyotis subvelutina Elmer, LPB 3(1911) 978; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 500; --Type: Elmer 12441. Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN. Streamside thickets, c. 225m.
  32. Hedyotis subvenosa Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 432; EPFP 3 (1923) 500; --Type: Weber 1563 (A, US, iso), Luzon: Cagayan prov., Abulug River, Jan-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan. Low and medium elevation forests, said to be common at 180-250m.
  33. Hedyotis trisecta Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3249; --Type: Elmer 14885 (PNH, holo, lost; MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan (Irosin). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon.
  34. Hedyotis whiteheadii Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 303; EPFP 3 (1923) 501; --Type: Merrill 5733 (US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Mt Halcon. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon). Dense mossy forests on exposed ridges, c. 2400m.

 Unplaced

  1. Hedyotis laxiflora Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 430, EPFP 3 (1923) 498, nom. illeg. non Walp. 1852; --Type: BS 30313 Ramos. CATANDUANES. Forested ravines, c. 400m.
  2. Hedyotis microphylla Merr., PJS 1 (1906) suppl. 239; EPFP 3 (1923) 498, nom. illeg., non Kunth (1820). –Merrill 4693 LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet. Mossy forests, 2000-2600m.
  3. Hedyotis pinatubensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3778; --Type: Elmer 22194 (MO, NY, iso), Luzon: Pampanga prov., Mt Pinatubo (Camp Stotsenburg). May-1927.

Hydnophytum Jack

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Hydnophytum angustifolium Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 162; EPFP 3 (1923) 568. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao del Sur. Epiphytic in forests, 200-600m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  2. Hydnophytum brachycladum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot.142; EPFP 3 (1923) 568. Type: BS 924 Mangubat. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Epiphytic in lowland forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  3. Hydnophytum formicarum Jack, Trans. Linn. Soc. 14 (1823) 124; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 568. Hydnopytum orbiculatum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1860; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 569; --Type: Elmer 14046 Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, POLILLO, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Mangrove to ridge forests c. 600m. Photos
  4. Hydnophytum intermedium Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1039; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 569; --Type: Elmer 10782. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur (Mt Apo). Epiphytic in damp forests, c. 1100m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  5. Hydnophytum leytense Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 390; EPFP 3 (1923) 569; --Type: Wenzel 45. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, LEYTE. Epiphytic in primary forests, 200 to 400m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11).
  6. Hydnophytum membranaceum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot.143; EPFP 3 (1923) 569; --Type: FB 3720 Merritt. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO, DINAGAT. On trees at low elevation, the type from the mangrove swamps. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  7. Hydnophytum mindanaense Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1039; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 569; --Type: Elmer 10874. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, Cotabato. Epiphytic in lowland forests, ascending to 450m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  8. Hydnophytum mindorense Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot.143; EPFP 3 (1923) 569; --Type: Merrill 6182. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, MINDORO. Epiphytic in primary lowland forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  9. Hydnophytum moseleyanum Becc., Malesia 2 (1884) 125. Philippines to N. Queensland.
  10. Hydnophytum nitidum Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 307; EPFP 3 (1923) 569; Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1039; --Type: Merrill 6181. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, MINDORO. Epiphytic in primary forests, 900-1400m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  11. Hydnophytum orbiculatum Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 5 (1913) 1860. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO.
  12. Hydnophytum philippinense Becc., Malesia 2 (1885) 149, t. 33, Fig.14-19; --Rolfe, J. Bot. 23 (1885) 213; --Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 158; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 7; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 569; --Type: RS Williams 2178. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao, Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte. Epiphytic in lowland forests, sometimes in mangroves. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11).

Hymenodictyon Wall.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 May 2017

Photos
  1. Hymenodictyon horsfieldii Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1856) 154; --Type from Indonesia. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan, Rizal, PALAWAN. Evergreen rainforests, up to 800m. Photos
  2. Hymenodictyon orixense (Roxb.) Mabb., Taxon 31 (1982) 66; --Cinchona orixensis Roxb., Bot. Descr. Swietenia (1793) 21; --Type from India. --Hymenodictyon excelsum (Roxb.) Wall. in Roxb. Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 149; -Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 506. Sri Lanka, W Himalayas, India, E Himalayas, Nepal, Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal. PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, MINDANAO: Davao; BASILAN. Deciduous lowland forest, frequently on limestone, often about cliffs near the sea, rarely apparently in lowland evergreen forest.

Hypobathrum Blume

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Hypobathrum coriaceum Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 490; --Type: BS 42615 (UC, holo; iso: A, US), Bohol: Bohol prov., Bilar. On forested slopes, c. 600m, Sep-1923. Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL. Medium elevation forest, c. 600m.
  2. Hypobathrum longifolium (DC) KM Wong in F Ng (ed.), Tree Fl. Malaya 4 (1989) 354; --Higginsia longifolia Blume ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 399; --Petunga longifolia DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 399; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 533. Peninsular Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, S Philippines, Sulawesi. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Lowland secondary forests.
  3. Hypobathrum multibracteatum Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3250; --Syntypes: Elmer 15925 (NY) May-1916; Elmer 15674 (NY), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON
  4. Hypobathrum purpureum (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 534; --Tricalysia purpurea Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 70. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, ALABAT, SAMAR, LEYTE. In primary forests at low and medium elevation. Photos
  5. Hypobathrum purpuricarpum (Elmer) Ridsdale, ined. Randia purpuricarpa Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3267. Endemic to the Philippines.

Involucrella (Benth. & Hook.f.) Neupane & N.Wikstr.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 May 2015

No Photos
  1. Involucrella coronaria (Kurz) Neupane & Wikstr., Taxon 64 (2015) 317; --Hedyotis coronaria (Kurz) Craib, Fl. Siam. 2 (1932) 38; --Scleromitrion coronarium Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 46(2) (1877) 136; --Lectotype from Myanmar. --Oldenlandia connata (Hook.f.) K.Schum. in HGA Engler & KAE Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(4) (1891) 25; --Hedyotis connata Wall., Cat. (1828) No. 856, nom. nud., --Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1880) 62, sphalm. As ‘coronata’; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 496. Assam, China (Yunnan), Myanmar, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, MINDANAO: Davao. Lowland forests along streams. 

Ixora L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 November 2016

Photos
  1. Ixora alejandroi Banag & Tandang, Phytotaxa 202 (2015) 156; --Type: Alejandro, Arriola & Wong 12439 (PNH, holo; USTH, K, US, iso), Palawan: Mt. St. Paul, 31-May-2012. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: EN; B2a; B2b (i-v); D (Banag et al. 2015). 
  2. Ixora angustilimba Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 320; EPFP 3 (1923) 546; --Type: BS 34588 Ramos & Pascasio (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; K, isolecto), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte prov., 24-Apr-1919. Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, DINAGAT, LUZON: Aurora, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. On dry forested slopes and ridges at low elevation.
  3. Ixora auriculata Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1018; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 546; --Type: Elmer 12483 (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; A, K, L, MO, NY, isolecto), Sibuyan: Magallanes (= Magdiwang), Mt Giting-giting. Densely wooded flats of woodland streams, 750-1000 ft., May-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, ROMBLON. Photos
  4. Ixora bartlingii Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1020; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 546; --Bremek., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. Ser. 3, 14 (1937) 299; --Type: Elmer 12323 (PNH, holo, lost; A, lecto; BISH, K, L, MO, NY, isolecto), Sibuyan: Magallanes (= Magdiwang), Mt Giting-giting, wet alluvial soil of dense forest near the Pauala River at 1000ft, Apr-1910. --Ixora samarensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 121; EPFP 3 (1923) 551; --Type: BS 15399 Ramos (US, iso, not seen by Banag), Samar: Western Samar prov., Catbalogan, Jul-1912. --Ixora arborea Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 61; ed. 2 (1845) 45; ed. 3, 1 (1877) 78, non Roxb; --Type: Ramos 734 (US, lecto; A, K, L, NY, P, isolecto), Luzon: Batangas prov., Mt Batulao, in forest, 25-Jul-1914. N Sulawesi, Philippines. Widspread from Luzon to Mindanao, not recorded from Palawan. BASILAN, BILIRAN, GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Bataan, Batangas, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Cavite, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDORO; MARINDUQUE, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, North Cotabato, South Cotabato, Surigao, PANAY, ROMBLON, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. In forests at low and medium elevation.
  5. Ixora bibracteata Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 8; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 546; --Type: HN Whitford 789 (PNH, holo, lost), Luzon: Quezon prov., Tinnan River, Sep-1904; Ramos & Edaño 28678 (A, neo; K, P, isoneo), Luzon: Quezon: Mt. Binuang, Tayabas, May-1917. --Ixora ilocana Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 168; EPFP 3 (1923) 548; --Type: BS 27325 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte: Burgos, 11-Mar-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, POLILLO. In primary forests, ascending to 850m. Photos
  6. Ixora capitulifera Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 233; EPFP 3 (1923) 546; --Type: BS 686 Foxworthy (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; US, isolecto), Palawan: Mt Victoria, in forests along streams, c. 1050m, 23-Mar-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Along streams in forests, c. 1100m.
  7. Ixora chartacea Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1861; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 547; --Type: Elmer 13806 (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; BISH, L, MO, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, in dry, humus-covered soil of forested ridges at 3250ft, in the depression of Duros and Kawilanan Peak, Sep-1912. --Ixora oblongifolia Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1867; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 550; --Type: Elmer 13775 (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; BISH, L, MO, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, humus-covered soil of steep densely wooded slopes at 3000ft along Dalahion River, Sep-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Lanao del Norte, Surigao del Norte, SIARGAO. In forests up to 1000m.
  8. Ixora confertiflora Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 321; EPFP 3 (1923) 547; --Type: BS 35206 Ramos & Pascasio (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; A, L, P, US, isolecto), Dinagat, 12-May-1919. Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Low elevation primary forests.
  9. Ixora crassifolia Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 233; EPFP 3 (1923) 547; --Type: FB 9439 Whitford & Hutchinson (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur prov., Port Banga, in dipterocarp forest, 30-50m, Feb-1908. Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Lanao, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga Sibugay. Low elevation primary forests.
  10. Ixora cumingiana Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 183; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 547; --Type: Cuming 895 (PNH, holo, lost; L, lecto; K, MO, isolecto), Luzon: Albay, 1885. --Ixora myriantha Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 461; EPFP 3 (1923) 550; --Type: Merrill Philip. Pl. 1700 (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; L, MO, NY, P, isolecto), Samar: Apr-1914. Endemic to the Philippines. N LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO, in most all islands and provinces. Low elevation primary forests. Photos
  11. Ixora ebracteolata Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 234; EPFP 3 (1923) 548; --Type: FB 5845 Curran (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; NY, isolecto), Luzon: Zambales prov., Mahumaling, on dry cogonales (Imperata grassland) slopes, Jan-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Isabela, Pangasinan, Quezon, Sorsogon, Zambales, SIBUYAN. Low elevation forests.
  12. Ixora filipes Valeton, Icon. Bog. (1913) t. 359; --Bremek., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. Ser. 3, 14 (1937) 307; --Type from Indonesia. --Ixora tenuipedunculata Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 321; EPFP 3 (1923) 551; --Type: BS 34475 Ramos & Pascasio (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; A, isolecto), Mindanao: Surigao prov., no definite locality cited, damp forest at low elevation, 30-Apr-1919. --Ixora gracilipes Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 119., EPFP 3 (1923) 548, nom. illeg; --Type: BS 20723 Escritor (PNH, holo, lost; K, lecto). Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Cadig, near Guinayangan, Mar-1913. Philippines, Talaud, Sulawesi. LUZON: Camarines Norte, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte, SAMAR. Lowland forests.
  13. Ixora gigantifolia Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1864; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 548; --Type: Elmer 14206 (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; A, BISH, K, L, MO, NY, P, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Oct-1912. --Ixora platyphylla Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 120; --Type: FB 18250 Miranda (not seen by Banag), Mindanao: South Cotabato prov., Glan, Jun-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, South Cotabato, Surigao del Norte, SIARGAO. Low elevation forests to c. 1000m.
  14. Ixora inaequifolia C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 222; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 548; --Type: BS 10216 MacGregor (PNH, holo, lost), Polillo; Edaño 76461 (NY, neo), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Panagan River, Dec-1928. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Quezon, POLILLO. 50-2300m.
  15. Ixora intermedia Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1336; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 549. Type: Elmer 12957 (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; A, BISH, K, L, MO, US, isolecto), Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar [= Thumb Peak], ‘stony soil of dense woods along a dry stream bed at 50ft’, Apr-1911. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines. PALAWAN, SULU, TAWI-TAWI. In forests at low elevation.
  16. Ixora leucocarpa Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1337; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 549; --Type: Elmer 12894 (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; A, BISH, L, MO, US, isolecto), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, ‘in fertile adobe or otherwise fertile soil of low lightly flats of woodland, or in humid forest at a somewhat higher elevation 250 to 750ft’, Mar-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Primary forests ascending to 300m elevation. 
  17. Ixora leytensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 69; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 549; --Type: Elmer 7044 (PNH, holo, lost), Leyte: Palo, Jan-1906; Edaño 15287 (PNH, neo; A, L, isoneo), Samar: Mt. Sarawag, 4-Dec-1951. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, PANAY, SAMAR. Lowland forests.
  18. Ixora longifolia Sm. in A.Rees, Cycl. 19 (1811) n.º 3; --Type from Indonesia. --Ixora fulgens Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 10, nom. nud.; Fl. Ind. Ed. Carey I (1820) 378; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 548; --Type from Indonesia. China and India to Java to New Guinea. BOHOL, CEBU, DINAGAT, JOLO, LEYTE, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Misamis, South Cotabato, Surigao, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga Sibugay, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SULU. Low elevation primary forests.
  19. Ixora longistipula Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 236; EPFP 3 (1923) 549; --Type: FB 13625 Curran & Foxworthy (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto), Negros: Negros Occidental prov., Mt Marapara, Sep-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, MINDORO, NEGROS, PANAY. Low and medium elevation primary forests. Photos
  20. Ixora luzoniensis Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 434; EPFP 3 (1923) 549; --Type: BS 29956 Fenix (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; K, P, isolecto), Luzon: Pangasinan prov., San Isidro Labrador, in forests, 350-400m, 4-Nov-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Catanduanes, Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Zambales, MINDORO. Lowland forests. Photos
  21. Ixora macgregorii C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 223; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 549; --Type: BS 10219 Mcgregor (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; K, L, NY, isolecto), Polillo, Oct/Nov-1909. --Ixora irosinensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3251; --Type: Elmer 17301 (NY, lecto; C, L, P, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Mt. Bulusan, Irosin, Sep-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Sur, Queson, Sorsogon, POLILLO. Lowland forests.
  22. Ixora macrophylla Bartl., in DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 487; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 549; --Type: Haenke s.n. (unknown, presumed lost), Luzon: Manila; Ramos s.n. (PNH, neo; L, isoneo), Luzon: Laguna, Pangil, 27-May-1959. Philippines, Sulawesi?. In most or all islands and provinces, but absent in Palawan? Lowland forests. Photos
  23. Ixora magnifica Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1865; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 550; --Type: Elmer 13424 (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; A, BISH, C, L, MO, NY, P, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, very moist fertile soil of dense wood or forests from 500-1500ft, Aug-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Lanao del Sur, South Cotabato, SULU. 30-450m.
  24. Ixora mearnsii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 235; EPFP 3 (1923) 549; --Type: BS 2999 Mearns (PNH, holo, lost), Luzon: Aurora prov., Casiguran, 1-Jun-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora (Casiguran; Baler). Lowland forests. Insufficiently known species, no material seen (Banag, 2014).
  25. Ixora mindanaensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 237; EPFP 3 (1923) 550; --Type: FB 9010 Whitford & Hutchinson (PNH, holo, lost), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur prov., Port Banga, 29-Nov-1907; Williams 2192 (NY, lecto; A, NY, isolecto), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur: Sax River, 14-Feb-1905. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Sur, Misamis Occidental (Malabug River, trail to Mt Malindang), Lanao del Sur (Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley), TAWI-TAWI. Low and medium elevation forests.
  26. Ixora palawanensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 238; EPFP 3 (1923) 550; --Type: BS 793 Foxworthy (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto), Palawan: Forested ravines c. 1.5 miles NW of Iwahig, 22-Apr-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. CULION, PALAWAN. Lowland forests. Photos
  27. Ixora philippinensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 238, Fl. Manila (1912) 452; EPFP 3 (1923) 550; --Bremek., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. Ser. 3, 14 (1937) 343; --Type: FB 2299 Meyer (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, Dec-1904. --Ixora philippinensis Merr. var. brevituba Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 240; EPFP 3 (1923) 551; --Type: FB 15501 (15527 according to L.L.Co) Merritt & Darling (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Pasuquin, on limestone formation, hillsides, c. 100m, 3-Nov-1908. --Ixora filmeri Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1338; --Type: Elmer 12719 (PNH, holo; A, BISH, L, MO, NA, NY, P, US, iso), Palawan: Brookes Point, Addison Peak, Mar-1911. --Ixora littoralis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 240; EPFP 3 (1923) 549; --Type: BS 1274 McGregor (PNH, holo, lost), Bohol: Tagbilaran, on beach cliff, Jul-1906. China, Malaysia, Taiwan, N Sulawesi, Moluccas (Sula Isls), Philippines. BATAN and BABUYAN Islands and N LUZON to PALAWAN, BALABAC, BOHOL, MINDANAO and BASILAN in most or all islands and provinces. Common in thickets and secondary forests at low elevation, including coastal bluffs and inland limestone formation. Photos
  28. Ixora pilosa Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 39; EPFP 3 (1923) 551; --Type: BS 13371 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost), Luzon: Quezon prov., Tagcawayan, Mar-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Lowland forests. Insufficiently known species, no material seen (Banag, 2014).
  29. Ixora propinqua Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 39; EPFP 3 (1923) 551, nom. illeg.; --Type: Merrill 8254 (PNH, holo, lost), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River Mtns back of San Ramon, in damp forest, c. 800m, Nov-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. In primary forests, c. 800m. Insufficiently known species, no material seen (Banag, 2014).
  30. Ixora reynaldoi Banag, Phytotaxa 202 (2015) 158; --Type: Banag, Cremen & Pinarok SA004 (PNH, holo; USTH, K, US, iso), Samar: Maydolong, Borongan, 28-Aug-2011. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Conservation status: CR; B2a; B2b (i-v); D (Banag et al. 2015).
  31. Ixora salicifolia (Blume) DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 487; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 551; --Bremek., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. Ser. 3, 14 (1937) 240; --Pavetta salicifolia Blume, Bijdr. Flora Ned. Ind. 16 (1826) 951; --Ixora fulgens var. salicifolia (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 286; --Type from Java. --Ixora longissima Merr. PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 235; EPFP 3 (1923) 549; --Type: FB 16975 Rosenbluth (PNH, holo, lost; HUH, lecto), Leyte, Mar-1909. Java, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON, PALAWAN, MASBATE, PANAY, BILIRAN, LEYTE, SAMAR, BUCAS GRANDE, SIARGAO, DINAGAT, MINDANAO. In primary forests at low elevation. Photos
  32. Ixora silagoensis Manalastas, Banag & Alejandro, Nordic Journal of Botany 32 (2014) 763; --Type: Banag, Belen, Buhay, Espejo, Manalastas & Mangila 5857 (USTH, holo; USTH, PNH, iso), Leyte: Silago, Brgy. Catmon, Mt Mumpung, 11-Apr-2012. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. Conservation status: CR; B1a; C2a(i) (Banag et al., 2014). Photos
  33. Ixora sparsiflora Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 8; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 551; --Type: Elmer 6641 (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; K, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Nov-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan. In primary forests at low or medium elevation. Only known from the type (Banag 2014).
  34. Ixora tenelliflora Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 423; --Type from Malaysia. Malaysia, Philippines. PALAWAN. 50-850m.

Kanapia Arriola & Alejandro

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Kanapia monstrosa (A.Rich.) Arriola & Alejandro, Plant Syst. Evol. 302 (2016) 917; --Canthium monstrosum (A.Rich.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; --Plectronia monstrosa A.Rich., Mém. Rub. (1830) 109; --Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 48; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 365; EPFP 3 (1923) 538; --Type: Perrottet s.n. (P, 2 sheets, cited by Merrill, 1913). Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Abra, La Union, Apayao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Zambales, Bataan, Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Cavite, Quezon, LEYTE, MINDORO, NEGROS. Low and medium elevation secondary forests, often common. Photos
  2. Kanapia wenzelii (Merr.) Arriola, Paraguison & Alejandro, Plant Syst. Evol. 302 (2016) 918; --Canthium wenzelii (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 9. --Plectronia wenzelii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 387; EPFP 3 (1923) 539; --Type: Wenzel 399 (US, lecto; A, HUH, MO, isolecto), Leyte: Leyte prov., 30-Aug-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU, LEYTE. Lowland forest, 60-350m.

Knoxia L.

Photos
  1. Knoxia sumatrensis (Retz.) DC, Prod. 4 (1830) 569.

Lasianthus Jack

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 December 2016

Photos
  1. Lasianthus acuminatissimus Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 467; --Type: BS 38058 Ramos & Edaño. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. In mossy forests, c. 1800m.
  2. Lasianthus attenuatus Jack, Trans. Linn. Soc. 14 (1823) 126; --Type from Sumatra. Photos
  3. Lasianthus biflorus (Blume) M Gangop. & Chakrab., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 16 (1992) 338; --Litosanthes biflora Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenz. (1823) 21; --Merr. EPFP 3 (1923) 568. --Lasianthus gracilis King & Gamble. --Lasianthus gainii M.Gangop. & Chakrab. China (S Yunnan), Hainan, C & S Taiwan, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON, MINDORO, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, NEGROS, MINDANAO. In damp primary forests, chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 1400m.
  4. Lasianthus brochidodromus H.Zhu, Blumea 57 (2012) 21; --Type: Gaerlan et al. PPI 23712 (holo L), Luzon: Quezon, Alabat Isl., 175m, in dipterocarp forest, 25-March-1996. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon.
  5. Lasianthus chinensis (Champ.) Benth., Fl. Hongk. (1861) 160; --Nonatelia chinensis (Champ.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 291; --Mephitidia chinensis Champ., Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 4 (1852) 196. --Lasianthus dinhensis. S & C China, Hainan, Taiwan, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. PALAWAN.
  6. Lasianthus chlorocarpus K.Schum. Nachträge Flora Deutschen Schutzgebiete Sudsee (1905) 399; --Type: Lauterbach 3151 (B, destoryed), Wiakabu
    et al. LAE 50043 (neotype L). Indonesia (Lesser Sunda Islands, Sulawesi, Irian Jaya), Papua New Guinea, Solomon Isl., N Australia, Philippines.
  7. Lasianthus chrysoneurus (Korth.) Miq.,  Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 322; --Mephytidia chrysoneura Korth., Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2 (1851) 222; --Type from Java. India, Burma, China, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Java, Papua New Guinea, Philippines. PALAWAN, PANAY.
  8. Lasianthus clementis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot.164; --Merr. EPFP 3 (1923) 565; --Type: Clemens 561, 846 (syntypes, PNH, destroyed), Mindanao, Leyte; Elmer 13613 (neotype, K), Mindanao, Agusan, Cabadbaran. --Lasianthus bulusanensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3252. --Lasianthus canephoroides Wernham. --Lasianthus neglectus Valeton ex Bakh.f. Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea. LUZON: Sorsogon, LEYTE, MINDANAO, NEGROS, PANAY (photos by Pelser & Barcelona). In primary forests, ascending to 700m. Photos
  9. Lasianthus constrictus Wight, Calcutta Journal of Natural History 6 (1846) 515; --Type from Myanmar. Brunei, Myanmar, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines. ?PALAWAN, ?NEGROS. Note by P.B. Pelser (20-Dec-2016): Arshed & Alejandro (2016) mention Palawan as the Philippine locality of this species, but cite a specimen from Negros (Edaño 21913).
  10. Lasianthus cyanocarpus Jack, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 14 (1825) 125; --Chao, Fl. Taiwan 4 (1978) 289; --HJ Li & HY Liu, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 280, pl. 125; --Merr. EPFP 3 (1923) 565; --Type: Jack s.n. (holo, lost), Sumatra; Borssum 1864 (neo L). --Nonatelia inaequalis (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 291; --Mephitidia inaequalis (Blume) DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 453; --Lasianthus inaequalis Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 996; --Type: Merrill 863. --Lasianthus subinaequalis King & Gamble. --Lasianthus bractescens Ridl. --Palawan. India, Andaman Isls, Nicobar Isls, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, S China, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Moluccas, New Guinea. LUZON: Cagayan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, CATANDUANES, BUSUANGA, PALAWAN, BILIRAN, NEGROS, LEYTE, PANAY, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Agusan. In damp primary forests at low elevation.
  11. Lasianthus fordii Hance, J. Bot. 23 (1885) 324; --Chao, Fl. Taiwan 4 (1978) 292; --HJ Li & HY Liu, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 284, pl. 126, photo 178; --Type: Ford 66 (BM, holo; K, iso), China. Photos
  12. Lasianthus halconensis Arshed & Alejandro, Phytotaxa 288 (2016) 298; --Type: Aranas et al. s.n. (PNH 254961, holo; USTH 12526, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Baco, Mt. Halcon, 826 m, Apr-2014. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Humid dipterocarp forest. Conservation status: CR B1a (Arshed & Alejandro, 2016).
  13. Lasianthus hirsutus (Roxb.) Merr., J. Arnold Arb. 33 (1952) 229; --Triosteum hirsutum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 538, Type: Unknown collector, sp.no: 139 (holo BM), Chittagong. --Lasianthus everettii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 265. --Lasianthus bracteatus Wight. --Lasianthus roxburghii Wight. Lasianthus oculus-cati Miq.. --Lasianthus laevicaulis Kurz. --Lasianthus cyanocarpus Jack var. novoguineensis Valeton. --Lasianthus cyanocarpus Jack var. asperatus Pierre ex Pit. --Lasianthus cyanocarpus Jack var. lucidus Pierre ex Pit.. Trop. & Subtrop. Asia: India, Bangladesh, Nicobar Isls, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, S China, Hainan, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Moluccas, New Guinea. NEGROS. Photos
  14. Lasianthus hispidulus (Drake) Pit, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1924) 393; --Mephitidia hispidula Drake, J. Bot. (Morot) 9 (1895) 239; --Type from Vietnam. China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Japan, Thailand, Papua New Guinea, Vietnam, Philippines. ?CAMIGUIN, ?LUZON: Benguet. Note by P.B. Pelser (20-Dec-2016): Arshed & Alejandro (2016) mention Camiguin as the Philippine locality of this species, but cite a specimen from Benguet (M. Jacobs 104202).
  15. Lasianthus lucidus Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 997; --Nonatelia lucida (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 291; --Mephitidia lucida (Blume) DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 453; --Type: Blume s.n. (lecto L, L0000697); Blume s.n. (para L, L0305289), Java. India (Assam), Burma, S China (Yunnan), Hainan, Vietnam, Thailand, Peniunsular Malaysia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea.
  16. Lasianthus obliquinervis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 136; --Chao, Fl. Taiwan 4 (1978) 301; --HJ Li & HY Liu, Fl. Taiwan ed.2, 4 (1998) 293, pl. 132; --Type: Whitford 247 (lecto US), Luzon, Bataan, May 1904.
  17. Lasianthus palawanensis H.Zhu, Blumea 57 (2012) 71; --Type: Elmer 13252 (holo L), Palawan, May-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN.
  18. Lasianthus pergamaceus King & Gamble, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 73 (1904) 123; --Type: Wray 270 (holo SING; iso K), Peninsular Malaysia. --Lasianthus coriaceus King & Gamble. --Lasianthus crassifolius Ridl. Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines: PALAWAN.
  19. Lasianthus reticulatus Blume, Bijdragen Flora Nederlandsch Indie (1826–1827) 1000; --Type: Blume s.n. (holo L, L0000700; iso L, L0000701, L0000702), Java. --Lasianthus cinnamomoides Miq. --Lasianthus maingayi Hook.f. --Lasianthus caloneurus K.Schum. --Lasianthus flavicans King & Gamble. S Thailand, Malaysia (Peninsular, Borneo), Singapore, Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi), Brunei, Philippines: PALAWAN.
  20. Lasianthus ridsdalei H.Zhu, Blumea 57 (2012) 79; --Type: C.E. Ridsdale 1046 (holo L), Philippines, Palawan, Infanta Mine area, 200 m, in lowland forest, 25-Oct-1985. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN.
  21. Lasianthus rigidus Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 321; --Type: Junghuhn s.n. (lecto L, L0000704), Java; Unknown collector s.n. (para, U, U0006067),
    Junghuhn s.n. (para, L, L0305517), Java. --Lasianthus tentaculatus Hook.f. --Lasianthus humilis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 519; --Merr. EPFP 3 (1923) 565; --Type: Elmer 9678 (or 9687?), Negros. China (S Yunnan), Assam, Sumatra, Java, Philippines. NEGROS. On forested ridges, c.1000m. Photos
  22. Lasianthus sikkimensis Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1880 180; --Type: Hooker & Thomson 11 (holo K), Sikkim-Himalaya. --Lasianthus mindananensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 466; --Merr. EPFP 3 (1923) 567; --Type: BS 38795 Ramos & Edaño. --Lasianthus langkokensis (Drake) Pit.; --Mephitidia langkokensis Drake; --Lasianthus sikkimensis Hook.f. subsp. langkokensis (Pit.) H.Zhu. --Lasianthus baviensis (Drake) Pit., --Mephitidia baviensis Drake. --Lasianthus tsangii Merr. ex Li. Assam, E Himalayas, Bangladesh, C & S China, Hainan, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. MINDANAO, In damp forests, c. 1000m.
  23. Lasianthus stipularis Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 997; --Merr. EPFP 3 (1923) 567; --Mephitidia stipularis (Blume) DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 453; --Type: Blume s.n. (holo L, L0000708; iso L, L0000709), Java.
  24. Lasianthus submembranifolius Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1871; --Merr. EPFP 3 (1923) 567; --Type: Elmer 14261 (iso A, CAS, K, L, MO, NY), Philippines, Mindanao, Mt Urdaneta, 3250 ft. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO.
  25. Lasianthus trichophlebus Hemsl. ex FB Forbes & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 23 (1888) 388.
  26. Lasianthus verticillatus (Lour.) Merr., Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. n. s. 24, 2 (1935) 372; --Dasus verticillatus Lour.; --Type: Dausus G.48 (holo BM), Vietnam. --Lasianthus sylvestris Blume. --Lasianthus sylvestris Blume var. subsessilis (Miq.) Miq.; --Lasianthus subsessilis Miq. --Lasianthus truncatus Bedd. Lasianthus andamanicus Hook.f. Lasianthus wrayi King & Gamble. --Lasianthus morus Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 73; --Merr. EPFP 3 (1923) 567; --Type: Elmer 7050 (NY, iso), Leyte: Leyte prov., Palo, wooded ravines along the Bangon River, Jan 1906. --Lasianthus tamirensis Pierre ex Pit. --Lasianthus nigrocarpus Masam. (nom. nud.). --Lasianthus taitoensis Shimizu; --Lasianthus obliquinervis Merr. var. taitoensis (Shimizu) T.S.Liu & J.M.Chao; --Lasianthus verticillatus (Lour.) Merr. var. taitoensis (Shimizu) H.Zhu. India, Andaman Isls, Nicobar Isls, S & C China, Hainan, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON, MINDORO, LEYTE, PALAWAN, SAMAR, MINDANAO. In primary forests, mostly at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1400m.

Leptopetalum Hook. & Arn.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 May 2015

Photos
  1. Leptopetalum biflorum (L.), Taxon 64 (2015) 317; --Thecagonum biflorum (L.) Babu, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 11 (1969, publ. 1971) 214; --Oldenlandia biflora L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 119; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 492; --Gonotheca biflora (L.) Masam., Sci. Rep. Kanazawa Univ., Biol. 4 (1955) 78; --Hedyotis biflora (L.) Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1792) 272; --Lectotype from Sri Lanka. Tropical and subtropical Asia to W Pacific: Sri Lanka, Nicobar Isls, Burma, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, New Guinea, Solomon Isls, Australia (Queensland), Fiji, Gilbert Isls, New Caledonia, Samoa, Tonga, Vanuatu, Caroline Isls, Marianas, Marshall Isls. Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation weed in waste places, cultivated sites, settlements, etc. Common. Photos
  2. Leptopetalum pteritum (Blume), Taxon 64 (2015) 317; --Thecagonum pteritum (Blume) Babu, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 11 (1969 publ. 1971) 214; --Oldenlandia pterita (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 193; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 494; --Hedyotis pterita Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 972; --Lectotype from Java. India, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Cagayan, PALAWAN, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao. Lowland clearings, plantations, etc., seen in limestone areas. Photos
  3. Leptopetalum strigulosum (Bartl. ex DC.), Taxon 64 (2015) 317; --Thecagonum strigulosum (Bartl. ex DC.) Terrell & H.Rob., J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1 (2007) 377; --Oldenlandia strigulosa Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 427; --Hedyotis strigulosa (Bartl. ex DC.) Fosberg, Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 45 (1980) 28; --Lectotype from Marianas. Tropical & subtropical Asia to W Pacific: India, S China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, Ryukyu Isls, Philippines, New Guinea, Solomon Isls, Caroline Isls, Marianas.

Litosanthes Blume = Lasianthus

Lucinaea DC. = Schradera

 Ludekia Ridsdale

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Ludekia bernardoi (Merr.) Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 335; --Neonauclea bernardoi (Merr.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 539; --EPFP 3 (1923) 511; Nauclea bernardoi Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 102; --Type: FB 20446 Bernardo, Luzon: Cagayan prov., May-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Laguna (Mt Makiling), Camarines, MASBATE, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao. Lowland primary forests.

Metadina Bakh.f. = Adina

Mitracarpus Zucc. ex Schultes & Schultes.f.

No Photos
  1. Mitracarpus hirtus (L.) DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 572; --Spermacoce hirta L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 148. Native of tropical America, introduced elsewere.

Mitragyna Korth.

Photos
  1. Mitragyna diversifolia (Wall. ex G Don) Havil., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 33 (1897) 71, pro parte; --Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 65; --Stephegyne diversifolia (Wall. ex G Don) Brandis, Forest Fl. NW India (1874) 263; --Nauclea diversifolia Wall. ex G Don, Gen. Hist. 3 (1834) 467. Mitragyna rotundifolia (Roxb.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 289; --Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 446; EPFP 3 (1923) 508; --Nauclea rotundifolia Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 124. Nauclea adina Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 102. Stephegyne tubulosa Fern.-Villar in Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 3, 4(13A) (1880) 104. Stephegyne parvifolia Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) t. 56, Fig. A. Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, S China, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Zambales, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Batangas, MINDORO, MASBATE, GUIMARAS. Low and medium elevation dry thickets.
  2. Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 33 (1897) 69; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 12; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 508; --Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 65; --Stephegyne speciosa Korth., Verh. Nat. Geschaft Bot. (1839-43) 160. Nauclea luzoniensis Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2: 102 (1845). Peninsular Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, New Guinea. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDORO, MINDANAO: Davao, Agusan. Lowland forests.

Morinda L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 August 2012 following Razafimandimbison & Bremer 2011

Photos
  1. Morinda citrifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 176; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 453; EPFP 3 (1923) 573. Photos
  2. Morinda coreia Buch.-Ham., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 13: 537 (1822). --Morinda tinctoria Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 15, nom. nud.; Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 197; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 572. Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Vietnam, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, NEGROS. Thickets and forests up to 500m. According to Merrill (1923) identification of Philippine materials not certain as the material is imperfect. Photos

Mussaenda Burm. ex L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Mussaenda acuminatissima Merr., PJS 17 c (1920) 436; EPFP 3 (1923) 517; --Jayaweera, J. Arn. Arb. 45 (1964) 104, Fig. 4 o-q; --Type: BS 33133 (NY, lecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Mt Nangapatan, dry slopes, 700m, 8-Aug-1918. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Ilocos Norte (Mt Nangapatan). Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  2. Mussaenda albiflora Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 241; EPFP 3 (1923) 518; --Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 105, Fig. 1 h-i, 3 a-e; --Type: FB 17358 Curran (NY, lecto; K, US, isolecto), Negros: Negros Occidental prov., Faraon, Sep-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Faraon; Iglamgam), PANAY: Aklan (Libacao), Capiz (Jamindan), Antique, Iloilo. Humid gullies to c. 300m. Photos
  3. Mussaenda anisophylla Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 178; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 518; --Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 108, Fig. 3 j-s; --Type: Cuming 918 (BM, lecto; G, K, isolecto), Luzon: Albay prov. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Bataan (Mt Mariveles, Lamao River), Batangas, Ifugao, Kalinga (Balbalan), Laguna (Mt Makiling; San Antonio), Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan (Mt San Isidro Labrador), Quezon (Lucban), Rizal (Antipolo), Zambales, ALABAT, MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon; Mt Ilong), NEGROS: Gimogaan River, DINAGAT. Near water courses in deeply shaded ravines in mossy forests, medium elevation up to 800m. Photos
  4. Mussaenda attenuifolia Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1874; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 518 (sphalm. ‘attenuatifolia’ ); --Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 109, Fig. 1 f; --Type: Elmer 13304 (A, lecto; BISH, BRIT, CAS, E, GH, K, L, MO, NA, NY, U, US, isoecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, Fairly well-scattered in wet earth and upon rock ledges of the wooded banks of the Catangan Creek, Jul-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Along wooded stream embankments, 150-450m. Known only from the type collection. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  5. Mussaenda benguetensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 13; EPFP 3 (1923) 518; --Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 111, Fig. 1l, 3 x, y, z, aa; --Type: Elmer 5935 (PNH, holo, lost; NY, lecto; K, US, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, Mar-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Mountain Province, Ifugao, Benguet. In thickets on open slopes, in ravines, etc., 1200-2200m. Photos
  6. Mussaenda chlorantha Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 47; EPFP 3 (1923) 518; --Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 112, Fig. 1b-c; 2 d-e; --Type: Merrill 770 (US, lecto; FR, M, U, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Tonglon (= Mt Sto Tomas), in forests, c. 1800m, May-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Mt Sto Tomas; Twin Peaks), Ifugao, Mountain Province, Pampanga (Mt Pinatubo, Camp Stotsenburg), Rizal, NEGROS: Negros Oriental. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  7. Mussaenda grandibracteata Alejandro, Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 101 (2016) 480; --Type: Alejandro & Castro 14 (PNH, holo; NY, Univ. Santo Tomas Herb., iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental, Magsaysay, San Nicolas, 15-Oct-2002. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental. Conservation status: EN, C2a(i) (Alejandro et al., 2016).
  8. Mussaenda grandifolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 12; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 518; --Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 115, Fig. 1q; 4 a-c; --Type: Merrill 817 (US, lecto), Palawan: Paragua prov., Point Separation, 20-Feb-1903. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Lowland forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  9. Mussaenda lanata C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 47; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 518; --Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 116, Fig. 1a; 2 a-c; --Type: Merrill 6681 (US, lecto), Luzon: Benguet prov., Antamok, May-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Apayao, Benguet (Sabangan; Sablan; Baguio; Itogon; Antamok), Ilocos Sur (Concepcion, Mt Tirad; Cervantes Trail), Mountain Province, Zambales. Streamside thickets, 900-1600m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  10. Mussaenda liedeae Alejandro, Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 101 (2016) 485; --Type: Alejandro 89 (UBT, holo; NY, US, Univ. Santo Tomas Herb., iso), Palawan: Taytay, Ibangley, 20-Nov-2002. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: CR, C2a(i) (Alejandro et al., 2016).
  11. Mussaenda macrophylla Wall. in Roxb, Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 228; --Type from Nepal.
  12. Mussaenda magallanensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 996; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 519; --Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 119, Fig. 1d; 2 f-h; --Type: Elmer 12451 (A, lecto; BISH, E, K, L, GH, MICH, MO, NY, U, US, isolecto), Sibuyan: Magallanes (= Magdiwang), Mt. Guiting-guiting, ‘light woods along the coast or in the first hills’, May-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, LUZON: Isabela (San Mariano; Palanan), Laguna (Mt Banahaw), Pampanga, MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (Sablayan, Ligaya), Mindoro Oriental (Puerto Galera; Calapan; Baco River; Bongabon and Pinamalayan; SIBUYAN (foothills of Mt Giting-giting), PANAY: Capiz, LEYTE: Leyte (Dagami). Low elevation from sea-level to 300m, along rivers, mountain slopes, brushlands and thickets. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  13. Mussaenda membranifolia Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 23 (1923) 267. Name not mentioned in Alejandro et al. (2016). Photos
  14. Mussaenda milleri Elmer ex Alejandro, Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 101 (2016) 494; --Mussaenda milleri Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3780, not validly published, no Latin diagnosis; --Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 121; --Type: BS 26468 Ramos & Edaño (NY, holo; US, iso), Luzon: Nueva Ecija prov., Mt Umingan (= Mingan), Aug/Sep-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija (Mingan Mtns). Ridge summit vegetation, c. 1000m. Conservation status: CR, D (Alejandro et al., 2016), Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  15. Mussaenda multibracteata Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 34; EPFP 3 (1923) 519; --Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 123, Fig. 4 f-n; --Type: BS 23585 Ramos (NY, lecto; A, K, US, isolecto), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Pocdal, on damp slopes in open forests, 10-Aug-1915. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan (Mt Dos Cuernos), Isabela (Mt Moises; Palanan), Aurora (Casiguran), Quezon (Mt Tulaog; Mt Binuang), Camarines Norte (Minasag River), Camarines Sur (Her-it River; Mt Isarog), Albay (Mayon Volcano), Sorsogon, CATANDUANES (Mt Tagmasuso; Bato trail to Viga). Along streams, damp slopes, forests, from sea-level to 2100m. Photos
  16. Mussaenda nervosa Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 994; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 519; --Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 124, Fig. 1e; 2 i, j, k, ka; --Type: Elmer 10510 (A, lecto; BISH, BM, E, GH, K, L, MO, NY, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Todaya, Mt Apo, ‘open exposed hill at 4000ft [= 1219m]’, May-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao del Sur (Mt Apo), Misamis Occidental, North Cotabato. Degraded forests up to c. 1200m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  17. Mussaenda palawanensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 103; EPFP 3 (1923) 519; --Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 125, Fig. 1k; --Type: BS 15531 Fenix (US, lecto; K, isolecto), Palawan: Alphonso XIII (= Quezon), Jul-1912. Indonesia (Palmas Isl.), Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, MINDANAO: Maguindanao, PALAWAN (widespread). Lowland thickets and old clearings, up to c. 150m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11).
  18. Mussaenda philippica A.Rich., Mém. Rubiac. (1830) 165; Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 5 (1834) 245; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 519; --Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 128, Fig. 1j; 3 f-i; --Type: Perrottet s.n. (P, holo), Luzon: Manila, 1819. -Mussaenda grandiflora Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 21 (1884) 311, nom. illeg. Philippines, Solomon Isls, Carolines (Palau; Yap), Fiji Isls. LUZON: Cagayan to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. Common in thickets and secondary forests at low and medium elevation. Photos
  19. Mussaenda philippinensis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 264; EPFP 3 (1923) 520; --Jayaweera, J. Arn. Arb. 45 (1964) 132, Fig. 1n-p; 3 t-w; --Type: Merrill 4139 (NY, lecto; K, L, US, isolecto), Semirara Is., Jul-1905. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao (Mt Duraragan), ALABAT, MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Yagaw, E slope; Oyon Creek), SEMIRARA, PALAWAN, PANAY: Antique. Partial shade along creeks and ridges of second-growth forests, 10-300m.
  20. Mussaenda pinatubensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1934) 3210; --Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 134; --Type: Elmer 21978 (PNH, holo; A, G, GH, K, L, MICH, MO, NY, P, US, iso), Luzon: Pampanga prov., Camp Stotsenburg (lower slopes of Mt Pinatubo), on hot and dry river embankments, c. 1065m, May-1927. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pampanga (Mt Pinatubo), Zambales.
  21. Mussaenda scandens Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 992; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 520; --Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 135, Fig. 1g; 2 l, m, n, o, p; --Type: Elmer 11291 (GH, lecto; A, BRIT, CAS, E, GH, K, L, MO, NA, NY, P, U, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao del Sur prov., Mt Apo, Todaya, ‘densely wooded ravine of the Baracatan creek at 2750ft [= 838m]’, Aug-1909. --Mussaenda villosa Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 243; --Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 992, non Wall. Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Zamboanga del Sur (Malangas), Davao del Sur (Mt Apo), Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur. Medium elevation forests along streams, 600-800m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  22. Mussaenda setosa Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 104; EPFP 3 (1923) 520; --Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb. 45 (1964) 137, Fig. 1m; 4 d-e; --Type: Merrill 9496 (US, lecto; K, L, MO, P, isolecto), Palawan: Malampaya Bay, Mt Capoas, Apr-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN: Mt Capoas. Forested ridge, c. 700m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  23. Mussaenda ustii Alejandro. Bot. J. Lin. Soc. 158 (2008): 88; --Type: Alejandro & Castro 28 (L, holo; UBT, University of Santo Tomas Herb., iso), Panay: Aklan prov., Nabas, Mt Laserna, 28-Oct-2002. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY: Aklan.
  24. Mussaenda vidalii Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 993; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 520; --Jayaweera, J. Arnold Arb.  45 (1964) 138, Fig. 2 q-x; --Type: Elmer 11309 (GH, lecto; A, E, GH, K, L, MO, NY, U, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao del Sur prov., Mt Apo, Todaya, ‘humid woods at 3750ft [= 1143m], Aug-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN, LEYTE: Leyte (Ormoc, Antilao River; Lake Danao), LUZON: Ifugao, SAMAR: Province unknown (Catubig River; Mt Cansayao); Western Samar (Loquilocon; Bagacay), MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon (Pigtaoranan; Tangculan & vicinity, Davao del Sur (Mt Apo), Lanao del Sur. Low to medium elevation, 150-600m, along edges of humid forests as well as on second-growth forests of open rolling country. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  25. Mussaenda viridiflora Alejandro. Bot. J. Lin. Soc. 158 (2008) 90; --Type: Alejandro & Castro 49 (University of Santo Tomas Herb., holo; L, iso), Panay: Aklan prov., Buruanga, Brgy. Tigum, Mt Mangamura, 30-Oct-2002. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY: Aklan.

Mycetia Reinw.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 January 2017

Photos

  1. Mycetia cauliflora Reinw., Syll. Ratisb. 2 (1828) 9; --Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) pl. 47-10; --KM Wong in FS Ng (ed.) Tree Fl. Malaya 4 (1989) 379. --Mycetia lateriflora (Blume) Reinw. ex Korth., Nederl. Kruidk. Arch 2 (1850) 118; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 521; --Bertiera latiflora Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 988. --Mycetia apoensis (Elmer) Govaerts, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 157 (2008) 121; --Adenosacme apoensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1001; --Type: Elmer 10504 (BISH, K, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur prov., Mt Apo, Todaya, humus-covered fertile soil in moist woods at 4000ft, May 1909.S Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (Flores). MINDORO, MINDANAO (Lanao, Bukidnon, Davao del Sur). In damp rainforest undergowth, 600-1200m. Photos
  2. Mycetia dagohoyana Dela Bajan, Tandang, & Alejandro, Phytotaxa 292 (2017) 92; --Type: D. Tandang & C. Banag HI-003 (PNH, holo & iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte: Sak-a Falls trail, Brgy. San Antonio, Municipality of Remedios T. Romualdez, May-2012. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Conservatio status: DD (Dela Bajan et al. 2017). Photos
  3. Mycetia javanica (Blume) Korth., Nederl. Kruidk. Arch. 2 (1850) ex Valeton in Icon. Bogor. 3 (1908) 183; --Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 105; EPFP 3 (1923) 520; --Bertiera javanica Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 987; --Type from Java. --Adenosacme longifolia Rolfe, J. Bot. 23 (1885) 213; --Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 152, non ?Wall., non Rondeletia longifolia Wall. --Adenosacme mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1002; --Mycetia mindanaensis (Elmer) Govaerts, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 157 (2008) 121; --Type: Elmer 10831 (K), Mindanao, District of Davao, Todaya (Mt. Apo), 1909--Type: Elmer 10831 (BISH, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur prov., Mt Apo, Todaya, on very wet, densely shaded ravines or on seepage ledges along the Sibulan River at 3250ft, Jun 1909. Nicobar Isls, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, New Guinea. LUZON: Laguna (Los Baños; Mt Banahaw), Albay, Sorsogon, MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental, PANAY, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley), Bukidnon, Davao, Agusan del Norte, Surigao. In very damp forests along streams at low and medium elevation. Photos

Myrmecodia Jack 

Photos
  1. Myrmecodia tuberosa Jack, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 14 (1823) 123. Mymecodia echinata Gaudich., Bot. Freycinet. Voy. (1826) 472, t. 96; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 570. Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago, Australia (Queensland), Solomon Isls. LUZON, Merrill 3394, Whitford 1144, Copeland. Epiphytic in mangrove swamps, apparently also occurring in primary forest at medium elevation, ascending to 1000m. Photos

Myrmeconauclea Merr.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 November 2016

Photos
  1. Myrmeconauclea strigosa (Korth.) Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 375; EPFP 3 (1923) 517; --Neonauclea strigosa (Korth.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 542; --Bancalus strigosus (Korth.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 276; --Nauclea strigosa Korth., Verh. Nat. Gesch. Ned. Bezitt., Bot. (1842) 157. Photos

Myrmephytum Becc.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

No Photos
  1. Myrmephytum beccarii Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1037; --Merr. EPFP 3 (1923) 568; --Huxley & Jebb, Blumea 36 (1991) 47, Fig. 2-b; --Type: Elmer 11467-a (Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, along Pauala River, thicket on dry, gravelly stream bed, 750 ft, May-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN, BILIRAN. In thickets, 225 m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  2. Myrmephytum selebicum (Becc.) Becc., Malesia 2 (1884) 93, t. 8 & 9.; --Huxley and Jebb, Blumea 36 (1991) 46, Fig. 2-a. Philippines, Sulawesi. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte.
  3. Myrmephytum sp. 3 in Huxley and Jebb, Blumea 36 (1991) 51. Based on BS 925 Mangubat (K). Mindoro: Mindoro Mindoro Oriental prov., Calapan.

Nauclea L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Nauclea officinalis (Pierre ex Pit.) Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5 (1940) 188; --Sarcocephalus officinalis Pierre ex Pit. in H Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 3 (1922) 26. China (Guangdong), Hainan, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, ?Philppines.
  2. Nauclea orientalis (L.) L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 243; --Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 535; EPFP 3 (1923) 515; --Adina orientalis (L.) Lindeman ex Bakh.f., Taxon 19 (1970) 476; --Sarcocephalus orientalis (L.) Merr., PJS 3 c (1909) Bot. 436; --Bancalus orientalis (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 276; --Cephalanthus orientalis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 95. Sarcocephalus undulatus (Roxb.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1856) 133; --Nauclea undulata Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 14, nom. nud., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 117; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 517. Nauclea elmeri Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 535; EPFP 3 (1923) 515. Sarcocephalus ovatus Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 33; --Type: FB 3150 Ahern’s collector (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., Bosoboso, May-Jun 1905 Nauclea lutea Blanco, Fl. Filip.: 141 (1837). Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Isls, Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland). BATAN to MINDANAO, in most islands and provinces. Chiefly in secondary forests at low and medium elevation. Photos
  3. Nauclea robinsonii Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 537; EPFP 3 (1923) 517; --Sarcocephalus pubescens C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 225, non Valeton; --Type: BS 6917 Robinson (NY, US, iso), Polillo. Endemic to the Philippines. POLILLO, LEYTE, SAMAR. Low elevation secondary forests.
  4. Nauclea subdita (Korth.) Steud, Nom. Bot. ed. 2, 2 (1841) 186; --Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 329. Sarcocephalus subditus (Korth.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1856) 134; --Platanocarpum subditum Korth., Observ. Naucl. Indic. (1839) 19. Nauclea junghuhnii (Miq.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 536; EPFP 3 (1923) 516; --Sarcocephalus junghuhnii Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1856) 134. Nauclea multicephala (Elmer) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 536; EPFP 3 (1923) 516; --Sarcocephalus multicephalus Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 5 (1913) 1896. --Nauclea glaberrima Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 100. India (Assam), Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas. LUZON: Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, MASBATE, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Misamis, Lanao, Bukidnon, Davao, Surigao. In primary and secondary forests, ascending to 900 m.

Neolamarckia Bosser

No Photos
  1. Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., B, Adansonia 6 (1984) 247; --Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 135; --Samama cadamba (Roxb.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 296; --Sarcocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Kurz, Prelim. Rep. Forest Pegu, App. A (1875) lxxviii; --Nauclea cadamba Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 121. Sri Lanka, India, E Himalayas, Bangladesh, Nicobar Isls, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Borneo, Philippines (introduced), Sulawesi, New Guinea.

Neonauclea Merr.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 October 2016

Photos
  1. Neonauclea bartlingii (DC) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 539; --EPFP 3 (1923) 511; --Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 218, Fig. 15c (map); --Sarcocephalus bartlingii (DC) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 133; --Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 104; --Nauclea bartlingii DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 344; --Type: Haenke sn (L, photo). Luzon: near Sorsogon. Neonauclea ategii (Elmer) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 539; --EPFP 3 (1923) 511; --Nauclea ategii Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1877; --Type: Elmer 13910 (BISH, BO, L, NY2 sheets, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Mt Urdaneta, ‘stony soil among boulders along the wooded banks of Dalahion River at 1000ft’, Sep-1912. Neonauclea auriculata Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 205; --Type: BS 49281 Ramos & Edaño (BO, L, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao Oriental prov., Mati, Mar/Apr-1927. Endemic to the Philippines.
  2. Neonauclea calycina (Bartl. ex DC.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 539; EPFP 3 (1923) 512;  --Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 200, Fig. 7 (map). --Nauclea calycina Bartling ex DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 346; --Type: Haenke sn (L, photo). Nauclea blancoi Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 175; --Type: Cuming 890. --Neonauclea monocephala (Merr.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 541; EPFP 3 (1923) 514; --Nauclea monocephala Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 44; --Type: Merrill 2980, leg. S Gracia (NY, US, iso; L, photo), Luzon: Zambales prov., Botolan, Jun 1903. Burma, Peninsular Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, N Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Cagayan to Sorsogon, most provinces, MINDORO, PALAWAN, POLILLO,TICAO, MASBATE, LEYTE, PANAY, NEGROS, BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Agusan del Norte. In primary and secondary forests at low and medium elevation.
  3. Neonauclea circumscissa Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 217, Fig. 15a (map); 16, pl. 8; --Type: PNH 18407 DR Mendoza (L, holo), Luzon: Albay prov., Mt Mayon, May/Jun-1953. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Quezon, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon.
  4. Neonauclea connicalycina Ordas, Taradji, Valdez & Alejandro, Phytotaxa 273 (2016) 128; --Type: Valdez & Taradji 14c-610 (PNH, holo; USTH, iso), Cebu: Carmen, Brgy. Hagnaya, 3-Aug-2015. Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU.
  5. Neonauclea formicaria (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 512; --Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 214, Fig. 15a (map); --Nauclea formicaria Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 989; --Type: Elmer 11034 (BISH, L, NY, US, WRSL, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur prov., Mt Apo, Todaya, ‘in shrubberies of gulches in the cogon region at 1000ft’, Jun-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY: Antique, Capiz, Iloilo, GUIMARAS, NEGROS, CEBU, BOHOL, BILIRAN, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Sur, Misamis Occidental, Davao, Bukidnon, Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Sur. Low and medium elevation shrubberies, thickets and open forests associated with cogonal grasslands. Photos
  6. Neonauclea glabra (Roxb.) Bakh.f. & Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 240, pl. 13, Fig. 27 (map); --Nauclea glabra Roxb., [Hort. Beng. (1814) 86, nom. nud.] Fl. Ind. ed. 1, 2 (1824) 121; --Type:from --Neonauclea nitida (Havil.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 541; --Nauclea nitida Havil., J. Linn Soc. Bot. 33 (1897) 53; --EPFP 3 (1923) 514; --Type: Callery 55 (P). Photo of type in L. Neonauclea ovata (Merr.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 541; --EPFP 3 (1923) 514; --Nauclea ovata Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 42; --Type: BS 14597 Ramos (L, photo; US, iso), Camiguin: Camiguin prov., in forests along streams near the old volcano, 27 Apr 1912. Neonauclea venosa (Merr.) Merr. , J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 542; --EPFP 3 (1923) 515; --Nauclea venosa Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 45; --Type: FB 9183 Whitford & Hutchinson, Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur prov., Port Banga, Jan 1908. Neonauclea kobbei Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3100; --Type: Calicosa sn, Aug 1914 Philippines, Moluccas, New Guinea, Australia (Queensland). LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, MASBATE, NEGROS, CAMIGUIN, BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Sur. Lowland forests, ascending to 600m.
  7. Neonauclea jagorii (Merr.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 540; EPFP 3 (1923) 513; --Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 221, pl. 15c , Fig. 17; --Nauclea jagorii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 326; --Type:   Jagor 987 (B, lost). Samar; --neotype: FB 31136 Fontanoza (NY). LUZON: Camarines Sur, SAMAR. Lowlands, along riverbanks.
  8. Neonauclea kentii (Merr.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 540; EPFP 3 (1923) 513; --Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 228, Fig. 21a; --Nauclea kentii Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 43; --Type: BS 15440 Reillo (L, 2 sheets, iso), Basilan: Basilan prov., in forests, Aug 1912. Neonauclea mindanaensis (Merr.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 541; EPFP 3 (1923) 514; --Nauclea mindanaensis Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 43; --Type: Copeland 1630, Mindanao: Zamboanga, San Ramon, Feb 1905. Neonauclea media auct. non (Havil.) Merr.; --Seeber, Weidelt & Banaag, Dendr. Charact. Imp. For. Trees E Mindanao (1979) 360, Fig. 218. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao del Sur, E Mindanao. Lowland forests, chiefly along streams.
  9. Neonauclea lanceolata (Blume) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 504; --Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 225.
  10. Neonauclea media (Havil.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 541; EPFP 3 (1923) 513; --Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 230, Fig. 21c (Map); --Nauclea media Havil., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 33 (1897) 56; --Type: Callery sn (P). Nauclea latifolia Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 144; --Type: not extant. “Illustrative specimen”: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 542 (US), Luzon: Batangas prov., Mt Batulao, forest slopes, 49m, 12 Aug 1914. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Cagayan, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Batangas, MINDORO, PANAY, GUIMARAS, MINDANAO. Lowland forests. Photos
  11. Neonauclea pseudocalycina Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 204, pl. 2, Fig 10 (map); --Type from Sabah. Borneo (Sabah; Kalimantan), SW Philippines. TAWI-TAWI.
  12. Neonauclea puberula (Merr.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 542; EPFP 3 (1923) 514; --Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 229, Fig. 21b; --Nauclea puberula Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) 41; --Type:   Elmer 7319 (BO, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Sorsogon, Nov 1905. Neonauclea forsteri Merr. EPFP 3 (1923) 512, non (Seem. ex Havil.) Merr. 1915. LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (near Calapan), PANAY, GUIMARAS, ?MINDANAO. Low elevation forests. The record from Mindanao is tentatively based on Ahern 3624 with no further locality.
  13. Neonauclea reticulata (Havil.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 542; EPFP 3 (1923) 514; --Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 215, pl. 8, Fig. 15a (map); --Nauclea reticulata Havil., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 33 (1897) 62; --Type: Vidal 2955 (K, holo), Taiwan (S tip), Lanyu and the Philippines. BATAN and BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Apayao, Abra, Benguet, Mountain Province, Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Rizal. In forested ravines and on slopes at low and medium elevation. Photos
  14. Neonauclea truncata (Hayata) Yamamoto, J. Soc. Trop. Agr. Taiwan 7 (1935) 149; --Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 213, pl. 8; --Type from Taiwan. Taiwan and N Philippines. BATAN.
  15. Neonauclea viridiflora Ordas, Banag & Alejandro, Systematic Botany 42 (2017) 364; --Type: Banag et al. CB16–040/2016 (PNH, holo; PNH, USTH, iso), Samar: Eastern
    Samar Prov., Mun. Taft, Brgy. San Rafael Villareal, 24-Jun-2016. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Conservation status: E B1 b (i & v) (Ordas et al. 2017). Photos
  16. Neonauclea wenzelii (Merr.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5 (1915) 542; EPFP 3 (1923) 515; --Ridsdale, Blumea 34 (1989) 228, Fig. 20, pl. 21a; --Nauclea wenzelii Merr., PJS 9 (1914, publ. 1915) 386; --Type: Wenzel 348 (A, BM, US, iso), Leyte: Leyte prov., 10-Jul-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, SAMAR. Lowland forests.

Nertera Banks & Sol. ex Gaertn.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 March 2012

Photos

  1. Nertera granadensis (Mutis ex L.f.) Druce, Bot. Exch. Club Brit. Isles Rep. 4 (1917) 637; --Yang TYA in Huang, TC (ed). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 306, pl. 138, photo 186; --Coprosma granadensis (Mutis ex L.f.) Heads, Candollea 51 (1996) 388; --Nertera depressa Banks & Solander ex Gaertn., Fruct. 1 (1788) 124; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 571. Coprosma dentata (Elmer) Heads, Candollea 51 (1996) 389; --Nertera dentata Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 15. Photos

Oldenlandia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Oldenlandia apoensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 17; --Hedyotis apoensis (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 976; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 495; --Type: Copeland 1131 (NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, c. 2000m, Apr-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental, Bukidnon, Davao del Sur (Mt Apo). Forests, 1200-2000m. Photos
  2. Oldenlandia brachyphylla Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 448. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON.
  3. Oldenlandia ciliata Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 20; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 493; --Type: Elmer 6615, Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, in loose soil amongst limestone boulders. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. 1200-1600m, on limestone boulders and ledges, recent slides, etc.
  4. Oldenlandia corymbosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 119; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 447; EPFP 3 (1923) 493; --Hedyotis biflora var. corymbosa (L.) Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 46(2) (1877) 133; --Gerontogea corymbosa (L.) Cham. & Schltdl., Linnaea 4 (1829) 154; --Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam., Tab. Encyc. 1 (1791) 272. Africa, tropical and subtropical Asia, introduced elsewhere. Throughout the Philippines. Often common in and near settlements, gardens, waste places, etc. Note: According to the Global Rubiaceae Checklist, identity of Philippine plants so-named uncertain.
  5. Oldenlandia filifolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 64; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 126; --Hedyotis filifolia (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 497; --Type: Merrill 3295. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan. On coastal bluffs. 
  6. Oldenlandia herbacea (L.) Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 445; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 448; EPFP 3 (1923) 493; --Hedyotis herbacea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 102. Tropical Africa and Asia. LUZON: Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Bulacan, Rizal, GUIMARAS.
  7. Oldenlandia horneriana Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 190; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 494; --Hedyotis horneriana (Miq.) Fukuoka, South East Asian Stud. 8 (1870) 335, non Miq. (1857). Sumatra, ?Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan, based on Cuming 974. According to Merrill (1923), known only from the original description.
  8. Oldenlandia radicans (Bartl. ex DC.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 292; --Exallage radicans (Bartl. ex DC.) Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Tweede Sect. 48(2) (1952) 142; --Metabolos radicans Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 435. --Hedyotis ramosii Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 35; EPFP 3 (1923) 500; --Type: BS 15337 Ramos (L, US, iso), Leyte: Leyte prov., mtns back of Dagami, in forests, Aug-1912. --Hedyotis irosinensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3248; --Type: Elmer 17394 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan, Sep-1916. Borneo(?), Philippines, New Guinea, Australia (Queensland). LUZON: Pangasinan, Bulacan, Rizal, Quezon, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), CATANDUANES, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Low elevation forests.
  9. Oldenlandia yoderi Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 17; --Hedyotis yoderi (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 976; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 501; --Type: Yoder s.n., Panay: Antique prov., Mt Madiaas, Apr-1905. --Oldenlandia banksii Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 19; --Hedyotis banksii (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 976; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 495; --Type: CS Banks s.n., Negros: Negros Occidental prov., Mt Kanlaon, Mar-1902. --Hedyotis elmeri Merr., PJS 1 (15 Apr 1906) suppl. 127; EPFP 3 (1923) 497; --Syntypes: Elmer 6834, 6979, 9198. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE. Mossy forests, 1000-1800m. Synonym of Oldenlandia banksii Elmer?

Ophiorrhiza L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos

  1. Ophiorrhiza argostemmoides Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3254; --Type: Elmer 16345 (PNH, holo, lost; MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Jun-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON.
  2. Ophiorrhiza biflora Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 21; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 501; --Type: Copeland s.n., Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, on mossy logs, c. 2000m, Oct-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur (Mt Apo). Mossy forests, c. 1800m.
  3. Ophiorrhiza caespitulosa Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 523; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 502; --Type: Elmer 10332. --Ophiorrhiza caespitulosa var. fulva Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1880. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY, NEGROS, MINDANAO (Agusan del Norte). Damp primary forests, c. 1050m.
  4. Ophiorrhiza camiguinensis Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 5: 1881 (1913). Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO
  5. Ophiorrhiza ciliata Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3256; --Type: Elmer 17544 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., Mt Makiling, Jun/Jul-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Photos
  6. Ophiorrhiza curtiflora Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1882; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 502; --Type: Elmer 14208 (BISH, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, Cabadbaran, in wet, deeply humus-covered soil of an alluvial nature in a dense forested depression at 3500ft N of Duros. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Primary forest, c. 1050m.
  7. Ophiorrhiza davaensis Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 363, t. 26; --Type: BS 49307 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, possibly lost; A, iso), Mindanao: Davao Oriental prov., Mati. Mar/Apr-1927. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental (Mati). Along stream banks and open places at low elevation. Known only from the type collection.
  8. Ophiorrhiza dolichophylla Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 470; --EPFP 3 (1923) 502; --Type: BS 36565 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Zamboanga District, Mt Tubuan, Oct-1919. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Boulders along small streams.
  9. Ophiorrhiza inaequifolia Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3257. Endemic tot the Philippines. LUZON.
  10. Ophiorrhiza involucrata Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 351; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 501; --Type: Elmer 7603. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Quezon, POLILLO. Low and medium elevation forests along streams, ascending to 750m.
  11. Ophiorrhiza lancilimba Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 491. Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL.
  12. Ophiorrhiza linearifolia Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 99; --EPFP 3 (1923) 502; --Type: BS 16109 Reillo (US, iso), Basilan: Basilan prov., Comalarang, in forests, 29-Aug-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN. Lowland forests, apparently along streams.
  13. Ophiorrhiza liukiuensis Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 2 (1912) 89. --Ophiorrhiza japonica var. kuroiwai (Makino) Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 7 (1938) 195; --Ophiorrhiza kuroiwae Makino, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 20 (1906) 5, nom. nud.; --HJ Li & HY Liu, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 311, pl. 141, photo 187. --Ophiorrhiza mungos Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 502, non L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 150 Ryukyus, Taiwan (Lanyu and Lutao), Philippines. BATAN. The plant is characteristically purplish when dry. Wu et al. (2011) consider Ophiorrhiza kuroiwae Makino a valid name and include Ophiorrhiza liukiuensis Hayata as its synonym.
  14. Ophiorrhiza macgregorii Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 437; --EPFP 3 (1923) 502; --Type: BS 23024 McGregor (US, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., Jun/Aug-1915. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon. Primary forests, 200-300m.
  15. Ophiorrhiza maquilingensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3258; --Type: Elmer 17536 (PNH, holo, lost; MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., Mt Makiling. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. Photos
  16. Ophiorrhiza mungos L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 150; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 502, excl. Batan plants. Sri Lanka, India, Nicobar Isls, Burma, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, ?Philippines. N LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. According to Merrill (1923), not certainly distinct from the Linnean species. Plant is said to be characteristically purplish when dry. According to Govaerts et al. 2011 not recorded for the Philippines.
  17. Ophiorrhiza oblongifolia DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 415; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 502. --Ophiorrhiza triandra Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 65. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela to Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, POLILLO, BILIRAN, PANAY, NEGROS, MINDANAO. In forests, chiefly along streams at low and medium elevation. Photos
  18. Ophiorrhiza oblongilimba Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 164; --EPFP 3 (1923) 503; --Type: BS 27139 Ramos. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Lowland forests along streams.
  19. Ophiorrhiza ovata Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 438; --EPFP 3 (1923) 503; --Type: BS 23163 McGregor. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon. Low and medium elevation forests, along rocky stream embankments.
  20. Ophiorrhiza pinatuboensis Ruhsam, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 157 (2008) 120; --Ophiorrhiza bicolor Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3211, 3212, nom. illeg., non Craig (1932); --Type: Elmer 21958 (PNH, holo, lost; MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Pampanga prov., Mt Pinatubo, Camp Stotsenburg, May-1927. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pampanga.
  21. Ophiorrhiza pubescens Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 68; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 503; --Type: Elmer 14971. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Open grasslands along streams at low and medium elevation.
  22. Ophiorrhiza pubiflora Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 438; --EPFP 3 (1923) 503; --Type: BS 29253 Ramos & Edaño. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Forests, apparently at c. 1000m.
  23. Ophiorrhiza pulgarensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1342; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 503; --Type: Elmer 12949. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Forests, up to 450m. Synonym of Ophiorrhiza pumila Champ. ex Benth.?
  24. Ophiorrhiza sorsogonensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3260. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON.
  25. Ophiorrhiza stenophylla Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 436, nom. illeg.; --EPFP 3 (1923) 494, erroneously as ‘Oldenlandia stenophylla’; non Ophiorrhiza stenophylla Valeton (1912); --Type: BS 22591 Ramos & Deroy. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cavite. On rocks along streams, c. 600m.
  26. Ophiorrhiza tenuis Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 440; --EPFP 3 (1923) 503, nom. illeg., non Ridl. (1912); --Type: BS 29785 Ramos & Edaño. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Forests, apparently at c. 1000m.
  27. Ophiorrhiza undulata Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 46; --EPFP 3 (1923) 503; --Type: Weber 1445 (US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Binutun, on banks of small streams in bamboo forests, 26-Oct-1911. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao. Along small streams in bamboo forests, c. 550m. Photos
  28. Ophiorrhiza venosa Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 304; --EPFP 3 (1923) 503; --Type: Merrill 5628. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO, SIBUYAN, PANAY, SIARGAO. Lowland primary forests.
  29. Ophiorrhiza zambalensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3212. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON.

Dubious taxa

  1. Ophiorrhiza acuminata DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 416; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 501. “The type ia a specimen collected at Sorsogon, LUZON, by Haenke. I know the species only by description. Endemic.” –Merrill, l.c.

Oxyceros Lour.

Photos
  1. Oxyceros bispinosus (Griff.) Tirveng., Nordic J. Bot. 3 (1983) 466; --Randia bispinosa (Griff.) Craib, Fl. Siam. 2 (1932) 99; --Stylocoryna bispinosa Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 4 (1854) 260. --Randia uncaria Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 30; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 529; --Type: Elmer 7001 (NY, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Nov-1904. --Randia williamsii Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1004; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 529; --Type: Elmer 12474. Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Zambales, Bataan, Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN, PANAY, LEYTE, SAMAR, BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Low and medium primary forests. Photos

Paederia L.

Photos
  1. Paederia foetida L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 52; --Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 159; ibid. ed. 2 (1845) 112; ibid. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 201, t. 54; --Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 112; --Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 29, t. 57, Fig. K; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 28; --Merr., Interp. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 489; EPFP 3 (1923) 570. Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr., Contrib. Arn. Arb. 8 (1934) 163. Paederia tomentosa Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 968; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 455. Sri Lanka, India, E Himalayas, Nepal, Bangladesh, Burma, Tibet, China, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Hainan, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, Korea, N & C Japan, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, Christmas Is. Introduced in Mauritius, Reunion, Bismarck Archipelago, Hawaii and Florida. Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation thickets.
  2. Paederia verticillata Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 968; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 570. Paederia verticillata Blume var. tomentella Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1885; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 570. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi.

Paralasianthus H.Zhu

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 March 2015

No Photos
  1. Paralasianthus dichotomus (Korth.) H.Zhu, Phytotaxa 202 (2015) 275; --Mephitidia dichotoma Korth., Nederlansch Kruidkundig Archief (1851) 224; --Type from Indonesia. --Lasianthus furcatus (Miq.) Bremek., Candollea 16 (1957) 94, in adnot.; --Canthium furcatum Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 252; --Type from Indonesia. --Geniostoma acuminatissima Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 432; EPFP 3 (1923) 309; --Type: Ramos & Edaño BS38837 (iso, L), Mindanao. --Lasianthus cyaneus (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 566; --Plectronia cyanea Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1887; --Type: Elmer 13854 (iso, L), Mindanao. Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Thailand, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO. In primary forests, 800-1300m.
  2. Paralasianthus zhengyianus H.Zhu, Phytotaxa 202 (2015) 275; --Type: Ramos & Edaño 0310376, BS38840 (L, holo), Mindanao: Mt. Candoon. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO.

Pavetta L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Pavetta barnesii Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 2; --Type: Elmer 6788 (NY, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Nov 1904. India, E Himalayas, Bangladesh, Nepal, S China, Hainan, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces. Lowland primary forests, often common. Merrill (EPFP 3 (1923) 544) considered this a synonym of Pavetta indica L. and L.L.Co considered this a synonym of Pavetta indica L. var. glabrescens (Kurz) Deb & Rout, but Govaerts et al. (2011) recognize it as a distinct species. According to Govaerts et al. (2011), Pavetta indica L. does not occur in the Philippines. Photos
  2. Pavetta basilanensis Bremek., Fedde, Repert. 37 (1934) 87. Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN
  3. Pavetta batanensis Bremek., Fedde, Repert. 47 (1939) 24; --Type: BS 3748 Fenix (GH, iso), Batanes. May-Jun 1907. Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN
  4. Pavetta brachyantha Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 47; EPFP 3 (1923) 544; --Type: RS Williams 1077 (US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, Jun-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. In ravines, 1300-2000m.
  5. Pavetta cumingii Bremek., Fedde, Repert. 37 (1935) 109; --Type: Cuming 1322 (L, NY, iso), Luzon: Albay prov. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON:
  6. Pavetta dolichostyla Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 239; EPFP 3 (1923) 544; --Type: FB 3714 Merritt. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Lowland forests.
  7. Pavetta elmeri Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 475; EPFP 3 (1923) 544; --Type: Elmer 6394. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Thickets or forests, c. 1400m.
  8. Pavetta leytensis Bremek., Fedde, Repert. 47 (1939) 26; --Type: Wenzel 1731 (GH, holo?). 10-Apr-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE:
  9. Pavetta luzonica Bremek., Fedde, Repert. 37 (1934) 109; --Type: BS 94 Adduru (A, holo?). Luzon: Cagayan prov., Peñablanca, Littoc, 28/31-May-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON:
  10. Pavetta membranacea Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 59; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 545; --Type: BS 7634 Ramos. --Pavetta sambucina Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 41, nom. illeg. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Bataan, Rizal. Low or medium elevation thickets or forests.
  11. Pavetta mindanaensis Bremek., Fedde, Repert. 37 (1934) 88; --Type: Elmer 11233 (NY, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur prov., Mt Apo, Todaya, dry fertile soil of wooded flat lands at 1500ft, Jul-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur.
  12. Pavetta parvifolia Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 183; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 545; --Type: Cuming 1394. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija, Zambales, MINDORO. Lowland thickets.
  13. Pavetta phanerophlebia Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 478; EPFP 3 (1923) 545; --Type: BS 326 Bermejos. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Low and medium elevation forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  14. Pavetta polyantha (Hook.f.) Wall. ex Bremek., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 37 (1934) 103. E. Himalaya to S. China and Philippines. Not included in L.L.Co's version of the checklist, but reported for the Philippines by Wu et al. (2011).
  15. Pavetta subferruginea Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 477; EPFP 3 (1923) 545; --Type: Merrill 831. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Lowland forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  16. Pavetta williamsii Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 475; EPFP 3 (1923) 545; --Type: RS Williams 2631. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, DINAGAT. Forests, up to 900m.

Pertusadina Ridsdale = Adina

 Petunga DC. = Philippine spp. now in Hypobathrum and Aidia, q.v.

 Plectronia L. = Canthium

Pleiocarpidia K.Schum. = Urophyllum

Praravinia Korth.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Praravinia acuminata (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 43; --Urophyllum acuminatum Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 129; EPFP 3 (1923) 521; --Type: Whitford 236 (NY, US, syntypes), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, May 1904. The US sheet annotated by R. Buchner as holo. Praravinia streptopodium Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 40, non Wall. ex Hook. (1880). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province (Mt Masapilid), Isabela (Mt Moises), Nueva Ecija (Mt Umingan), Rizal (Montalban; Mt Lumutan; Mt Irig (= Irid); Mt Canumay). In primary forest, 500-1300m. Photos
  2. Praravinia affinis (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 46; --Urophyllum affine Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 481; EPFP 3 (1923) 521; --Type: BS 28716 Ramos & Edaño (A, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Binuang, on forested slopes, apparently at low elevation, May 1917. Iso sheet in A sterile; a syntype cited in the original protologue is BS 28482 Ramos & Edaño (A, staminate), also collected on Mt Binuang in May 1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (Mt Binuang; Mt Tulaog). According to Bremekamp, BS 10211 McGregor (L) from POLILLO might belong here, but is much less hairy. In damp primary forest, at low elevation.
  3. Praravinia everettii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 107; --Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 44; --Williamsia everettii (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 524; --Type: FB 7294 Everett, Negros: Negros Occidental prov., Mt Silay, on ridges in forests, 700m, 9-May-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Silay), Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns). Primary forests, c. 700m. Very near P. lucbanensis (Elmer) Bremek.
  4. Praravinia glabra (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 44; --Williamsia glabra Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 108; EPFP 3 (1923) 524; --Type: BS 9484 Robinson (L). Luzon: Quezon prov., Siniloan trail, in forests, c. 200m, Aug-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija (Mt Umingan), Quezon (Siniloan trail), Laguna (San Antonio; unspecified locality for BS 23047 McGregor). Low and medium elevation primary forests. Bremekamp also cites here a collection from ALABAT, BS 48249 Ramos & Edaño, with oblong leaves, probably representing an undescribed species.
  5. Praravinia loheri (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 45; --Williamsia loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 58; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; --Type: Loher 12309, Luzon: Rizal prov., Montalban, Oct-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Kalinga (Mt Masingit, Lubuagan), Quirino (Mt Alzapan), Quezon (Mt Binuang), Rizal (Montalban). According to Bremekamp, closely related to P. sablanensis (Elmer) Bremek.
  6. Praravinia longistipula (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 46; --Williamsia longistipula Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 485; EPFP 3 (1923) 524; --Type: Merrill 7287 (K, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Agusan River at Waloe, in damp forest, c. 50m, 2-Oct-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Low elevation primary forest. Apparently known only from the type collection.
  7. Praravinia lucbanensis (Elmer) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 43; --Urophyllum lucbanense Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 71; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 521, pro parte; --Type: Elmer 7945 (A, L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Lucban, overhanging stream banks of wooded ravines, 850m, May-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija (Mt Umingan), Rizal (Montalban; Mt Angilog), Laguna (San Antonio), Quezon (Lucban), POLILLO, CATANDUANES. Low and medium elevation primary forests, usually along water courses.
  8. Praravinia microphylla (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 43; --Urophyllum microphyllum Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 161; EPFP 3 (1923) 523; --Type: BS 26389 Ramos (US, holo), Luzon: Nueva Ecija prov., Mt Umingan, in forest near the mountain summit, 1000m, 20-Aug-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija (Mt Umingan). In primary forest, c.1000m. Known with certainty only from this locality. The elevation given for the type is way below that of the mountain’s summit which is c. 1900m. A collection from Quirino prov., Mt Alzapan (BS 45581 Ramos & Edaño, A, staminate) is doubtfully referred here by Bremekamp, who also notes that it could perhaps be a stunted P. acuminata (Merr.) Bremek.
  9. Praravinia mimica (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 44; --Williamsia mimica Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 495; EPFP 4 (1925) 251; --Type: BS 38790 Ramos & Edaño (US, holo; iso: A), Mindanao: Bukidnon prov., Mt Candoon, damp forested slopes, c. 1000m, Jun/Jul-1920. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon (Mt Candoon). Forested slopes, c. 1000m.
  10. Praravinia mindanaensis (Elmer) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 44; --Williamsia mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1904; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 524; --Type: Elmer 13561 (US, holo; iso: L, MO, NY), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, Cabadbaran, Aug-1912. --?Williamsia caudata Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 389; --Type: Wenzel 686 (A, US, iso), Leyte: Leyte prov., Buenavista near Jaro, 18-May-1914. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY, BILIRAN, LEYTE: Leyte (Buenavista; Abuyog), Southern Leyte (Cabalian), SAMAR: Northern Samar (Catubig River), MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao del Sur (Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley), Davao (Mt Apo, Todaya), Davao Oriental (Mt Galintan), Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta, Cabadbaran), Surigao del Norte. Low and medium elevation primary forests, ascending to 900m. According to Bremekamp, specimens from outside Mindanao may necessitate the reinstatement of Merrill’s epithet caudata.
  11. Praravinia multinervia (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 46; --Williamsia multinervia Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 107; EPFP 3 (1923) 524; --Type: Merrill 8085 (L, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River Mtns back of San Ramon, in damp forests, 600-900m, 28-Nov-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga (Sax River Mtns), Zamboanga del Sur (Malangas). Primary forests, 400-900m.
  12. Praravinia negrosensis (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 46; --Urophyllum negrosense Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 247; EPFP 3 (1923) 524; --Type: FB 5550 Everett, Negros: Negros Occidental prov., Himugaan River, in ravines, c. 50m, 25-Oct-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Himugaan River). In primary forests at low elevation. In addition, Bremekamp cites Herre 1140 from Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns, 1200-1800m), which comes very near to P. multinervia (Merr.) Bremek. Photos
  13. Praravinia panayensis (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 46; --Williamsia panayensis Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 484; EPFP 3 (1923) 524, non Urophyllum panayense Merr., ibid. 482; --Type: BS 31043 Ramos & Edaño (US, holo; iso: A, K). Panay: Capiz prov., Jamindan. In damp forests along small streams, Apr/May-1918. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY: Capiz (Jamindan). Low elevation forests along streams. Three collections cited by Bremekamp, all from Jamindan .
  14. Praravinia pubescens (Quisumb. & Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 47; --Williamsia pubescens Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 208; --Type: BS 47275 Ramos & Edaño (A, 2 sheets, US, iso), Luzon: Isabela prov., Mt Moises, 1200m, Mar-1926. Note: Buchner annotates the US sheet as holo, contrary to statement in the original publication, i.e. in PNH). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela (Mt Moises). 1200m. Aside from the type, two other collections from this locality: Clemens 16852 and 17000 (K, NY),
  15. Praravinia quadribracteolata (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 43; --Urophyllum quadribrateolatum Merr. PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 483; EPFP 3 (1923) 523; --Type: BS 28161 Fenix (A, holo), Luzon: Apayao prov., Ngagan, in damp forest, 8-May-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao (Ngagan), Quezon (Infanta-Siniloan Trail). In damp forest at low or medium elevation.
  16. Praravinia sablanensis (Elmer) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 45; --Williamsia sablanensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 165; --Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1000, excluding Mindanao specimens cited; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 524, as to specimens cited from Luzon only; --Urophyllum sablanense Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 39; --Type: Elmer 6131 (US, holo, fide Buchner in annot.; iso: NY), Luzon: Benguet prov., Sablan, Apr-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra (Mt Posuey, = Posooy), Benguet (Sablan), La Union (Tonglon, = Mt Sto. Tomas), Cagayan, Isabela (Palanan), Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal (Mt Angilog), Laguna, Quezon. Low and medium elevation forests. Photos
  17. Praravinia stenophylla (Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 44; --Williamsia stenophylla Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 59; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; --Type: Loher s.n., Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya prov., Caraballo Mtns, Mar-1915. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya (Caraballo Mtns). Habitat not known. Difference with P. glabra (Merr.) Bremek. is apparently slight. P. stenophylla has narrower and not so completely glabrous leaves.
  18. Praravinia triflora (Quisumb. & Merr.) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 47; --Williamsia triflora Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 210; --Type: BS 45458 Ramos & Edaño (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Aurora prov., Casiguran, forested streams at low elevation, 5-May-1925. Note: Buchner annotates the US sheet as holo, contrary to statement in the original publication, i.e. in PNH). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora (Casiguran). Low elevation forest. Apparently known only from the type collection.
  19. Praravinia viridescens (Elmer) Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 43; --Williamsia viridescens Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3215; --Type: Elmer 22078 (L, K, MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Pampanga prov., Mt Pinatubo, Camp Stotsenburg, 1000m, pistillate, May-1927. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pampanga (Mt Pinatubo), Bataan (Mt Mariveles).

Prismatomeris Thwaites

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Prismatomeris brachypus Ridl., Kew Bull. (1940) 602. E. Philippines. Photos
  2. Prismatomeris obtusifolia Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 492; EPFP 4 (1925) 251; --Type: BS 41193 (A). Busuanga. Endemic to the Philippines. BUSUANGA, PALAWAN. In thickets near the sea.
  3. Prismatomeris tetrandra (Roxb.) K.Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4 (1891) 138; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 572. Photos

Psychotria L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Psychotria acuminatissima Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 353; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 552; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 228, Fig. 124; --Grumilea acuminatissima (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 132; --Type: Elmer 8752 (US, lecto; A, K, MO, NY, W, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, limestone shrubbery below Antop barrio, c. 1000m, Mar-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Baguio; Road to Asin, Mountain Trail = Halsema Road), Aurora (Mt Alzapan), Nueva Vizcaya (Caraballo Mtns), Rizal (Montalban). Shrubby forests, including those on limestone outcrops, c. 1000m. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Jan, Mar, Dec. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1925.
  2. Psychotria alabatensis Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 142, Fig. 74; --Type: BS 48006 Ramos & Edaño (K, holo; A, BM, K, NY, UC, iso), Alabat: without further locality data, Sep/Oct-1926. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (Umiray), ALABAT (Villa Norte to Barangay Bacung, Sitio Canumay), CATANDUANES (Mt Nagpakdit). Low elevation (including sea-level) moist forest. Flowering: Mar; Fruiting: May, Jun, Sept to Oct. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in Alabat in 1996.
  3. Psychotria alzapaniensis Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 123, Fig. 64; --Type: BS 45688 Ramos & Edaño (BM, holo; K, NY, UC, iso), Luzon: Aurora prov., Mt Alzapan, on mossy forest slopes at c. 1600-1700m (‘5000 ft’), 20-May-1925. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora (Mt Alzapan). Forest, including ‘mossy forest’, c. 1600-1700m. Flowering: Apr to Jun. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)], or possibly Extinct [EX]. Only collected once in 1925.
  4. Psychotria amaracarpoides (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 552; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 71, Fig. 34; --Grumilea amaracarpoides Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 134; --Type: FB 8120 Curran & Merritt (US, lecto; NY, isolecto), Luzon: Zambales prov., Mt Tapulao (= High Peak), Nov/Dec-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra (Mt Posooy), Mountain Province (Mt Masapilid), Nueva Vizcaya (Caraballo Mtns), Zambales (Mt Tapulao), Bataan (Mt Mariveles; Lamao River), Rizal (Mt Tocduanbanoy), MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (Paluan), Unspecified locality for FB 8638 Merritt. Primary forests, 1000-1600m. Flowering unknown; Fruiting: Jan-Mar., Jun, Oct.-Dec. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Vulnerable [VU B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1926. [But apparently photographed by L. Co in 2007!]. Photos
  5. Psychotria amplissima Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 444; EPFP 3 (1923) 552; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 125, Fig. 65; --Type: BS 15198 Ramos (US, lecto), Leyte: Leyte prov., Dagami, along streams in forests, 9-Aug-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE (Dagami; unspecified locality for Wenzel 1628 & 1751), SAMAR: Northern Samar (Catubig River), Western Samar (Mahagna, Tarabucan; Mt Sohoton, Babasian Na Daku River), MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Diuata Mtns), Surigao (Sukailung). Moist forests, sometimes near streams, low elevations (eg. 150m). Flowering: Aug; Fruiting: Feb ruary to Apr. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1970. [But apparently photographed by L. Co in 2010!]. Photos
  6. Psychotria arborescens Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1030; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 552; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 94, Fig. 48; --Grumilea arborescens (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 130; --Type: Elmer 11263 (US, lecto; A, BISH, BM, GH, K, L, MO, NY, W, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao del Sur prov., Mt Apo, Todaya, 4000 ft, Aug-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN (Mt Suiro), LEYTE: Southern Leyte (Cabalian), prov. unknown (Mt Abucayan), MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo, Todaya). Primary forests, c. 1000-1200m. Possibly lower in Leyte. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Aug. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Vulnerable [VU B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1954.
  7. Psychotria balabacensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 127; EPFP 3 (1923) 553; --Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 365, t. 27; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 115, Fig. 60; --Type: BS 21605 Escritor (PNH, holo, lost; UC, lecto; BM, P, US, isolecto), Balabac. Jan-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES (Balatubat), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Pinamalayan), PALAWAN (Bonabona), URSULA, BALABAC (Mt Caunayan), LUMBUCAN. Forests at low elevation. Moist forest, low elevation. Flowering: May, Sep; Fruiting: Sep. Last collected in 1957. Conservation status: Vulnerable (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007; DAO 2017-11). Photos
  8. Psychotria banahaensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 26; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 553; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 186, Fig. 99; --Grumilea banahaensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 132; --Type: HN Whitford 983 (US, lecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Banahaw, Oct-1904. Endemic to the Philippines.
  9. Psychotria barkleyi Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 26, Fig. 8; --Grumilea longipedunculata (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 133; EPFP 3 (1923) 562; --Psychotria longipedunculata Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1027; non (Gardener) Muell.-Arg. (1881); --Type: Elmer 12532-a (US, lecto; A, BISH, BM, GH, K, L, MO, NY, W, isolecto), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, along Patos River in very humid, alluvial forest at 250m, May-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte (Bicol National Park, NE), SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting). Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Vulnerable [VU B1ab(iii)]. Not be L.L.Co: Last collected in 1994. Photos
  10. Psychotria bataanensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 23; --Merr., PJS 1 Suppl. 1 (1906) 134; EPFP 3 (1923) 553; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 89, Fig. 45; --Grumilea bataanensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 132; --Type: Elmer 6980 (K, lecto; NY, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Nov-1904. --Grumilea alvarezii (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 132; --Psychotria alvarezii Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 56; --Type: FB 22189 Alvarez (not seen, presumably lost or destroyed), Luzon: Nueva Ecija prov., Dec-1910. --Grumilea rizalensis (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 130; --Psychotria rizalensis Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 57; EPFP 3 (1923) 562; --Type: Loher 6345 (K, lecto), Luzon: Rizal prov., Montalban, Jul-1905. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija ((Mt Umingan; unspecified locality for FB 22189 Alvarez), Bataan (Mt Mariveles; Lamao River; Mt Kuyapo), Rizal (Mt Lumutan; Montalban). Montane forest on ridges, 700-1600m. Flowering: Jan, Oct; Fruiting: Jan, May, Jul to Dec. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1947.
  11. Psychotria bayombongensis Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 203, Fig. 109; --Type: Vidal 3068 (K, holo; A, iso), Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya prov., Bayombong, Mar-1886. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Kalinga (Balbalan), Cagayan (Claveria), Nueva Vizcaya (Bayombong). Primary forest, unknown. Flowering: May; Fruiting: unknown. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)] or possibly Extinct [EX]. Last collected in 1948.
  12. Psychotria boholensis Merr. ex Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 131, Fig. 69; --Type: BS 43201 Ramos (PNH, holo; BM, UC, W, iso), Bohol: Bohol prov., Kalingohan (?), rocky forest, 29-Jan-1923. Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL: Bohol (Kalingohan; Bilar). Relatively dry or well-drained forest, including secondary forest; recorded on limestone, 600-700m. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Jan, Mar, Aug, Oct. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1993.
  13. Psychotria bontocensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914, publ. 1915) Bot. 456; EPFP 3 (1923) 553; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 166; --Type: Vanoverbergh 2610, Luzon: Mountain Province, Bauco, along streams, c. 1500m, 9-Mar-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Kalinga (Mt Masingit, Lubuagan), Mountain Province (Bauco; Bontoc; Mt Masapilid), Ifugao (Banawe, Batad), Benguet (Pauai), Rizal (Balacbac), ROMBLON (based on Elmer 12165, I suspect this was actually from Mt Giting-giting in Sibuyan), MINDANAO: Agusan (without further locality data, FB 24524 Miras & Oliveros). Montane forests, in ravines and by streams, 1300-1800m. Note: Pauai in Benguet is at least 2200m. Flowering: Mar to Jun, Fruiting: unknown. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Near Threatened [NT]. Last collected in 1967.
  14. Psychotria cadigensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 175; EPFP 3 (1923) 553; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 23, fig. 5; --Type: BS 25484 Yates (US, lecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Cadig, in forests, 350-500m, Dec-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (Mt Cadig). Forest, 350-500m. Flowering: Dec; Fruiting: Dec. The type number cited by Merrill in the original protologue was not seen by Sohmer & Davis, hence their designation of the syntype, BS 25533 Yates, as lecto (BM, lecto; isolecto at K,P). A duplicate of the type number has been located at US. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Extinct (EX). Known only from two collections from Mt Cadig collected in 1916.
  15. Psychotria capizensis Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 445; EPFP 3 (1923) 553; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 170, Fig. 90; --Type: BS 30657 Ramos & Edaño (A, lecto; K, US, isolecto), Panay: Capiz prov., Mt Madia-as, in forests, 13-May-1918. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY: Capiz-Antique (Mt Madiaas). A recent collection, Busemeyer et al. 350 (PNH, CMNH, PUH, MU), is from a primary forest near the peak, 1430m. probably at medium elevation, otherwise unknown. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Apr-May. Conservation status: Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)] or possibly Extinct [EX]. Known from two collections, one of which was last collected in 1992.
  16. Psychotria cardiophylla Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 446; EPFP 3 (1923) 553; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 164, Fig. 86; --Type: BS 29166 Ramos & Edaño (A, lecto; K, P, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Infanta-Siniloan Trail, along small streams in forests, 12-Jun-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (road between Infanta-Siniloan). Forests along streams, low elevation. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Jun. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Extinct [EX]. Known only from the type specimen collected in 1917.
  17. Psychotria casiguraensis Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 208, Fig. 112; --Type: BS 45291 Ramos & Edaño (BM, holo; K, NY, P, US, iso), Luzon: Aurora prov., Casiguran, along stream in forest, 4-May-1925. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora (Casiguran), Quezon (Infanta-Siniloan Trail). Low elevation moist forest, including streamside forests. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: May, Jun. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Extinct [EX]. Last collected in 1925.
  18. Psychotria castroi Merr. & Quisumb. ex Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 98, Fig. 50; --Type: PNH 5855 Castro & Añonuevo (L, holo; K, iso), Samar: Eastern Samar prov., Borongan, Pinangasan. Primary forest, 150m, 23-Jun-1948. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR: Eastern Samar (Borongan, Pinangasan; Mt Apoi). Low elevation primary forest, 150m. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Jun. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1969.
  19. Psychotria catanduaniensis Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 184, Fig. 98; --Type: BS 75589 Ramos & Edaño (NY, holo), Catanduanes: Masanganbahi, forested streams, 520 ft, 21-Aug-1928. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Sur (Lagonoy), CATANDUANES (Masanganbahi), PANAY: Capiz (Hamanay?), Aklan (Libacao). Forests, including streamside forest, sea level to c. 160m. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Apr, May, Aug. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1928.
  20. Psychotria cephalophora Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 438; EPFP 3 (1923) 554; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 60, Fig. 27; --Grumilea cephalophora (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 133; --Type: BS 4048 Fénix (US, lecto), Camiguin de Babuyanes: in forests, 27-Jun-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, CATANDUANES, PANAY: Aklan (Libacao). Forest at low and medium elevation. Flowering unknown; fruiting: Jun. Specimens identified as this species from Taiwan (eg. Chang 8721, K) are similar to the Philippine species but are not conspecific. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Vulnerable [VU B1ab(iii)].
  21. Psychotria christarusselliae Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 39, Fig. 15, --Type: BS 43230 Ramos (P, holo; A, BM, K, iso), Bohol: without precise locality. Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL. Ecology not known. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Aug-Oct. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)] or possibly extinct [EX]. Known only from the type specimen collected in 1948.
  22. Psychotria conglomeratiflora Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 120, Fig. 62; --Type: PNH 6306 Sulit (PNH, holo; A, L, PNH, iso), Samar: Western Samar prov., Bagacay, bank of Kansulaban Creek, in dipterocarp forest, c. 200m, 26-Apr-1948. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR: Western Samar (Bagacay, bank of Kansulaban Creek), Eastern Samar (Borongan, Tagaslian). Primary dipterocarp forest, 150-200m. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Apr to Jun. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)] or possibly extinct [EX]. Last collected in 1948.
  23. Psychotria cordatula Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 447; EPFP 3 (1923) 554; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 166, Fig. 87; --Type: BS 37854 Ramos & Edaño (A, lecto; K, US, isolecto), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Masapilid, mossy forest, c. 1250m, 15-Mar-1920. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province (Mt Masapilid), Ifugao (Banawe, Bayninan; Mt Hagada, Bgy. Pula). Mid-montane forest, inclusing secondary forest, 1250-1600m. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Mar, Jul, Aug. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1992.
  24. Psychotria crassifolia Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1869) 205; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 155, Fig. 82; --Type: from Borneo. --Psychotria malayana auctt., non Jack.
  25. Psychotria crispipila Merr., PJS 1 (1906) suppl. 240; EPFP 3 (1923) 554; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 111, Fig. 59; --Grumilea crispipila (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 133; --Type: Merrill 4490 (K, lecto; NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Data, in mossy forest, 2200m, Nov-1905. --Psychotria fusca (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 556; --Grumilea fusca Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) 171; --Type: BS 26232 Ramos & Edaño, Luzon: Nueva Ecija prov., Mt Umingan (= Mingan), 14-Aug-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra (Mt Posuey), Mountain Province (Mt Data; Mt Pukis), Ifugao (Mt Polis), Benguet (Mt Tabayoc (= Tabeyo); Mt Pulag; Mt Libung; Bontoc Trail (= Halsema Road), between km post 88 to 59; Pauai; Baguio; Mt Tonglon (= Mt Sto.Tomas); Libo-libo (Loher 1514); without further locality data (BS 5581 Ramos), Aurora (Sierra Madre WSW of Baler), Nueva Ecija (Mt Umingan = Mingan), Rizal (Bosoboso), Camarines Sur (Mt Potianay), PANAY: Antique (Mt Madia-as, Culasi, Hangod Tubig). Montane forests, including drier types, chiefly between 1695-2500m, much lower elevation in Rizal prov. Flowering: Mar, Jul, Nov; Fruiting: Jan to Mar, Jun, Sept, Oct. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Near Threatened (NT). Last collected in 1992. Photos
  26. Psychotria cuernosensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 521; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 554; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 45, fig. 18; --Type: Elmer 10076 (L, lecto; A, BISH, BM, GH, K, MO, NY, P, US, W, isolecto), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, mossy forests at c. 1500m, May-1908. --Psychotria mearnsii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 126; --Type: FB 4770 Mearns & Hutchinson (US, lecto), Mindanao: Misamis Occidental prov., Mt Malindang, along Malabug River, 500m, May-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (north coast, Subaan River headwaters, inland from San Teodoro; Mt Halcon; Mt Ilong), PANAY: Antique (Mt Madiaas; Mt Baloy; unspecified localities), Capiz (Mt Bulilao), NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Canlaon; Mt Malbug), Negros Oriental (Matangwa River; Cuernos Mtns), LEYTE (unspecified locality), MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental (Mt Malindang), Bukidnon (Mt Candoon; Mt Kitanglad), Davao del Sur (Mt Apo), South Cotabato (Mt Apo, Kidapawan side), Agusan (Mt Malaampayan), Surigao del Norte (Kabatuan). Primary and secondary forest, including ‘moss forest’, 500-2000m. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Least concern (LC). Last collected in 1992. Photos
  27. Psychotria cuneata Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3261; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 63, Fig. 29, --Type: Elmer 17170 (UC, lecto; A, BISH, BM, GH, K, L, NA, NY, MO, P, PNH, US, isolecto), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, woody ravine at medium elevation, Sep-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), TABLAS (San Andres, Mt Pan-ayong). Forests, including disturbed, ravines and ridges, recorded on limestone at 450m in Tablas. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1996.
  28. Psychotria diffusa Merr., PJS 1 (1906) suppl. 134; EPFP 3 (1923) 554; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 52, Fig. 22; --Type: Elmer 6811 (NY, lecto; K, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Nov-1904. --Grumilea microphylla (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 130; --Psychotria microphylla Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 522; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 559; --Type: Elmer 9505 (L, lecto; A, BISH, BM, K, MO, NY, US, W, isolecto), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns. Moss-covered forests at 4500ft, Mar-1908. Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  29. Psychotria dingalanensis Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 171, Fig. 91; --Type: Jacobs 7654 (K, holo; L, iso), Luzon: Aurora prov., Sierra Madre Mtns NNE of Dingalan, primary dipterocarp forest, 300-400m, 12-Mar-1968. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora (Sierra Madre Mtns of Dingalan), primary dipterocarp forest, 300-400m. Flowering: Mar; Fruiting: Mar. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)], or possibly Extinct [EX]. 
  30. Psychotria elliptifolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 66; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 555; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 47, Fig. 19; --Type: Elmer 7943 (A, lecto; K, L, NY, US, W, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Banahaw, wet mossy region at 1600m, Apr-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Vulnerable (VU B1ab(iii)). Last collected in 1994.
  31. Psychotria elliptilimba Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 448; EPFP 3 (1923) 555; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 92, Fig. 46; --Type: BS 30534 Ramos (US, lecto; A, K, P, isolecto), Catanduanes: Sto. Domingo River on low elevation forested slopes, 3-Dec-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES. Only known from the type collection. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Extinct (Ex). Only collected once in 1917.
  32. Psychotria elmeriana Hochr., Candollea 5 (1934) 270; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 41, Fig. 17; --Psychotria epiphytica Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1890, --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 555, non Krause (1909); --Type: Elmer 14199 (A, lecto; BISH, BM, GH, K, L, MO, NY, P, UC, US, W, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta. Wet, stony forested slopes at c. 1800m, Oct-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Laylay, 10 km from San Teodoro), MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Forest, c. 1800m. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Vulnerable (VU B1ab(iii)). Last collected in 1985.
  33. Psychotria fenicis Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 449; EPFP 3 (1923) 555; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 176, Fig. 94; --Type: BS 29914 Fenix (US, lecto; L, isolecto), Luzon: Pangasinan prov., Labrador, Mt San Isidro, Nov-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan (Labrador, Mt San Isidro), Zambales (Mt Tapulao = High Peak; Masinloc, Coto Mines; San Marcelino, Mt Aglao; Mt Pinatubo; Subig = Subic), Bataan (Mt Natib: slopes at Tawawa; Bagac side of Mt Natib, Bgy. Banawang, Sitio Ulingan; without further locality data for FB 23223 Alhambra & Canlas). Dry forest or well drained ridge forest, including secondary forest; recorded on rocky soils, 200-400m. Flowering: May, Nov; Fruiting: Apr, Nov-Jan Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1992.
  34. Psychotria foxworthyi Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 145, Fig. 76; --Type: BS 657 (NY, holo; GH, K, iso), Palawan: without further data, Mar/Apr-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Ecology unknown. Flowering: Mar, Apr; Fruiting: Mar, Apr. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)] or possibly Extinct [EX]. Known only from type specimen collected in 1906.
  35. Psychotria frakei Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 147, Fig. 78; --Type: PNH 38038 Frake (A, holo; L, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Norte prov., locality not legible, 2-Jan-1958. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte (Tulaln; Dikus). Primary or secondary forests, 300-600m. Flowering Jan; fruiting: Nov-Jan Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1958. Three collections cited by Sohmer & Davis.
  36. Psychotria galintanensis Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 188, Fig. 101; --Type: BS 48899 Ramos & Edaño (UC, holo; NY, iso), Mindanao: Davao Oriental prov., Mt Galintan, on forest slopes at 1000m, 13-Jun-1927. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental (Mt Galintan). Forest, low to medium elevation, eg. c. 1000m. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Jun. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)] or possibly Extinct [EX]. Only known from the type specimen collected in 1927.
  37. Psychotria gitingensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1024; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 556; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 157, Figs. 84, 85; --Type: Elmer 12431 (BM, lecto; A, BISH, GH, K, L, MO, NY, P, US, W, isolecto), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, Magallanes (= Magdiwang), on forested ridge, 2750 ft, May-1910. --Grumilea similis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 134; --Psychotria similis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1025; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 563; --Type: Elmer 12439 (GH, lecto; BISH, L, NY, US, isolecto), Sibuyan: Magallanes (= Magdiwang), Mt Giting-giting, ‘in red soil compressed in between rocks of a wind-swept forested ridge at 3000ft, May-1910. --Grumilea versicolor (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 130; --Psychotria versicolor Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1352; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 564; --Type: Elmer 12763 (A, lecto; BISH, BM, GH, K, L, MO, NY, P, US, W, isolecto), Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (= Thumb Peak), banks of Iwahig River, Mar-1911. --Psychotria lucida Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 452; --Type: BS 29716 Ramos & Edaño (US, lecto; A, K, NY, P, isolecto), Luzon: Rizal prov., Mt Lumutan, Jul-1917. --Psychotria malayana auctt., non Jack Philippines and possibly Borneo. Endemic to the Philippines. CALAYAN, LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Bangui to Claveria), Mountain Province (as former Lepanto District for Vidal 1488), Cagayan (Baguio Cove), Pangasinan (Bolinao, Luciente I), Nueva Ecija (Caraballo Mtns), Aurora (Baler, Cemento, on road c. 8 km from Baler), Rizal (Mt Angilog; Mt Irid; Mt Batay; Mt Lumutan; Montalban), Batangas (no further locality data for Cuming 1526), Quezon (Quezon National Park, Pinagbanderaan Trail), Camarines Norte (Paracale), Albay (no further locality data for Vidal 3054), POLILLO, MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (Mt Iglit-Baco National Park, Calintaan, Barangay Poypoy, Sitio Sapaton), Mindoro Oriental (Puerto Galera; Mt Halcon; Pinamalayan; Bongabon and Pinamalayan; Mt Yagaw, E slopes), PALAWAN [Puerto Princesa (Irawan River valley; base of Mt Beaufort, Tatanarom), Aborlan (Victoria Mtns; Trident Mining area), Brookes Point, Pulot), Mt Gantung; Mt Mantalingahan], SEMIRARA, TABLAS (San Andres, Bgy. Marigondon Sur, Sitio Barkwang); SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting; Mt Punong; Jaosan-Punong River trail; Magdiwang, SE of Binalabag), MASBATE (Masbate, Milagros, Bgy. Matipuron, Sitio Kalunakan, 7-R Ranch), PANAY: Antique (Mt Madia-as; San Remigio; unprecise locality for BS 32511 McGregor), Magosolon Aklan (Libacao; Mt Timbaban; Mt Macosolon = Magosolon), Capiz (Mt Bulilao), Iloilo (Mt Salibongbong; Miag-ao), GUIMARAS (Buenavista, Bgy. Tubod), DANJUGAN (off Cauayan, Negros Occidental prov.), CEBU (Alcoy, Manguera Forest; Mantalongon; Carmen, Corte, Malac), LEYTE: Leyte (Palo; Mt Abucayan; unprecise locality for Wenzel 1297, 1361, 1376 & 1416), SAMAR: province uknown (Quinay, for Vidal 1481c), Western Samar (Basey, Bgy. Hinamok, Pinabacdao, near Lakes, vicinity of km 56 and Bgy. Cambayan; Paranas, Bgy Lokilokon, Sitio Kapinyahan; San Juanico), Eastern Samar (Balangiga, Bgy. I, Sitio Cantinoc), TAWI-TAWI (Birad-dali; Languyan), JOLO (Mt Dajo), BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga (without further locality data, Merrill 11621), Misamis (without further locality data, FB 17986 Miranda), Agusan del Norte (without further data, FB 20734 Rafael & Ponce), Surigao del Sur (Adlay), Surigao (unprecise localities for BS 34616 & 36416 Ramos & Pascasio), DINAGAT (Loreto; Cambinliw, Santiago), PONEAS ISLET (near SIARGAO), BUCAS GRANDE (N end, Bgy. Salug, Sitio Lawigan). Moist forest, including beach and mangrove forest, and secondary forest, sometimes on cultivated lands, on well-drained soils and limestone, 0-1000m. Flowering: Jan to Sept; fruiting all year round. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Least Concern (LC). Last collected in 1996. Photos
  38. Psychotria gracilipes Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) 52; EPFP 3 (1923) 556; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 226, Fig. 123; --Type: Weber 1572 (A, lecto; GH, K, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Cagayan prov., Abulug River, rocky, forested hillside on limestone, 5-Feb-1912. --Grumilea gracilipes (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 132. --Psychotria isarogensis (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 556; --Grumilea isarogensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 136; --Type: BS 1553 Ramos (BM, lecto; A, L, MO, NY, P, isolecto), Luzon: Camarines Sur prov., Mt Isarog, mossy forest, 29-Nov-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan (unspecified locality for FB 14776 Darling), Quirino (Mt Alzapan), Camarines Sur (Mt Isarog), Sorsogon (unspecified locality for BS 23700 Ramos), BILIRAN (Mt Suiro), CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Davao Oriental (Mt Mayo; Mt Kampalili), Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta), Cabadbaran). Moist to wet forest, c. 700-1800m. Flowering: Mar, Apr; Fruiting: Jan, Apr to Aug, Oct. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Near Threatened [NT]. Last collected in 1988.
  39. Psychotria hilonghilongensis Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 220, Fig. 119; --Type: PNH 10760 Mendoza & Convocar (A, holo; L, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Hilong-hilong, Cabadbaran, mossy forest ridge, 1050m, 29-Apr-1949. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Hilong-hilong), in mossy forest, 1050m. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)]. Only known from the type specimen collected in 1949.
  40. Psychotria ilocana (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 556; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 220, Fig. 120; --Grumilea ilocana Merr., PJS 12c (1917) Bot. 173; --Type: BS 27456 Ramos (K, lecto; A, NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Bangui, low elevation forest, Feb-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Bangui; Burgos), Zambales (without further locality data, for BS 4704 Ramos). Dry forest, low elevation. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Feb, Mar. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)] or possibly Extinct [EX]. Last collected in 1918.
  41. Psychotria iridensis Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 134, Fig. 70; --Type: BS 48443 Ramos & Edaño (A, holo; BM, K, NY, UC, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., Mt Irid, on damp forest slopes, 13-Nov-1926. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao (Mt Bobor, Barangay Batad), Rizal (Mt Angilo; Mt Irid; unspecified locality for Loher 6402). Forests, including disturbed and possibly secondary forest, 1000-1700m. Flowering: Apr; Fruiting: Feb, Apr, Nov. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Vulnerable (VU B1ab(iii)). Photos
  42. Psychotria iwahigensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1351; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 556; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 31, Fig. 11; --Type: Elmer 13052 (NY, lecto; BM, L, isolecto), Palawan: Mt Pulgar, in forests at c. 100m, Apr-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN (Cleopatra Ranges, Barangay Tanabag, Sitio Calabayog; Mt Pulgar; Rizal, Barangay Ransang, Balen-balen). Low elevation humid forests c. 100m. Flowering unknown; fruiting Apr, Jun. Last collected in 1996. Conservation status: Vulnerable (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007; DAO 2017-11).
  43. Psychotria ixoroides Bartl. ex DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 522; --Merr., EPFP (1923) 556; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 41, Fig. 17; --Type: Haenke, sn. (PR, holo), Luzon: without precise locality. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Burgos), Isabela (Palanan Bay), Pangasinan (Mt San Isidro Labrador), Nueva Ecija (Mt Umingan), Bataan (Mt Mariveles; unspecified locality), Bulacan (Angat; Norzagaray), Rizal (Mt Susong Dalaga; Mt Irid; Tanay, San Isidro; unspecified locality), Quezon (Atimonan, Quezon National Park; Malikboy; Pagbilao; Tagkawayan; Mt Cadig), Camarines Sur (vicinity of Bicol National Park; Mt Asog), Albay (unspecified locality), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan and Bulusan Lake; Casiguran; Castilla), POLILLO, ALABAT, CATANDUANES (Simamla), MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (Paluan), Mindoro Oriental (Inland from San Teodoro, at and above Subaan Reserve; Puerto Galera), PALAWAN (Taytay, Lake Manguao; Puerto Princesa; Mt Victoria, Aborlan, Mt Iraan; Quezon, Bundog near Sumindap River; San Antonio Bay, Brookes Point, lower slopes of Mt Mantalingahan; Rizal, Ransang, Madubis; BALABAC (Pasig Bay; Panaan), PANAY: Antique (Valderrama, lower slopes of Mt Baloi), Aklan (Libacao), CEBU: Cebu (Alcoy, Manguera Forest), BILIRAN (Mt Suiro; Naval, Libtong), LEYTE: Leyte (Palo; Dagami, Mt Top), SAMAR: Eastern Samar (Balangiga), Western Samar (Paranas, Campo Uno), MINDANAO: Davao Oriental (Mt Galintan), Surigao (unspecified locality; Sukailang); Surigao del Sur (Hinatuan), DINAGAT (Mabini, Tubajon; unspecified locality), SIARGAO and adjacent PONIAS Islet. Disturbed vegatation generally liked logged-over and secondary forest and coconut plantation, reported on limestone and lateritic soils, from sea-level to 700m. Flowering Jan-Jun; fruiting: Feb, Aug., Sept. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Least Concern (LC). Last collected in 1997. Photos
  44. Psychotria lagunensis (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 556; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 174, Fig. 92; --Grumilea lagunensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 169; --Type: BS 23826 Ramos (K, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Laguna prov., San Antonio, in damp forest, 19-Oct-1915. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quirino (Mt Alzapan), Rizal (Montalban; Mt Susong Dalaga; Mt Lumutan; Mt Irid), Laguna (Majayjay; San Antonio), Quezon (Mt Binuang; Tagkawayan), Camarines Norte (Paracale), Camarines Sur (Sarapan), POLILLO (Anibawan), ALABAT, CATANDUANES (no further locality data, 3 collections). Moist forest and forested slopes, 70-1532m. Flowering: Mar; Fruiting: Jun to Dec. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Vulnerable [BU B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1928.
  45. Psychotria lanaensis (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 557; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 52; --Grumilea lanaensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 136, --Type: Clemens 924, Mindanao: Lanao del Sur prov., Camp Keithley. Swamps at c. 750m, Jun-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao (Banawe: Bayninan), MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (Mt Calavite), SIBUYAN: Mt Giting-giting, DINAGAT: Krominco, Mt Redondo, open pit mine. Primary and disturbed forests, including swamp forest, 650-700m. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Near Threatened. Last collected in 1991. Photos
  46. Psychotria lancilimba Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 451; EPFP 3 (1923) 557; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 103; --Type: BS 29713 Ramos & Edaño (US, lecto), Luzon: Rizal prov., Mt Lumutan, Jul-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Baguio), Nueva Vizcaya (Caraballo Mtns), Zambales (without further locality data, for BS 5018 Ramos), Rizal (Mt Irid; Mt Batay; Mt Lumutan; Mt Mapatag). Lower montane forest, 600-1000m. Flowering: Jul; fruiting: Jul. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1926.
  47. Psychotria leptothyrsa Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugtd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 208; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 557.
  48. Psychotria lianoides Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1029; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 557; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 47, Fig. 20; --Type: Elmer 11645 (P, lecto; A, BISH, BM, GH, K, L, MO, NA, NY 2 sheets, US, W, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao del Sur prov., Mt Apo, Todaya. Humid forest along Baruring River on trail to Talon at c. 1300m, Sep-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur (Mt Apo). Humid forest, 1200-1300m. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)]. Only known from the type specimen collected in 1909.
  49. Psychotria linearis Bartl. ex DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 522; --Merr., EPFP (1923) 557; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 58, Fig. 25; --Type: Haenke sn (PR, holo), Luzon: “in ins. Manila prope Sorzogon”. --Psychotria depauperata Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 174; EPFP 3 (1923) 554; --Type: Merrill 10487 (US, lecto; A, BM, K, L, NY, P, PNH, isolecto), Alabat: back of Sangirin on dry ridges in virgin forest area at c. 100m, 23-Dec-1916. --Amaracarpus longifolius Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 1; --Type: Merrill 4000 (PNH?, holo; US, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Atimonan, Mar-1905. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija, Rizal (Mt Susong Dalaga; Mt Irid; Tanay, San Isidro), Quezon (Mt Pular; Mauban; Atimoman), Camarines (no further locality data), ALABAT, SAMAR: Western Samar (Mt Sohoton; Basey). Relatively dry ridge forest, 100-500m. Some of the cited localities are in predominantly limestone areas. Fl. Aug, Nov; fr. Jan, Mar, Aug-Oct, Dec. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Vulnerable [VU B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1970.
  50. Psychotria loheri Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 356; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 557; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 234, Fig. 128; --Grumilea loheri (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 132; --Type: Elmer 8584 (K, lecto; A, L, NY, US, W, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Sto Tomas, ‘dense oak woods at 7500 ft’, Mar-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Mt Darna), Abra (unspecified locality for BS 7062 Ramos), Mountain Province (Bauco; Mt Data; unspecified locality for Vanoverbergh 2861), Benguet (Baguio; Mt Sto Tomas), Zambales (Sta Cruz, Acoje Mine concession area. Sta Cruz), LEYTE: Leyte (Buenavista near Jaro). Mostly in the higher montane sites, including mossy forests, 1300-2200m. Presumably at considerably much lower elevations in Zambales province and Leyte.
  51. Psychotria longipedicellata Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 22; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 557; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 63, Fig. 28; --Grumilea longipedicellata (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 133; --Type: HN Whitford 907 (K, lecto; NY, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Lagumanoc, Sep-1904; --Syntype: FB 1727 WW Clark (NY, US), Burias, Jun-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora (Mt Dingalan), Quezon (Lagumanoc), BURIAS (no further locality data). Low elevation forests. Flowering: Jun; Fruiting: Sept, Nov. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [(CR B1ab(iii)] or Extinct [Ex]. Last collected in 1910.
  52. Psychotria longissima Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 206; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 179, Fig. 95; --Type: BS 45681 Ramos & Edaño (UC, lecto; A, K, NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Aurora prov., Mt Alzapan, forested slopes, c. 1300m, 7-Jun-1925. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora (Mt Alzapan). Forests, c. 1300m. Flowering: May, Jun; Fruiting: unknown. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [(CR B1ab(iii)] or Extinct [Ex]. Known only from the type specimen collected in 1925.
  53. Psychotria luzoniensis (Cham. & Schltdl.) Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 157; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 558; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 201; --Coffea luzoniensis Cham. & Schltdl., Linnaea 4 (1829) 32; --Grumilea luzoniensis (Cham. & Schltdl.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 131, as ‘luçoniensis’; --Type: Chamisso sn, (LE, holo; K, iso), ‘Luçonia’. --Psychotria tacpo (Blanco) Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) 21 (1884) 312; --Paederia tacpo Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 160; --Type: Unknown. Endemic to the Philippines. Widely distributed throughout the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Pagudpud, Bgy Dampig, Sitio Nalanus; Bangui; Mt Palimlim; Mt Pico de Loro; Nueva Era to Mt Semenublan; Mt Burnay; Mt Bubungkayo en-route from Sto. Niño to Miner’s camp; unspecified locality for FB 13972 Merritt & Darling), Abra (Sallapadan, Poblacion Cangal; Masissiat), Ilocos Sur, Kalinga (Lubuagan, Mabuntat), Mountain Province (Bontoc), Benguet (Sablang = Sablan; Trinidad to Kapangan; Baguio; between Baguio & Sablan; Tonglon = Mt Sto Tomas; La Union (Sta. Rita; Bauang), Cagayan (Mt Bawa; Mt Caboloan; Peñablanca), Isabela (Ilagan to Echague), Nueva Vizcaya (Carasacas; vicinity of Dupax; unspecified locality), Pangasinan, Zambales (unspecified locality for BS 34666 Edaño; HERMANA MAYOR IS; Mt Pinatubo), Bataan (Limay; Mt Mariveles), Pampanga (Arayat; Mt Pinatubo, Camp Stotsenburg), Rizal (Manila; Quezon City: Balara, Novaliches, & San Francisco del Monte; Pasig; Antipolo; Bosoboso; San Mateo (Comision Flora Forestal 1455), Montalban; Mt Mapatag; Mt Angilog; Mt Irid; Mt Pinagbayanan & San Andales = San Andres; Mt Susong Dalaga; Teresa, Kay Ungulan), Laguna (Los Baños; Mt Makiling; Calauan; Sta. Maria; Pagsanjan), Quezon (Infanta; Pagbilao; Guinayangan, Salakan), Cavite (Mt Palay-palay National Park; Palicpican River; Pico de Loro), Batangas (Mt Maculot; Mataas na Kahoy; inland from Malabrigo Point), Camarines Sur (Pili), Albay (Daraga), Sorsogon (Castilla; Mt Bulusan, Irosin), POLILLO, ALABAT (Bgy. Bacung, Sitio Canumay), MINDORO: unspecified prov. & locality for FB 19932 Amarillas; Mindoro Occidental (Abra de Ilog, S (?) Alatin; Iriron), Mindoro Oriental (Subaan River, inland from San Teodoro; Puerto Galera, Mt Minolo & Mahabang Parang Cove; Mt Halcon; Pinamalayan), PALAWAN (Quezon, Lipuun Peak; unspecified locality for BS 561 Foxworthy), MALAPACKUN, MARINDUQUE (Torrijos, Bgy. Dampulan, Sitio Maulawin, Hawilian), MASBATE (Bgy. Tugbo; also unspecified localities for Merrill 3395, FB 12563 Rosenbluth), SEMIRARA (Caluya, Pungtod), PANAY: Antique (unspecified locality for BS 32459 McGregor), Iloilo (Miag-ao; unspecified locality for BS 18068 Robinson), GUIMARAS (Buenavista), NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Luzuriaga), Negros Oriental (San Jose, Calo; Cuernos Mtns). Forest, including primary, disturbed, and secondary forest; recorded from limestone and well-drained substrates, 0- c. 2000m but mostly below 700m. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Least Concern [LC]. Last collected in 1996. [But photograhed by L. Co in 2008]. Photos
  54. Psychotria macgregorii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 389; EPFP 3 (1923) 558; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 223, Fig. 121; --Grumilea macgregorii (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 133; --Type: Merrill 6495 (published as 8495) (US, lecto; NY, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Pulog (= Pulag), mossy forest above 2400m, May-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao (Mt Polis; Sumigar, Mt Pimmage), Mountain Province (Mt Data; Mt Amuyao, Barlig), Benguet (Mt Tabayoc = Tabeyo; Mt Pulag; Bokod, Lusod; Mt Pauai; Mt Tonglon = Sto.Tomas), Benguet-Nueva Vizcaya prov. borders (for FB 15841 Curran & Merritt), Nueva Ecija (Mt Umingan = Mingan); Rizal (Montalban, for Loher 1515), PALAWAN (Mt Manalsal; Mt Mantalingahan), DINAGAT (Mt Redondo, KROMINCO). Montane forest, including mossy forest, with one record from grassland; on ultramafics on Dinagat, (?700-)1500-2800m. Flowering: Jan, Mar to Jun; Fruiting: Jan to Jun, Sept.  Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Near Threatened [NT]. Last collected in 1996.
  55. Psychotria madulidii Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 60, Fig. 26; --Type: BS 78408 Edaño (A, holo), Luzon: Cagayan prov., Mt Cagua, Oct/Nov-1929. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan (Mt Cagua), PALAWAN (Mt Mantalingahan). Ecology unknown. Flowering unknown; Fruiting: Oct, Nov. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Vulnerable [VU B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1929.
  56. Psychotria magnifolia Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 453; EPFP 3 (1923) 558; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 120, Fig. 63; --Type: BS 28828 Ramos & Edaño (US, lecto; A, K, P, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Binuang, along small streams in damp forests, 11-May-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (Mt Binuang), Rizal (precise locality not known, based on Loher 15011 (UC). Moist forest, reported along streams, elevation unknown. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: May. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Extinct [EX]. Last collected in 1917.
  57. Psychotria manillensis Bartl. ex DC. Prodr. 4 (1830) 522; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 559; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 138, Figs. 73a, 73b; --Type: Haenke sn (PR, holo), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., without precise locality. --Psychotria propinqua (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 561; --Grumilea propinqua Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 170; --Type: BS 26570 Ramos & Edaño (K, lecto; NY, isolecto), Luzon: Aurora prov., Mt Dingalan, 27-Jan-1916. --Psychotria ridsdalei Sohmer & AP Davis, ined.; --Type: SMHI 1648 Ridsdale (L, holo; L, iso). Ryukyus, Taiwan (Lutao and Lanyu), and the Philippines. BATAN (Mt Iraya; Mt Matarem; along road from Itbud to Mahatao, DALUPIRI, CALAYAN (Balatubat, Salpad), CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES (Mt Malabsing; Camiguin Volcano), LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Bangui; Pagudpud, Dampig, Nalamus; Mt Pico de Loro; Mt Bubungkayo, from Sto Niño to Miner’s Camp, Mt Darna; Mangoratao; Dumalneg, Cabel, Simuba Mtns, Apayao (Mt Magnas), Ilocos Sur (Burgos), Cagayan (Sta. Praxedes, San Juan; Claveria, Kilkiling, Mt Taggat), Nueva Ecija (Mt Umingan, = Mingan), Bataan (Mt Mariveles, Lamao River), Bulacan (Angat Warershed area, Norzagaray, Barangay San Lorenzo); Rizal (Mt Irid; Montalban; Mt Mapatad, San Andres; Mt Tokduanbanoy), Laguna (Mt Makiling), Cavite (Ternate, Mt Palay-palay/Mataas na Gulod National Park, Ternate, Tala), Quezon (Mt Banahaw, Dolores, Kinabuhayan), POLILLO (Karlagan), ALABAT, CATANDUANES (Kasalugan), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Puerto Galera; Pinamalayan; Mansalay, Mt Naapug; Mt Yagaw, SE slopes), MASBATE (Milagros, Barangay Matipuron, Sitio Kalunakan, 7-R Ranch), PALAWAN (Puerto Princesa, Cabayugan; Mt Cleopatra Ranges; Quezon; Mt Balagbag), BALABAC, PANAY: Iloilo (Miag-ao), MINDANAO: South Cotabato. Primary forests (including remnant dipterocarp forest), disturbed forest, regrowth and regenerating forest, at the margins of forest (eg. near meadows and fields), and secondary forest; recorded on limestone, 50-900m. Flowering: Mar to Sept; Fruiting Jan, Aug, Nov. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Least Concern [LC]. Last collected in 1996. Photos
  58. Psychotria mariguidonensis Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 208, Fig. 113; --Psychotria longipetiolata Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 451, non Thwaites (1849); --Type: BS 30418 Ramos (K, lecto), Catanduanes: Sto. Domingo River and Mt Mariguidon, on forested slopes, Dec-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao (Banawe, Mt Taggutu), Isabela (Palanan, Dibungko), CATANDUANES (Mt Mariguidon). Lowland forest near sea level at Palanan, Isabela, possibly 1000-1200m in Ifugao, reported at c. 180m by Sohmer & Davis. Flowering unknown; Fruiting: Apr, Aug-Dec. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1991.
  59. Psychotria membranifolia Bartl. ex DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 522; --Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 124; EPFP 3 (1923) 559; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 115, Fig. 61; --Chasalia membranifolia (Bartl. ex DC) Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1032; --Type: Haenke sn (PR, holo), Luzon: without further locality data. --Psychotria membranifolia var. elmeri Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 124; EPFP 3 (1923) 559; --Type: Merrill 4083 (K, lecto; NY, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Atimonan. --Psychotria chasalioides Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 125; EPFP 3 (1923) 554; --Type: Elmer 12314 (MO, lecto; A, BISH, L, NY, US, isolecto), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, Apr-1910. New Guinea and probably many other places in Malesia. Found on nearly all the islands and island groups of the Philippines, although extirpated in many lowland areas. PALAUI, LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Mt Palimlim; Bangui to Claveria; unspecified locality for BS 7640 Ramos), Apayao (Mt Magnas), Cagayan (Gonzaga; Pinagteponan River), Isabela (Malunu; Palanan), Aurora (Casiguran), Nueva Ecija (Mt Umingan= Mingan), Pampanga (Mt Pinatubo, Camp Stotsenburg), Rizal (Mt Irid; Montalban; Mt Mapatag, San Andres), Laguna (Los Baños; Mt Makiling; Majayjay; Mt Banahaw), Quezon (Umiray; Mt Tulaog; Mt Binuang; Lucban; Mt San Cristobal, Dolores, Sta. Lucia; Kinabuhayan; Atimonan, Quezon National Park; Camarines Norte (Paracale), Camarines Sur (Buhi; Agosahis), Albay (Mayon Volcano), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan),  MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (Mt Sablayan), Mindoro Oriental (San Teodoro, Sibuang; Mt Halcon; Mt Ilong), SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting and vicinity), MASBATE (Masbate, Tugbo), CATANDUANES (Viga-Gigmoto area), MARINDUQUE (Dampulan, Matalim), PALAWAN: Palawan (Aborlan, Malasgao and Panalingajan River; Quezon, Sumindap River, Barangay Bundog; Mt Gantung), PANAY: Aklan (Libacao), Capiz (Jamindan; Mt Kinablan), CEBU (Argao, Poblacion Alcoy), BOHOL (Bilar, Logarita; Valencia; Dimyao), BILIRAN, LEYTE: Leyte (Ormoc, Tongonan; Ormoc, Mt Janagdan; Ormoc, Mt Mamban; SAMAR: Northern Samar (Catubig River), Western Samar (Mt Malingon, Paranas; Loquilocon; Mt Concord; Sohoton, Rawis, Eastern Samar (Mt Apoi; Oras; Borongan, Tagaslian; Balangiga), MINDANAO: Zambonga del Norte (Siuya), Zamboanga del Sur (Malangas), Zamboanga (San Ramon), Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta, Cabadbaran; Butuan), Surigao del Norte (Placer; Mt Kabatuan), BALUT, DINAGAT (Cambinliw, Santiago, Loreto), PONEAS ISLET off SIARGAO (Sunkoi Hill), SIARGAO. Mostly in primary forests (including mixed dipterocarp forest, and swamp forest) but also found in secondary forest (e.g. emerging from logged-over forest), quite often found near rivers; coral limestone, clay, and ultramafic rocks, 50-1300 (-1500)m. Flowering: Feb to May; Fruiting: Mar to Aug; Oct to Dec. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Least Concern [LC]. Last collected in 1996. Photos
  60. Psychotria mendozii Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 214, Fig. 116; --Type: PNH 10789 Mendoza & Convocar (A, holo; K, L, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Hilong-hilong, mossy forest slopes, 1333m, 21-Apr-1949. Endemic to the Philippines. BILIRAN (Mt Suiro, N slopes), MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Hilong-hilong). Forests, including mossy forest, and forested slopes; mid to higher elevations (eg. c. 1333m). Flowering: Apr and May; Fruiting: unknown. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)]. Last collected collected in 1954. 
  61. Psychotria merrittii Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 493; EPFP 4 (1925) 251; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 168, Fig. 88; --Type: BS 40599 Ramos & Edaño (P, lecto; A, K, US, isolecto), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Mt Halcon, on forested slopes at c. 1400m, 16-Mar-1922. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon: N face, Lantuyan; Subaan River, inland from San Teodoro). Usually at relatively high elevation (1350-1450m) mossy and stunted ridge forests, also at low elevtion (eg. 150-200m). Flowering: Mar to May; Fruiting: Apr. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)]. Last collected collected in 1991. 
  62. Psychotria merrittioides Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 142, Fig. 75; --Type: PNH 19774 Edaño (PNH, holo; K, L, PNH, iso), Luzon: Apayao prov., Mt Magnas, summit of mountain at ‘2900m’ (elevation very excessive, most probably in feet). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao (Mt Magnas). In forest. Flowering unknown; Fruiting: Jun. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)]. Only collected once in 1953.
  63. Psychotria mindanaensis Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 54; EPFP 3 (1923) 559; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 150, Fig. 79; --Grumilea mindanaensis (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 130; --Type: Merrill 8096 (P, lecto), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River Mtns back of San Ramon , between 800-900m, Nov-1911; --Syntype: Merrill 8084 (A, BM, K, L, P, US), Zamboanga, without further locality data, Nov/Dec-1911. --Psychotria malayana sensu auctt., non Jack. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal (Mt Lumutan), PALAWAN (Mt Victoria, Trident Mine), MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao Oriental (Mati), DINAGAT. Primary forest, 400-900m. Flowering: Nov; Fruiting: Nov, Dec. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Near Threatened [NT]. Last collected in 1984.
  64. Psychotria mindoroensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1031; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 559; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 36, Fig. 14; --Type: Elmer 12532b (PNH, lost), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, along Patos River in very humid, alluvial forest at 250m, May-1910; --Neotype: McGregor 312 (NY, neo; K, US, isoneo), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Baco River, Apr/May-1905. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora (Baler, Dasalit River), Laguna, Quezon (Umiray; Malbog; Atimonan: Quezon National Forest Park; Guinayangan), Camarines Sur (Caramoan, Barangay Caputatan), Albay (SE slopes of Mt Malinao), Sorsogon, POLILLO (Lukutan), CATANDUANES (Mt Nagpakdit), MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (Mt Iglit-Baco National Park), Mindoro Oriental (San Teodoro, Sibuang River Camp; Mt Halcon), PALAWAN (Iwahig River), PANAY: Capiz (Jamindan), BOHOL (Batuan River), LEYTE, BASILAN (Ayala, Udiongan), MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte (Fulalh; Muyar; Dipelawon), Lanao (Davis Falls), Misamis, Surigao del Norte (Maub Placer), Agusan del Norte (Butuan: Guinabasan). Wet forests, including disturbed dipterocarp and secondary forests, some collections reported on limestone, sea-level to 850m. Fl. Jan, May-Jun, Aug; fr.: Feb, Jun, Jul, Oct. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Near Threatened (NT). Last collected in 1995. [But photographed by L. Co in 2007]. Photos
  65. Psychotria nagapatensis Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 454; EPFP 3 (1923) 559; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 74, Fig. 36; --Type: BS 33193 Ramos (A, lecto; BM, K, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Mt Nagapatan, in forest on dry slopes, 700m, 8-Aug-1918. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Mt Nagapatan), PANAY: Antique (Valderama, Iki, Mt Baloi, W side), Capiz (Mt Salibongbong), BOHOL (Bilar, Logarita). Forest, including forest on dry slopes, 700-1600m. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Mar, Apr, Aug. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Near Theatened (NT). Last collected in 1995.
  66. Psychotria negrosensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 520; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 560; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 204, Fig. 110; --Grumilea negrosensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 131; --Type: Elmer 9686 (L, lecto; A, BM, K, MO, US, W, isolecto), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, steep wooded slope at 1060m, Mar-1908. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Silay), Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns, in the following sites: Lake Balinsasayao and Lake Danao). Midmontane forests, including forest with Agathis, 976-1060m. Flowering: Mar; Fruiting: May, Sept. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1991.
  67. Psychotria nitens (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 560; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 211; --Grumilea nitens Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 137; --Type: BS 21157 Escritor (K, lecto), Luzon: Isabela prov., Palanan Bay, 25-Jun-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Mt Nangaoto), Cagayan (ridge N of Baguio Cove; Peñablanca; Mt Babatngin), Isabela (Mt Moises; Palanan; 20km S of Palanan), Quezon (Mt Binuang), SAMAR: Western Samar (Mt Concord). Mossy forests and on forested slopes, 730-1100m, in Benguet up to 2400m. Flowering: Mar; Fruiting: May, Jun. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Near Threatened [NT]. Last collected in 1981.
  68. Psychotria obscurinervia Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 455; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot Misc. 27 (2007) 34, Fig. 13; --Type: BS 33077 Ramos (A, lecto; BM, K, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., between Bangui and Claveria in low elevation forest, 30-Aug-1918. --Psychotria vulcanica Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3264; --Type: Elmer 14431 (A, lecto; BISH, GH, K, L, MO, NY, P, UC, US, isolecto), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan. Forest, c. 200m, Oct-1915. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Sorsogon.
  69. Psychotria olsenii Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida, Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 20, Fig. 3, --Type: S Olsen 758 (L, holo), Tawi-tawi: Tarawakan, rainforest, 50m, 14-Nov-1961, fr. Endemic to the Philippines. TAWI-TAWI (Tarawakan). Lowland rainforest, 50m. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Nov. Conservation status (Sohmer & Davis): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)], or possibly extinct (EX). Only known from the type specimen collected in 1961.
  70. Psychotria palawanensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1348; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 560; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 136, Fig. 71; --Grumilea palawanensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 134; --Type: Elmer 12737 (A, lecto; BISH, BM, GH, K, L, MO, NY, US, W, isolecto), Palawan: Mt Pulgar, in a slightly wooded flat at 76m, Mar-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN (Mt Pulgar, = Thumb Peak; Tagimbong). Low and medium elevation forest, including those on well-drained soil. Flowering: Mar; fruiting: Mar. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1961.
  71. Psychotria palimlimensis Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida, Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 223, Fig. 122, --Type: BS 33364 Ramos (A, holo; K, P, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Mt Palimlim, Aug-1918. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Mt Palimlim; Mt Nagapatan; Mt Pico de Loro; Mt Darna). Forests, 1000m or less. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Feb, Mar, Aug. Conservation status (Sohmer & Davis): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1953.
  72. Psychotria pallidifolia Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 456; EPFP 3 (1923) 560; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 191, Fig. 102; --Type: BS 30510 Ramos (US, lecto; K, isolecto), Catanduanes: Mt Mariguidon and vicinity of Cololbong, on forested slopes, Nov/Dec-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan (Kilingkiling River), Isabela (Palanan, Diguyo), Zambales (Subic), Rizal (Mt Lumutan), Camarines Norte (Paracale), Camarines Sur (Kamugong River; Mt Potianay; Mt Bagacay); CATANDUANES (Mt Abucay; Mt Mariguidon; unspecified localities for BS 30320, 30567 & 30446 Ramos, BS 75440 Ramos & Edaño). Forest, including dipterocarp forest, 50-400m. Flowering: Apr, Sept-Dec; Fruiting: Sept-Nov. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Vulnerable [VU B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1992
  73. Psychotria paloensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 65, as ‘paloense’; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 560; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 194, Fig. 104; --Grumilea paloensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 131; --Type: Elmer 7056 (A, lecto; K, NY, isolecto), Leyte: Leyte prov., Palo, gently sloping wooden ravine, Jan-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  74. Psychotria panayensis Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 456; EPFP 3 (1923) 560; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 147, Fig. 77; --Type: BS 31198 Ramos & Edaño (K, lecto; US, isolecto), Panay: Capiz prov., Jamindan, moist forests along small streams, Apr/May-1918. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Sur (Botol River), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Ilong), PANAY: Capiz (Jamindan). Moist forest; recorded along small streams; elevation unknown. Flowering: Feb to May; Fruiting: unknown. Known only with certainty from Panay. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1948.
  75. Psychotria papillata (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 560; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 68, Fig. 31; --Grumilea papillata Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 138; --Type: BS 1701 Ramos (MO, lecto; A, BM, GH, L, NY, P, SING, US, isolecto), Samar: prov. Unknown, Cauayan Valley, in forests, along small streams, Apr-1914. Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES (Mt Abucay; also unspecified locality for BS 30517 Ramos), SAMAR: prov. not known (Cauayan River); Western Samar (Loquilocon. Forests, below 1000m. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Apr-Jun, Nov, Dec. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Vulnerable [VU B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1948.
  76. Psychotria paracalensis Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 20, fig. 4, --Type: BS 33697 Ramos & Edaño (A, holo; BM, P, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte prov., Paracale, Nov/Dec-1918. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte (Paracale). Habitat not known. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Nov, Dec. Conservation status (Sohmer & Davis): Extinct (EX). Known only from the type specimen collected in 1918.
  77. Psychotria patulinervia Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 206, Fig. 111, --Type: PNH 1420 Edaño (L, holo), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Miran River, in forest along stream at 1916m, 9-Nov-1946. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon (Tangculan), Davao del Sur (Mt Apo). Forest, and streamside forest, in high montane forest on Mt Apo (1916-2123m). Flowering: Aug to Nov; Fruiting: May to Jul, Oct. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1946.
  78. Psychotria pauciflora Bartl. ex DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 522; --Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 129; EPFP 3 (1923) 560; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 232, Fig. 127; --Type: Haenke sn, (PR, holo), Luzon: without further data. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Kalinga (Mt Masingit, Lubuagan), Benguet (unspecified locality for Loher 1511), Cagayan (Bauan, Mt Tabuan), Bulacan (Mt Biak na Bato, San Miguel; Angat Watershed Area, Norzagaray), Rizal (Tanay, Bgy. Sampaloc, Sitio Bayucan), Quezon (Mtns W of Philippine National Botanic Garden), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon). Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Vulnerable [VU B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1996.
  79. Psychotria paucinervia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 176; EPFP 3 (1923) 561; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 34, Fig. 12; --Type: BS 27055 Ramos (US, lecto; K, isolecto), Luzon: Abra prov., Mt Posooy, near summit of mountain in forests, 4-Feb-1917. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007):
  80. Psychotria phanerophlebia Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 243; EPFP 3 (1923) 561; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 131, Fig. 68; --Grumilea phanerophlebia (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 131; --Type: BS 7404 (US, lecto; K, isolecto), Luzon: Cagayan prov., near Pamplona, 17-Mar-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao (BS 28060 Fenix, cited by Merrill, 1923), Cagayan (near Pamplona; unspecified locality for BS 14506, cited by Merrill, 1923). Low elevation forests. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Extinct [EX]. Now apparently known only from the type collected in 1909. Two collections other than the type not accounted for by Sohmer & Davis.
  81. Psychotria philippensis Cham. & Schltdl., Linnaea 4 (1829) 21; --Uragoga philippensis (Cham. & Schltdl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 962. Not included in L.L.Co's version of the checklist. Endemic to the Philippines.
  82. Psychotria pilosella Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 353; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 561; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 106, Fig. 53; --Grumilea pilosella (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 131; --Type: Elmer 9213 (US, lecto; A, K, L, MO, NY, W, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Banahaw, in forested ravine at 850m, May-1907. --Psychotria heteromera Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 449; EPFP 3 (1923) 556; --Type: BS 28773 Ramos & Edaño (K, lecto; BM, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Binuang, in forest, c. 1000m, May-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  83. Psychotria pinnatinervia Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 26; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 561; --Sohmer & AP  Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 179, Fig. 96; --Grumilea pinnatinervia (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 131; --Type: Whitford 932 (US, lecto; K, NY, P, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Banahaw, Oct-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao (Banawe, Lugu), Cagayan (Mt Cagua; Mt Dos Cuernos; Mt Balatongan), Isabela (Mt Moises), Aurora (Mt Alzapan), Rizal (Montalban; Mt Paningtingan; Mt Lumutan; Balacbac; Antipolo; Bosoboso; Tanay, San Andres; Mt Irid; Mt Angilog), Laguna (Mt Makiling), Quezon (Mt Banahaw; Dolores; Lucban), Camarines Sur (Mt Isarog National Park, Ocampo), POLILLO (Barrio Apad), MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (Paluan), LEYTE: Leyte (Mt Abucayan). Drier parts of montane forests, 600-1600m. Flowering: Feb to May; Fruiting: Jan, Feb, May to Aug, Oct to Dec. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Near Threatened [NT]. Last collected in 1994.
  84. Psychotria piperi Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 457; EPFP 3 (1923) 561; --Sohmer & AP Davis,  Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 26, Fig. 7; --Type: BS 513 Piper, Mindanao: Surigao del Norte prov., Hinatuan, 16-May-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR: Western Samar (Mt Calbiga; Loquilocon, Wright; Paranas, Campo Uno), MINDANAO: Agusan del Sur (Mambalili, ERDS Experimental Forest), DINAGAT (Mabini, Tabajon; unspecified locality). Dipterocarp forests, 100-400m. Flowering Jan; Fruiting Apr, May. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Vulnerable [VU B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1996. Photos
  85. Psychotria plumeriifolia Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1026; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 561; --Sohmer & AP  Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 211; --Grumilea plumeriifolia (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot.  31; --Type: Elmer 12550 (US, lecto; A, BISH, BM, K, L, MO, US, W, isolecto), Sibuyan: Mt Giting- giting, Magallanes (= Magdiwang), along wooded banks at c. 250m, Apr-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Banus River), SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting). Lowland forests, including forests along streams, 100-250m. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1964. Photos
  86. Psychotria pubilimba Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 366, t. 28; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc.  27 (2007) 181, Fig. 97; --Type: BS 47221 Ramos & Edaño (A, lecto; A, BM, NY, isolecto), Luzon: Isabela prov., San Mariano, along streams in damp forests at c. 700m, 1-Mar-1926. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan (Ilang River), Isabela (San Mariano; Mt Moises; Palanan; Digallorin = Digollorin, Divinisa campsite). Streamside forest (along watercourses), or on forested slopes, (50-)610-1128m. Flowering: Apr, May; Fruiting: Mar to May. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1992.
  87. Psychotria pulgarensis Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 103, Fig. 53; --Psychotria  repens Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1349; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 562, non (L.) L.,1760; --Type: Elmer 12991 (L, lecto; A, BISH, BM, GH, K, MO, P, US, W, isolecto), Palawan: Mt Pulgar (= Thumb Peak),  in moist, dense forest, c. 80m, Apr-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN (Mt Pulgar), BALABAC (Mt Caunhayan; unspecified locality for BS 49793 Ramos & Edaño). Moist forest, c. 80m. Flowering: Apr; Fruiting: unknown. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1927.
  88. Psychotria pygmaea Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 458; EPFP 3 (1923) 561; --Sohmer & AP  Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 94, Fig. 47; --Type: BS 29271 Ramos & Edaño (US, lecto), Luzon: Rizal prov., Mt Susong Dalaga. In forests, 14-Aug-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal (Mt Susong Dalaga). Forest. Flowering: unknown; fruiting: Aug. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)] or possibly Extinct [EX]. Only known from the type specimen collected in 1917.
  89. Psychotria pyramidata Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1350; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 562; --Sohmer & AP  Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 150, Fig. 80; --Grumilea pyramidata (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 134; --Type: Elmer 13183 (NY, lecto; BISH, BM, L, isolecto), Palawan: Mt Pulgar  (= Thumb Peak), shaded forest near watercourses from c. 200-800m, May-1911.  Endemic to the Philippines. BUSUANGA, PALAWAN (Mt Capoas; Mt Pulgar; Irawan River Valley; Quezon, Bundog, Sumindap River; Ransang, Aga; Mt Mantalingahan). Undisturbed or disturbed moist forests, including dipterocarp forest and dipterocarp-swamp forest, 150-1200m. Flowering: Jan, Apr, May; Fruiting: Apr-Jun, Aug. Last collected in 1996. Conservation status: Vulnerable (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007; DAO 2017-11).
  90. Psychotria pyramidata X gitingensis. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN: Mt Beaufort. SMHI 265 (L, PNH).
  91. Psychotria quisumbingiana Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 136, Fig. 72; --Type: BS 43188 Ramos (UC, holo; BM, K, iso), Bohol: Bohol prov., Sevilla, along stream in the  forest, 15-Sep-1923. Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL: Bohol (Sevilla; Valencia). Humid forest, recorded near stream, 300-700m. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Aug-Oct. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)], or possibly Extinct [EX]. Last collected in 1923.
  92. Psychotria radicans (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 562; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27  (2007) 29, Fig. 9; --Grumilea radicans Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 139; --Type: Wenzel 1193 (BM, lecto; MO, isolecto), Leyte: Buenavista, near Jaro, in forests, c. 500m, 10-Oct-1914. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE (Buenavista, near Jaro; unspecified locality), SAMAR: Western Samar (Basey). Forests, 500-1000m. Flowering unknown; fruiting Oct. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Vulnerable (VU B1ab(iii)). Last collected in 1929.
  93. Psychotria ramosii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 244; EPFP 3 (1923) 562; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida  Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 170, Fig. 89; --Type: BS 7499 Ramos (US, lecto; K, isolecto), Luzon: Cagayan  prov., near Pamplona, 17-Mar-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan. Low elevation forest. Flowering: Mar; fruiting: unknown. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Extinct [EX]. Known only from the type specimen collected in 1909.
  94. Psychotria ramosissima Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 355; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 562; --Sohmer & AP  Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 50, Fig. 21; --Type: Elmer 9178 (US, lecto; A, K, L, MO,  NY, W, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Lucban. Dense shrubby forest of gulches at c. 200m, May-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon (Lake Bulusan), BOHOL: Bohol (unspecified locality), LEYTE: Leyte (unspecified locality), SAMAR: Northern Samar (Catubig River); Western Samar (Wright). Forests, 100-600m. Flowering: Feb-May, Jul, Aug., Fruiting: unknown. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Vulnerable [VU B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1947.
  95. Psychotria reynosoi Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 191, Figs. 2e, 103, --Type:  BS 44808 Ramos & Edaño (UC, holo; A, K, L, NY, P, US, iso), Luzon: Zambales prov., Mt Marayep. On forested slopes, c. 700m, 9-Dec-1924. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan (Mt Balatongan; Mt Cagua; unspecified locality), Isabela (Mt Moises; San Mariano: San Jose, Kapuntian and Agal; Palanan Forest Dynamics Plot); Quirino (Mt Alzapan), Aurora (Aurora National Park, San Luis, Bgy. Diteki, Sitio Dikong); Quezon (Mt Binuang), Zambales (Mt Marayep), Camarines Sur (Bagacay), NEGROS: Unspecified locality, but possibly Negros Occidental by Everett (FB 7258). Forested slopes, including good condition secondary forests, 400-1300m. Flowering: Mar, May; fruiting: Jun, Jul, Dec, Jan Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Near Threatened [NT]. Last collected in 1995. [But photographed by L. Co in 2004]. Photos
  96. Psychotria rigidifolia (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 128; EPFP 3 (1923) 562; --Sohmer &  AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 29; --Randia rigidaefolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 352; --Type: Elmer 9118 (A, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., road between Lucban and Sampaloc, in humid forest. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Camarines Sur (Mt Potianay), CATANDUANES (Mt Abucay; unspecified locality), BILIRAN (Mt Suiro), LEYTE (Dagami), SAMAR: Western Samar (Mt Calbiga). Humid low elevation forests. Flowering unknown; fruiting Aug. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Vulnerable [VU B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1954.
  97. Psychotria rubiginosa Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 25; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 135; EPFP 3 (1923) 562; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 127, Fig. 66; --Grumilea rubiginosa (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 131; --Type: Elmer 6718 (K, lecto; NY, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Nov-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  98. Psychotria sarcocarpa Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 53; EPFP 3 (1923) 563; --Sohmer & AP Davis,  Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 31, Fig. 10; --Type: Merrill 8077 (US, lecto; A, BM, K, L, P, isolecto), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur prov., Sax River Mtns, in wet, dense forest along small streams at  650-1000m, 27-Nov-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN (Udiongan, Ayala), MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Sur (Sax River Mtns). Forests, including disturbed dipterocarp forest; recorded from wet streamside forests, 600-1000m. Flowering unknown; fruiting Jun, Nov, Dec. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Vulnerable [VU B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1996.
  99. Psychotria scaberula Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 459; EPFP 3 (1923) 563; --Sohmer & AP  Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 89, Fig. 44; --Type: BS 35159 Ramos & Pascasio (US, lecto; K, isolecto), Dinagat, precise locality not known. Forest at low elevation, 11-May-1919. Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT. Two collections cited by Sohmer & Davis (2007). Low elevation forests. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: May. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)] or possibly Extinct (EX). Last collected in 1931. Photos
  100. Psychotria sibuyanensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1028; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 563; --Sohmer & AP  Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 23, Fig. 6; --Type: Elmer 12355 (BM, lecto; BISH, GH, K,  L, MO, NY, P, US, W, isolecto), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, forested ridge at c. 700m, Apr-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan (Claveria; Sta. Praxedes), SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting), PANAY: Antique (Mt Balingaso, 10km NE of Libertad), Capiz (Jamindan), MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte (Tubud Placer: Twagaau & Mawpayang), DINAGAT (Cambinliw, Santiago, Loreto; Anahaw, Kaantojan). Primary forests, including forest with dipterocarps and dipterocarp forests, also in open and exposed places such as ridges, 150-700m. Flowering Jan-May; fruiting Apr to Sept. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Near Threatened [NT]. Last collected in 1995.
  101. Psychotria sohotonensis Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 228, Fig. 125; --Type:  PNH 117798 Madulid et al. (L, holo), Samar: Western Samar prov., Mt Sohoton, Babasian Na  Gatti, 12km, Apr-1970. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR: Western Samar (Mt Sohoton). Moist forest, probably at low to mid elevations. Flowering: Apr; Fruiting: unknown. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)], or possibly Extinct [EX]. Last collected in 1970.
  102. Psychotria sorsogonensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3264; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27  (2007) 153, Fig. 81; --Type: Elmer 16772 (A, lecto; BISH, BM, GH, K, L, MO, NY, P, UC,  US, isolecto), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan, Irosin. Deeply shaded forest at 606m, Jul-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan). Humid forest, c. 600m. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Jul. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)], or possibly Extinct [EX]. Only known from the type specimen collected in 1916.
  103. Psychotria subalpina Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 64; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 563; --Sohmer & AP Davis,  Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 231, Fig. 126; --Grumilea subalpina (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 131; --Type: Elmer 7942 (K, lecto; A, L, NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Banahaw, Lucban, mossy forest, 1500m, May-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Mt Palimlim; Bangui to Claveria), Ifugao and Mountain Province (Mt Polis), Aurora (Mt Alzapan), Nueva Vizcaya (Caraballo Mtns), Laguna (Mt Banahaw), Quezon (Mt Banahaw; Banahaw de Lucban; Kinatakutan), Camarines Sur (Mt Isarog, W slope, Naga, Bgy. Panicuason), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon),  SIBUYAN (Mayos Peak), PANAY: Aklan (Mt Baloi, Libacao, Bgy. Dalagasaan, Sitio Tibulong), Capiz (Mt Madiaas, E slopes), NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Canlaon), CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental (Mt Malindang, Bgy. Lake Duminagat to Liboron), Bukidnon (Mt Lipa; Mt Kitanglad, Impasug-ong, Intavas), Davao (Mt McKinley). Humid forests, primary and disturbed, including ‘mossy’ and ‘elfin’ forest, 1200-2100m. Flowering: Mar to Jul; Fruiting: Jan to Oct. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Near Threatened [NT]. Last collected in 1995.
  104. Psychotria subcucullata Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 492; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27  (2007) 71, Fig. 33; --Type: BS 43144 Ramos (UC, lecto; A, K, P, US, iso), Bohol: Kalingohan,  rocky slopes in forest, 300-700m, 20 Aug-1923. Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL (Kalingohan; Bilar). Forest, on rocky slopes, 300-700m. Flowering unknown; Fruiting: Aug-Oct. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)], or possibly Extinct [EX]. Last collected in 1923.
  105. Psychotria subsessiliflora Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 24; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 563; --Sohmer & AP  Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 77, Fig. 37; --Grumilea subsessiliflora (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 131; --Type: HN Whitford 722 (P, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Atimonan, Aug/Sep-1904. --Psychotria edanoi Merr., EPFP 3 (1923)  555 as ‘edanoii’; --Grumilea brachybotrys Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 172, non Psychotria  brachybotrya Ridl. (1909); --Type: BS 26256 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo; K, iso), Luzon: Nueva Ecija prov., Mt Umingan (= Mingan), Aug-1916. [But photographed by L. Co in 2009]. Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  106. Psychotria sulitii Merr. & Quisumb. ex Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 100; --Type: PNH 6408 Sulit (A, holo; K, L, iso), Samar: Western Samar prov., Mt Calbiga, Wright.  Midmontane forest, c. 300m, 23-May-1948. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR: Western Samar (Mt Calbiga). Forest, c. 300m. Flowering: May; Fruiting: May. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)]. Only collected once in 1948.
  107. Psychotria surigaoensis Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 100, Fig. 51; --Type: BS 34581 Ramos & Pascasio (BM, holo; K, PNH, iso), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte prov., Apr-1919. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte (unspecified locality of type), DINAGAT (Loreto, Santiago, Canbilio). Forest, including dipterocarp forest, often near rivers, c. 50m. Flowering: Apr; Fruiting: Aug to Sept. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1991.
  108. Psychotria tayabensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 354; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 79, Fig. 39; --Grumilea tayabensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 133; --Type: Elmer 7581 (US, lecto; A, K, L, MO, NY, W, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Lucban, May-1907. Endemic to the Philippines.
  109. Psychotria urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1893; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 563; --Sohmer & AP  Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 74, Fig. 35; --Grumilea urdanetensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) 130; --Type: Elmer 13703 (UC, lecto; A, BISH, BM, GH, K, L, MO, NY, P, US, W, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, Cabadbaran, humid forest near Lake Danao, c. 1600m, Sep-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Humid forest, including mossy forest, 1500-1600m. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Sept. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)] or possibly Extinct [Ex]. Known only from the type collected in 1912.
  110. Psychotria vanoverberghii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914, publ. 1915) Bot. 457; EPFP 3 (1923) 563; --Type: Vanoverbergh 2818 (US, lecto; K, isolecto), Mountain Province, Bauco, in forests from 1300-1600m, Apr-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. Considered a synonym of Psychotria loheri Elmer by L.L.Co.
  111. Psychotria velutina Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1894; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 564; --Sohmer & AP Davis,  Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 176, Fig. 93; --Grumilea velutina (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 33; --Type: Elmer 13615 (UC, lecto; A, BISH, BM, GH,  K, L, MO, NY, P, US, W, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, Cabadbaran, in moist fertile soil of dense forest at 3500 ft, Aug-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (Malbog), MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Humid forest, c. 1060m. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Aug. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1923.
  112. Psychotria weberi Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 54; EPFP 3 (1923) 564; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida  Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 217, Fig. 118; --Grumilea weberi (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 133; --Type: Weber 1573 (US, lecto; A, GH, K, P, UC, isolecto), Luzon: Cagayan prov., Abulug River, rocky hillsides, c. 30m, Jan-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan (Abulug River; Peñablanca, near Lagum), Isabela (Mt Cresta; Mt Moises), Aurora (Casiguran, Mamator River), Quezon (Real, vicinity of Philippine National Botanic Garden), Camarines Norte (Mt Labo; Basud, Tuaca, Mt Nilisan), Camarines Sur (Kinaclan River; Ponawa River). Humid forest, including dipterocarp forest and secondary forest; along stream or on slopes, 30-610m. Flowering: Apr to Jun; Fruiting: May, Jun, Sept. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Endangered [EN B1ab(iii)]. Last collected in 1991.
  113. Psychotria wenzelii (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 564; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27  (2007) 94, Fig. 49; --Grumilea wenzelii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 140; --Type: Wenzel 1142 (MO, lecto; A, BM, isolecto), Leyte: Leyte prov., Buenavista near Jaro, in forests, c. 500m, 1-Oct-1914. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. Forest, 500-700m. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Oct. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)] or possibly Extinct [Ex]. Known only from the type collected in 1914.
  114. Psychotria yagawensis Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 66, Fig. 30; --Type: PNH  18687 Conklin (A, holo; L, PNH, iso,. Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Mt Yagaw, SE slope, 330m, 17-Jul-1953. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Yagaw). Forests, c. 330m. Flowering: unknown; Fruiting: Jul. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)] or possibly Extinct [Ex]. Known only from the type collected in 1953.
  115. Psychotria yatesii (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 564; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27  (2007) 217, Fig. 117; --Grumilea yatesii Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) 172; --Type: BS 25518 Yates (K, lecto; A, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Cadig, low elevation forests, Dec-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela (Palanan, Digallorin = Digollorin, Divinisa camp site), Quezon (Mt Binuang; Mt Cadig), Laguna (San Antonio), Camarines Sur (imprecise locality for FB 23787 Alvarez; Sarapan; Mt Bagacay), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), POLILLO (Sta. Maria), SAMAR: Western Samar (Bagacay), Eastern Samar (Oras). Forest, once recorded on steep sea cliff; also on ultramafics, 50-200m. Flowering: Mar to May; Fruiting: Apr, Dec. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Near Threatened [NT]. Last collected in 1992.
  116. Psychotria yenii Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 68, Fig. 32; --Type: Yen 173 (BISH, holo), Mindanao: South Cotabato prov., Tasaday Forest, dipterocarp forest at 1220m,  Aug/Dec-1972. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: South Cotabato (Tasaday Forest). Known only from the type collection. Conservation status (Sohmer & AP Davis, 2007): Critically Endangered [CR B1ab(iii)]. Only collected once in 1972.

Potential New Species

  1. Psychotria sp. A, Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 236; --Vouchers: PPI 13205 Gaerlan, Romero & Sagcal (BRIT), Palawan: Rizal municip., Ransang, Kumaraka; --PPI 38209 Pipoly & Romero et al. (BRIT), Quezon municip., Bgy. Bundog. 
  2. Psychotria sp. B, Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 236; --Vouchers: SMHI 2160 Podzorski (K, L), Palawan: Brookes point municip., Pulot, c. 50km N of town; --SMHI 1000 Ridsdale (K, L), Brookes Point municip., Pulot, Massin River, 12km N of Brookes Point. 
  3. Psychotria sp. C, Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 237; --Vouchers: PPI 18318 Garcia, Fuentes & Romero (BRIT, K), Luzon: Cagayan prov., Claveria municip., Bgy. Kilkiling, Taggat Watershed Area.

Unknown species (species incognitae)

  1. Psychotria cagayanensis Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 51; EPFP 3 (1923) 553; --Sohmer & AP Davis,  Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 237; --Grumilea cagayanensis (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 133; --Type: FB 15491 Bernardo, Luzon: Cagayan prov., Casambalangan, in forest, c. 10m, Apr-1910. LUZON: Cagayan. Lowland primary forests. According to Merrill’s original description, this taxon resembles P. pinnatinervia and P. luzoniensis, and that the pyrenes are not ridged or grooved. Probably belonging to Sohmer and Davis’ Luzoniensis
  2. Psychotria irosinensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3262; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 238; --Type: Elmer 17356, Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Sep-1916. According to Elmer’s description, this taxon has unbranched inflorescences but is otherwise similar to P. manillensis and P. pallidiflora. Species group unknown.
  3. Psychotria samarensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 174; EPFP 3 (1923) 562; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 238; --Type: FB 23576 Lasquet, Samar: Eastern Samar prov., Salcedo, on ridges, c. 200m, 11-Mar-1915. SAMAR. Now known only from description.
  4. Psychotria voluta Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1347; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 564; --Sohmer & AP Davis, Sida Bot. Misc. 27 (2007) 238; --Type: Elmer 13253, Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (= Thumb Peak), Apr-1911. PALAWAN. Now only known from description. A member of the Ixoroides Species Group, but identity and relationship with other climbing species of this group not certain.

 Psydrax Gaertn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Psydrax amplifolia (Elmer) A.P.Davis, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 157 (2008) 120; --Plectronia amplifolia Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3261; --Type: Elmer 16739 (BISH, L, NA, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Jul-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon.
  2. Psydrax gynochthodes (Baill.) Arriola, Yayen & Alejandro, Botanical studies 55 (2014) 65; --Canthium gynochthodes Baill., Adansonia 12 (1878) 199; --Plectronia gynochthodes (Baill.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 536; --Type: Cuming 1848 (K, holo), Luzon: Batangas Prov., 1917. Lanyu, Lutao, and the Philippines. N LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO, in most islands and provinces. Low and medium secondary forests generally, ascending to 1500m. Photos
  3. Psydrax multiflora Arriola & Alejandro, Nordic Journal of Botany 35 (2017) 182; --Type: Cobankiat, Chavez & Alejandro 13068 (PNH, holo; PNH, USTH, iso), Palawan: Rizal, Barangay Pulikbaha, Sitio Palikpikan, 12-May-2013. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: CR B2 (Arriola et al. 2017).
  4. Psydrax puberula Arriola & Alejandro, Phytotaxa 149 (2013) 28; --Type: Reynoso, Sagcal, & Fuentes 14758 (L, holo; PNH, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Caramoan, Barangay Guijalo, 11-Feb-1995. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Sur, Quezon, POLILLO. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11).

Pyrostria Comm. ex Juss.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Pyrostria elmeri (Merr.) Arriola, Meve & Alejandro, Ann. Bot. Fennici 53 (2016) 217; --Canthium elmeri Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; --Plectronia gracilipes Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1008, non Kurz; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 536; --Type: Elmer 12550 (PNH, holo, lost; L, lecto; BRIT, K, MO, NY, isolecto), Sibuyan: Mt Guiting-guiting, May-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN. Forests along streams, c. 225m.
  2. Pyrostria obovatifolia (Merr.) Wong, Magdaleno & Alejandro, Botanical studies 55 (2014) 65; --Canthium obovatifolium (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; --Plectronia obovatifolia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 167; EPFP 3 (1923) 538; --Type: BS 26526 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, destroyed; K, lecto; A, US, isolecto), Luzon: Aurora prov., Mt Dingalan (Mt Dalingdingan in the protologue), forested slopes at medium elevation, 9-Sep-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Ilocos Norte. Medium elevation forests, 200-350m. Photos
  3. Pyrostria oligophlebia (Merr.) Pacia, Quiogue & Alejandro, Botanical studies 55 (2014) 65; --Canthium oligophlebium (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 8; --Plectronia oligophlebia Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 442; EPFP 3 (1923) 538; --Type: BS 29342 Ramos and Edaño (PNH, destroyed; US, lecto; A, K, isolecto), Luzon: Rizal prov., Mt Susong Dalaga, mossy forest at the summit, apparently at or above 900m, 7-Aug-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, MINDANAO: Davao. 500-900m.
  4. Pyrostria ramosii (Merr.) Arriola, Paraguison & Alejandro, Botanical studies 55 (2014) 65; --Canthium ramosii (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 9; --Plectronia ramosii Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 443; EPFP 3 (1923) 539; --Type: BS 28973 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, destroyed; NY, lecto; K, US, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Umiray, forest along the Umiray River at low elevation, 1-Jun-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (Umiray). Lowland forests, 200-350m.
  5. Pyrostria subsessilifolia (Merr.) Arriola & Alejandro, Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology 7 (2013) 8; --Canthium subsessilifolium (Merr.) Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 9; --Plectronia subsessilifolia Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 168; EPFP 3 (1923) 539; --Type: BS 27205 Ramos (A, US, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., in thickets at low elevation, 2-Mar-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Lowland thickets.
  6. Pyrostria triflora Arriola, Calaramo & Alejandro, Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 22 (2015) 56; --Type: Arriola, Calamaro and Alejandro 13098 (PNH, holo; USTH, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte Province: Municipality of Adams, 623 m, 26-Mar-2013. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Photos

Randia L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

A number of Philippine species previously referred to Randia have been assigned to the following genera, viz. Aidia, Atractocarpus, Fagerlindia, Oxyceros, and Tarennoidea. The remainder are the following species - not clear where they are to be transferred.

  1. Randia loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 57; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; --Type: BS 12067 Loher, cited by Merrill as ‘12967’ in the protologue (A, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., Montalban, Paningtingan. Oct-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Merrill (1925) listed two collections, from rather adjacent localities on the foothills of the Sierra Madre.
  2. Randia mindoroensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 28; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 527; --Type: Merrill 3326 (NY, US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Puerto Galera, Oct-1903. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Puerto Galera). Lowland forests.
  3. Randia rostrata Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 460; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 528; --Type: BS 35102 Ramos & Pascasio (A, US, iso), Bucas Grande, dry forests, 11-Jun-1919. Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE. Lowland forests.
  4. Randia samalensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 29; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 528; --Type: Copeland 847, Samal, Apr-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAL (near Davao). Lowland forests.

Richardia L.

[Not native]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Richardia scabra L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 330. Americas. Not native to the Philippines.

Rothmannia Thunb.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Rothmannia graciliflora (Merr.) J.T.Pereira & Ridsdale, Sandakania 18 (2012) 17; --Randia graciliflora Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 109; EPFP 3 (1923) 527; --Type: FB 17988 Miranda (L, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Misamis Occidental prov., Mt Malindang, in forests along streams, 120m, 26-Feb-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental (Mt Malindang). Lowland forests along streams, c. 120m.
  2. Rothmannia lagunensis (Merr.) Chavez & Alejandro, Philippine Science Letters 5 (2012) 218; --Gardenia lagunensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 110; EPFP 3 (1923) 530; --Type: Baker 3176 (destroyed), neotype: Ramos 14934 (L), Luzon: Laguna prov., hills back of Paete, 10-Apr-1914. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Isabela, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, BUSUANGA. Lowland primary forests. Photos
  3. Rothmannia leytensis J.T.Pereira & Ridsdale, Sandakania 18 (2012) 27; --Type: Wenzel 641 (A), Leyte: Leyte prov., 8-Mar-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE.
  4. Rothmannia merrillii (Elmer) Chavez & Alejandro, Philippine Science Letters 5 (2012) 220; --Gardenia merrillii Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 5; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 530; --Type according to L.L.Co: Merrill 669, flowering type, Culion: Halsey, Feb-1903; FB 1226, fruiting type, Mindoro: Lugin, Jan-1903; --Type according to Chavez & Alejandro (2012): Merrill 669 (lecto US; isolecto NY). LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Quezon, GOLO, MINDORO, CULION, BUSUANGA, PALAWAN, ROMBLON, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, MINDANAO. In thickets, secondary and primary forest at low elevation. Photos
  5. Rothmannia negrosensis (Merr.) Chavez & Alejandro, Philippine Science Letters 5 (2012) 220; --Gardenia negrosensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 111; EPFP 3 (1923) 530; --Type: FB 7255 Everett, Negros: Negros Occidental prov., vicinity of Cadiz and Gimagaan River. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (photos by Pelser & Barcelona), MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SIBUYAN. Photos

Rubia L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Rubia cordifolia L., Syst. ed. 12 (1767) 229; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 575. Greece, subtropical and tropical Africa (except Sahara and sub-Saharan regions), temperate/subtropical Asia from Afghanistan, China, Mongolia to the Russian Far East, tropical Asia from Sri Lanka, India, Himalayan region, SE Asia and Malesia. Photos
  2. Rubia philippinensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3214; --Type: Elmer 22216 (K), Luzon: Pampanga Prov., Mt. Pinatubo, May-1927. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pampanga. Philippine specimens of Rubia cordifolia might belong to this species.

Rubovietnamia Tirveng.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 August 2016

No Photos
  1. Rubovietnamia coronula Alejandro & Meve, Nordic J. Bot. 34 (2016) 386; --Type: Alejandro & Lemana 25091 (PNH, holo; Univ. of Santo Tomas Herbarium, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Brgy. Manacan, Santa Maria, Little Boracay, 16-Feb-2010. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur. Limestone cliffs along the coast and from elevations of about 50m. Conservation status: CR; B2a,b(iii) (Alejandro & Meve 2016).

Saprosma Blume

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Saprosma philippinensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1035; --Merr. EPFP 3 (1923) 568; --Type: Elmer 9222 (PNH, holo, lost; MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Lucban, “well-drained soil of light woods at 800m”, May-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon Sorsogon. In forests, c. 750m.
  2. Saprosma ternata (Wall.) Hook.f. in Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 2 (1873) 131; --Serissa ternata (Wall.) Kurz, Rep. Veg. Andaman Is. (1870) 40; --Paederia ternata Wall. in W Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 520. India (Assam), Bhutan, Bangladesh, W and S-C China, Hainan, Burma, Thailand, Laos, ?Philippines.

Schradera Vahl

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Schradera elmeri Puff, Buchner & Greimler, Blumea 43 (1998) 315; --Lucinaea involucrata Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 997; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 520. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo: Todaya, Lake Linao and Gumate District, E slopes of Mt Apo), Davao Oriental (Mt Kampalili), Bukidnon (Mt Kitanglad; Mahilucot River). Exposed ridges, mossy forests, 750-1900m. Flowers in Mar, Jun, Jul and Oct; fruits in Mar, Jun and Jul. Photos
  2. Schradera monocephala (Merr.) Puff, Buchner & Greimler, Blumea 43 (1998) 299; --Lucinaea monocephala Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 241; EPFP 3 (1923) 520; --Type: BS 10034 Ramos (?PNH, holo, presumed lost by Puff et al., loc. cit.; an isotype however, is extant in US [barcode 00137914], and is here designated as lectotype. BS 1111 Ramos (BM, K), was earlier designated by Puff et al as neotype. The above collections from Luzon: Laguna prov., Paete, near Dahican River. Lucinaea epiphytica Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1873; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 520; --Type: Elmer 14147 (?PNH, holo, probably lost). Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, Cabadbaran. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna (Paete), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Yagaw), PALAWAN (Mt Beaufort); CATANDUANES, BILIRAN (Mt Suiro), LEYTE, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Lanao, Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta), Cabadbaran). In primary montane forests with Agathis, 620 to 850m. Flowering: Mar to Sept, Fruiting: Nov.

Scleromitrion (Wight & Arn.) Meisn.

Photos
  1. Scleromitrion brachypodum (DC.) ined.; --Oldenlandia brachypoda DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 424. Nepal to S. China and Malesia.
  2. Scleromitrion diffusum (Willd.) ined.; --Oldenlandia diffusa (Willd.) Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 11; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 447; EPFP 3 (1923) 493; --Hedyotis diffusa Willd., Sp. Pl. 1 (1797) 566 Sri Lanka, India, E Himalayas, Bangladesh, China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, Nicobar Isls, Burma, Thailand, Sumatra(?), Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. Throughout the Philippines.
  3. Scleromitrion tenelliflorum (Blume) Korth., Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2 (1851) 155; --Oldenlandia tenelliflora (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 292; --Hedyotis tenelliflora Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 971; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 500.
  4. Scleromitrion verticillatum (L.) ined.; --Oldenlandia verticillata L., Mant. (1767) 40; --Hedyotis verticillata (L.) Lam., Tabl. Encycl. (1791) 271; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 501. --Scleromitrion hispidum (Retz.) Korth., Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2 (1851) 155; --Hedyotis hispida Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. (1821) 95; --Oldenlandia hispida (Retz.) Lam., Encycl. 4 (1798) 536; --Hedyotis hispida Retz., Observ. Bot. 4 (1786) 23. --Hedyotis verticillata var. scaberrima Hatus., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 26 (1936) 224. Trop. & Subtrop. Asia to NW. Pacific. Assam, Bangladesh, E Himalayas, India, Nepal, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, S China, Hainan, Taiwan, Bonin Isls, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, Caroline Isls. N LUZON to MINDANAO, in most islands and provinces. Lowlands in thickets, old clearings and other open sites. Photos

Scyphiphora C.F.Gaertn.

Photos
  1. Scyphiphora hydrophylacea C.F.Gaertn., Fruct. 3 (1805) 91, t. 196; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 533. India, Sri Lanka, Andaman Isls, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines, N Australia, New Caledonia. N LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO, in mangrove swamps and along most tidal streams subject to the influence of salt or brackish water. Photos

Serissa Comm. ex Juss.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 Novemer 2016

Photos
  1. Serissa japonica (Thunb.) Thunb., Nov. Gen. Pl. [Thunberg] 8 (1798) 132. --Serissa serissoides Druce --Rep. Bot. Exch. Cl. Brit. Isles 1916 (1917) 646. China, Taiwan, Philippines. MINDANAO: North Cotabato prov. Native? Photos

Spermacoce L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Spermacoce articularis L.f., Suppl. (1872) 118; --Borreria articularis (L.f.) FN Williams, Bull. Herb. Boiss. sér. 5, 2 (1905) 956. India, Burma, Indochina, S China, Taiwán, Ryukyu Isls, Malesia. Tropical & subtropical Asia: Sri Lanka, India, E Himalayas, Nepal, S China, Hainan, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, Burma, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. Introduced in Tanzania, Mauritius, Madagascar and Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland).
  2. Spermacoce exilis (LO Williams) CD Adams ex WC Burger & CM Taylor, Fieldiana, Bot., n.s., 33 (1993) 316; --Borreria exilis LO Williams, Phytologia 28 (1974) 227. --Borreria gracilis LO Williams, Phytologia 26 (1973) 487 (1973), nom. illeg. Pantropic. L.L.Co considered this a synonym of Spermacoce gracilis Ruiz & Pav..
  3. Spermacoce hispida L. Sp. Pl. (1753) 102; DC. Prodr. 4 (1830) 555. –Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 455; --Borreria articularis var. hispida (L.) Sivar. & Manilal, Int. Quart. J. Pl. Sci. Res. 2 (1975) 89, nom. inval.; --Borreria hispida (L.) K.Schum. in HGA Engler & KAE Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(4) (1891) 144, nom. illeg.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 574. --Spermacoce mutilata Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2: 43 (1845). W Himalayas, India, Bangladesh, E Himalayas, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam, S China, Hainan, Taiwan, Ryukyus, Taiwan, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines, Solomon Isls. BATAN to BASILAN. Open dry places at low and medium elevation.
  4. Spermacoce lasiocarpa R.Br. ex Wall., Numer. List (1829) 832. --Spermacoce ramanii Sivar. & RV Nair, Taxon 35 (1986) 367, nom. superfl.; --Borreria ramanii (Sivar. & RV Nair) MR Almeida, Fl. Maharashtra 3A (2001) 6. Trop. Africa, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Himalayas, S China, Taiwan, Japan, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines.
  5. Spermacoce manillensis Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(2) (1898) 123. --Spermacoce discolor (DC.) Fern.-Villar in FM Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 3, 4(13A) (1880) 113, nom. illeg.; --Borreria discolor DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 545; --Bigelovia discolor Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 545. Endemic to the Philippines.
  6. Spermacoce meyeniana Walp., Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 353; --Hedyotis philippensis var. meyeniana (Walp.) Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 38; --EPFP 3 (1923) 499; --Type: Meyen sn (B, cited by Merrill, 1913), Luzon: Laguna prov. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna.
  7. Spermacoce ocymoides Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 34, t. 13, Fig.. 1; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 455. Borreria ocymoides (Burm.f.) DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 544; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 574. Spermacoce laevis Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1 (1824) 401, nom. illeg., non Lam. (1791). Tropical Asia to SW Pacific: Sri Lanka, India, Burma, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines, New Guinea, Solomon Isls, Fiji, Samoa, Vanuatu. Introduced in the neotropics and tropical Africa. LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, BASILAN. Lowland thickets. Photos
  8. Spermacoce pusilla Wall. in W Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 379. Borreria pusilla (Wall.) DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 543; --Bigelovia pusilla (Wall.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1 (1824) 405. Trop. Asia: Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, W & E Himalayas, Burma, ?Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, ?Borneo, Philippines. Introduced in tropical Africa.
  9. Spermacoce remota Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1792) 273. Borreria remota (Lam.) Bacigalupo & EL Cabral, Darwiniana 37 (1999) 334. Indigenous to tropical and subtropical America, introduced in the Philippines. Photos
  10. Spermacoce scaberrima Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 946. Borreria scaberrima (Blume) Koord., Exkurs.-Fl. Java 3 (1912) 282. Spermacoce muriculata Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 44. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines.

Streblosa Korth.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Streblosa axilliflora Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 141; --Type: BS 22018 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur prov., Mt Isarog, Nov 1913. Streblosa glabra Valeton ex Winkler in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 44 (1910) 567; --Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1356; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 564. --Streblosa axilliflora Merr. var. angustifolia Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 28 (1947) 184. --Streblosa axilliflora Merr. var. latifolia Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 28 (1947) 184. --Streblosa axilliflora Merr. var. laxiflora Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 28 (1947) 184. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, CATANDUANES, SAMAR, PALAWAN. In primary forest at low elevation. (S. glabra, fide Merr. 1923).
  2. Streblosa palawanensis Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 28 (1947) 182. --Streblosa palawanensis var. elmeri Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 28 (1947) 183. --Streblosa palawanensis var. merrillii Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 28 (1947) 183. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN.

Sulitia Merr. = Atractocarpus

Tarenna Gaertn.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Tarenna acuminata Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 462; EPFP 3 (1923) 525; --Type: BS 13904 Ramos. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao. Lowland forests.
  2. Tarenna angustifolia Merr., PJS 17 (1920 publ. 1921) 472. Pen. Thailand to Malaya, Philippines. Not included in L.L.Co's version of the checklist.
  3. Tarenna arborea (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1359; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 525; --Randia arborea Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1005; --Type: Elmer 10978. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Camarines, MINDANAO: Davao. Forests, up to 500m. Photos
  4. Tarenna bakeri (Merr.) Bremek., Fedde, Repert. 37 (1934) 187; --Pavetta bakeri Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 117; EPFP 3 (1923) 544; --Type: Baker 3214, Luzon: Laguna prov., hills back of Paete, 10-Apr-1914. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon. Low or medium elevation primary forests.
  5. Tarenna bartlingii Bremek., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 47 (1939) 97. Tarenna pubescens (Bartl. ex DC.) Bremek., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 37: 203 (1934), nom. illeg., non Craib (1932); --Pavetta pubescens (Bartl. ex DC.) Merr., PJS 17 (1920 publ. 1921) 479; EPFP 3 (1923) 545; --Webera pubescens Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 108; --Stylocoryna pubescens Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 377; --Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1857) 206; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 33; --Type: Cuming 1236. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Lowland thickets or secondary forests.
  6. Tarenna catanduanensis Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 463; EPFP 3 (1923) 525; --Type: BS 30387. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, CATANDUANES. Lowland forests.
  7. Tarenna costata (Miq.) Merr., PJS 17 (1920 publ. 1921) 472. S. Thailand to Sumatra and Philippines. Not included in L.L.Co's version of the checklist.
  8. Tarenna cumingiana (Vidal) Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1898; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 525; --Webera cumingiana Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 178; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 152; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 40; --Type: Cuming 685. Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, MINDORO, BILIRAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte. Lowland primary forests. Photos
  9. Tarenna ebracteata (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1898; --Randia ebracteata Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1354. L.L.Co considered this a synonym of Tarennoidea wallichii (Hook.f.) Tirveng. & Sastre. Endemic to the Philippines.
  10. Tarenna elongata Merr., PJS 17 (1920, Publ. 1921) 464; EPFP 3 (1923) 525; --Type: BS 35218 Ramos & Pascasio. Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT, BUCAS GRANDE. Lowland forests. Photos
  11. Tarenna eucrantha (Elmer) Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 471; EPFP 3 (1923) 525; --Pavetta eucrantha Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1015; ibid. 5 (1913) 1886; --Type: Elmer 12492. Endemic to the Philippines. L.L.Co considered this a synonym of Tarenna luzoniensis (Vidal) Bremek.
  12. Tarenna fragrans (Blume) Koord. & Valeton, Bijdr. Boom. Java 8 (1902) 77; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 525; --KM Wong in FS Ng (ed.) Tree Fl. Malaya 4 (1989) 411; --Webera fragrans Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1880) 103; --Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 108; --Stylocoryna fragrans Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 982. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Lowland forests. According to Merrill (1923), identification of Palawan material is not certainly correct.
  13. Tarenna littoralis Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 465; EPFP 3 (1923) 526; --Type: Merrill 9418. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan, Zambales, APO (off the W coast of Mindoro), CORON, PALAWAN, DUMARAN, BURIAS, SULU ARCHIPELAGO (UBIAN). Lowland forests, often on or near the seashore. Photos
  14. Tarenna loheri (Merr.) Bremek., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 37 (1934) 197; --Pavetta loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 55; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; --Type: Loher 13151, Luzon: Rizal prov., Montalban, Paningtingan, Mar-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal.
  15. Tarenna luzoniensis (Vidal) Bremek., Fedde, Repert. 37 (1934) 198; --Pavetta luzoniensis (Vidal) Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 479; EPFP 3 (1923) 544; --Webera luzoniensis Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 179; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 152; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 40; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 133; --Type: Cuming 1323. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, La Union, Pangasinan, Apayao, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao del Sur, Agusan del Norte, DINAGAT, SIARGAO. Low and medium elevation forests.
  16. Tarenna meyeri Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1898; --Bremek., Fedde, Repert. 37 (1934) 199; --Pavetta meyeri (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1015; --Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 479; EPFP 3 (1923) 545; --Webera meyeri (Elmer) Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 133; --Ixora meyeri Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 68; --Type: FB 2764 Meyer, Luzon: Bataan prov., Lamao Forest Reserve, Feb-1905. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan (Mt Mariveles, Lamao Forest Reserve). Primary forest, c. 650m. Note: The type material cited for the basionym Ixora meyeri Elmer is Elmer 7958 from Quezon province (Mt Banahaw), collected in Apr 1906. Why this disparity?
  17. Tarenna multinervia (Merr.) Bremek., Fedde, Repert. 37 (1934) 200; --Pavetta multinervia Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 475; EPFP 3 (1923) 545; --Type: FB 9013 Whitford & Hutchinson. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Lowland primary forests.
  18. Tarenna nitida Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 466; EPFP 3 (1923) 526; --Type: FB 23388 Contreras. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS. Lowland forests.
  19. Tarenna obtusifolia Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 467; EPFP 3 (1923) 526; --Type: BS 1257 McGregor. Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, BUCAS GRANDE. Thickets and forests near the seashore.
  20. Tarenna palawanensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 471; EPFP 3 (1923) 526; --Pavetta palawanensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1344; --Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 117; --Type: Elmer 12940 (L, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (= Thumb Peak), in humus-covered compact soil of a densely wooded flat at 250ft, Apr-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Lowland primary forests, to 300m.
  21. Tarenna pangasinensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 458; EPFP 3 (1923) 526; --Type: FB 28419 Zamuco. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan. Near streams at low elevation.
  22. Tarenna pubifolia Elmer (Randia pubifolia Elmer) LPB 5 (1913) 1895; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 528; --Type: Elmer 14060. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Humid forests, c. 1000m. “May be the fruiting specimen of Tricalysia negrosensis Elmer”, fide Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1895.
  23. Tarenna scaberula (Merr.) Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 471; EPFP 3 (1923) 526; --Pavetta scaberula Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 118; --Type: BS 13114 Ramos & Foxworthy, Luzon: Quezon prov., Dayap, in forests, c. 30m, 9-Mar-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines. Low and medium elevation forests.
  24. Tarenna stenantha Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 468; EPFP 3 (1923) 526; --Type: BS 29003 Ramos & Edaño. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Bataan, Batangas, Quezon, MINDORO. Low and medium elevation forests.

Tarennoidea Tirveng. & Sastre

Photos
  1. Tarennoidea wallichii (Hook.f.) Tirveng. & Sastre, Mauritius Inst. Bull. 8 (1979) 90; --Tarenna wallichii (Hook.f.) Ridl., Fl. Mal. Pen. 2 (1923) 106; --KM Wong in FS Ng (ed.) Tree Fl. Malaya 4 (1989) 413, 415; --Randia wallichii Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1860) 113. --Stylocoryna incerta (Koord. & Valeton) Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 33; --Tarenna incerta Koord. & Valeton, Bijdr. Boom. Java 8 (1902) 269; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 526.  --Tarenna kotoensis (Hayata) Masamune, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formos. 20 (1932) 462; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 52; --Chomelia kotoensis Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 9 (1920) 58. Tropical and subtropical Asia: India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Laos, Vietnam, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, Japan, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines. BATANES, LUZON (widespread), MINDORO, CORON, PALAWAN, JOLO, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Chiefly in low and medium elevation secondary forests. Photos

Tetralopha Hooker.f. = Gynochthodes

Thecagonum Babu = Leptopetalum

Timonius DC.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Timonius appendiculatus Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 327; EPFP 3 (1923) 541; --Syntypes: BS 2164 Ramos (NY, US), Luzon: Rizal prov., Bosoboso, Jan-1904; --BS 2651Ramos (NY, US), Luzon: Rizal prov., May-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Batangas, Camarines, Sorsogon, MINDORO (Mt Agong). Medium elevation primary forests.
  2. Timonius arboreus Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 72; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 541; --Type: Elmer 7960, Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Banahaw, forests, 500m, Apr 1906. Timonius gamillii Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1359; ibid. 3 (1911) 1013 (staminate fl.); --Type: Elmer 12469 (A, GH, L, NY, US), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, Magallanes (= Magdiwang), “in moist gravelly soil of wooded banks of the Pauala River at 1000ft”, May 1910. Taiwan (Lanyu and Lutao), Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN, TICAO, PANAY, GUIMARAS, NEGROS, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao. Low and medium elevation primary forests.
  3. Timonius auriculatus Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 480; EPFP 3 (1923) 541; --Type: BS 35190 Ramos. Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT. Lowland forests.
  4. Timonius caudatifolius Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1898; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 541; --Type: Elmer 14190 (BISH, L, MO, NA, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, ‘lax epiphytic shrub upon moss covered ascending tree trunks 15ft above the very humus wet stony soil in humid forests at 5250ft or some distance above the lagoon’, Oct 1912. S Philippines, N Sulawesi. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Exposed ridges in the mossy forest, c. 1550m.
  5. Timonius confertiflorus Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 114; EPFP 3 (1923) 541; --Type: Merrill Phil. Pl. 1698, leg. M. Ramos (L, NY, US, iso), Samar: Yabong, in dry thickets, 16-Mar-1914. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR, MINDANAO: Surigao. Lowland dry thickets.
  6. Timonius epiphyticus Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1011; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 541; --Type: Elmer 10706. Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Bukidnon, Davao. Primary forests, 800-1050m.
  7. Timonius ferrugineus Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 115; EPFP 3 (1923) 541; --Type: Merrill 9210 (L, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Taytay, in forests immediately back of mangroves, 30-Apr-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Primary forests behind mangroves. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  8. Timonius finlaysonianus (Wall. ex G Don) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1880) 127; --Guettarda finlaysoniana Wall. ex G.Don, Gen. Hist. 3 (1834) 552. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines.
  9. Timonius gammillii Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 3 (1911) 1013. Endemic to the Philippines. Not included in L.L.Co's version of the checklist.
  10. Timonius gracilipes Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 60; EPFP 3 (1923) 541; --Type: BS 11110 Ramos (US, iso), Cebu: Cebu prov., Buacao, dry hill thickets, Mar-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU. Low and medium elevation thickets.
  11. Timonius lanceolatus Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 318; EPFP 3 (1923) 542; --Type: BS 35211 Ramos & Pascasio. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, DINAGAT. Lowland forests.
  12. Timonius longiflorus (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 542; --Greenea longiflora Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 323; --Type: FB 9430 Whitford & Hutchinson (US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Tibucuy, in forest, c. 20m, Feb-1908. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Lowland primary forests.
  13. Timonius longistipulus Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 59; EPFP 3 (1923) 542; --Type: BS 15371 Ramos (L, US, iso), Leyte: Leyte prov., Mtns back of Dagami, on trees in the mossy forests, 13-Aug-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. Mossy forests, at or above 1000m.
  14. Timonius nitidus (Bartl. ex DC.) Fern.-Vill. in F.M.Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 3, 4(13A) (1880) 109. Not included in L.L.Co's version of the checklist.
  15. Timonius obovatus Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 36; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 542; --Type: Merrill 1048, leg. S Gracia, Luzon: Aurora prov., Aug-1902. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, SIBUYAN. Low and medium elevation forests.
  16. Timonius oligophlebius Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 34; EPFP 3 (1923) 542; --Type: BS 23367 Ramos (BISH, 3 sheets, L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Kililibong, in forests near the summit, apparently at c. 1000m, 17-Aug-1915. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Forests, c. 1000m.
  17. Timonius pachyphyllus Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 494; EPFP 4 (1925) 251; --Type: BS 40794 Ramos, Luzon: Rizal prov., Mt Angilog (= ?Angelo or Angilo), 20-Apr-1922. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Forested slopes, c. 1200m.
  18. Timonius palawanensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1360; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 542; --Type: Elmer 12705 (A, BISH, L, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Brookes Point, ‘on earthen banks of well-shaded woods at 100ft altitude along a rivulet’, Feb-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Lowland primary forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  19. Timonius panayensis Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 317; EPFP 3 (1923) 542; --Type: BS 35445 Martelino & Edaño (L, US, iso), Panay: Aklan prov., Libacao, May-Jun 1919. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY: Aklan (Libacao), Iloilo (Mt Bulilao), Mt Salibongbong. Forests along streams, ascending to 600m.
  20. Timonius philippinensis Merr., Philipp. Bur. Forestry Bull. 1 (1903) 54; --EPFP 3 (1923) 542; --Syntypes: Ahern 463 (NY, US), 456, Dinagat, 1902. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, DINAGAT, BUCAS GRANDE. Lowland forests. Photos
  21. Timonius pulgarensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1360; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 542, erroneously as ‘palawanensis’; --Type: Elmer 13201 (L, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (= Thumb Peak), May-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Dense thickets near the summit of Mt Pulgar, c. 1300m.
  22. Timonius quadrasii Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 36; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 542; --Type: Ahern 545, leg. JF Quadras (US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur prov., Tetuan, Mar-Jun 1901. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Sur (Tetuan). Probably from lowland forests.
  23. Timonius quinqueflorus Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 116; EPFP 3 (1923) 543; --Type: BS 20885 Escritor (L, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Guinayangan, 8-Mar-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (Guinayangan). Low or medium elevation forests.
  24. Timonius rotundus Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 317; EPFP 3 (1923) 543; --Type: BS 35176 Ramos & Pascasio. Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT. Lowland forests.
  25. Timonius samarensis Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 165; EPFP 3 (1923) 543; --Timonius macrophyllus Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 246; --Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1010, non Valeton; --Type: FB 12856 (US, iso), Samar: Western Samar prov., near Catbalogan, hillsides along streams, c. 200m, 7-Feb-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR, BUCAS GRANDE. Lowland forests.
  26. Timonius ternifolius (Bartl.) Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 109; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 36; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 543; --Petesia ternifolia Bartl. ex DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 395; --Type: Haenke s.n. Endemic to the Philippines. BUBUYAN ISLS (CAMIGUIN), LUZON: Ilocos Norte, BUSUANGA, CULION, PALAWAN, PANAY. Lowland forests and thickets. Photos
  27. Timonius trichophorus Merr., PJS 9 c (1914, publ. 1915) Bot. 388. --Timonius hirsutus (Elmer) Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 480; EPFP 3 (1923) 542; --Greenea hirsuta Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1857; --Type: Elmer 13476. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, BUCAS GRANDE. Primary forests up to 900m. Considered a synonym of Timonius hirsutus (Elmer) Merr. by L.L.Co. Photos
  28. Timonius urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1899; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 543; --Type: Elmer 14197. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Exposed ridges in the mossy forest, c. 1650m.
  29. Timonius valetonii Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 1012; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 543; --Type: Elmer 12342. Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN, MINDANAO: Surigao.

Possible ined. names

    1. Timonius stenophyllus Merr. & Quisumb. Based on: PNH 6417 Sulit & Conese (L), Samar: Western Samar prov., Wright, Mt Calbiga, near Km 62, forest on flat ridge, c. 300m, 25-May-1948. SAMAR: Western Samar (Wright, Mt Calbiga). Timonius sulitii Merr. & Quisumb. Based on PNH 6429 Sulit & Conese (L), Samar: Eastern Samar prov., Taft, Mt Calbiga, dipterocarp forest along road, Km 64, c. 250m, 18 May 1948. SAMAR: Eastern Samar (Taft, Mt Calbiga).

Tricalysia A.Rich. ex DC. = Philippine spp. now in Diplospora, Discospermum

Uncaria Schreb.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Uncaria acida (Hunter) Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 86; Fl. Ind. ed. 1, 2 (1824) 129; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 508; --Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 80; --Type: from Penang, Malaysia.
  2. Uncaria attenuata Korth., Verh. Nat. Gesch. Ned. Bot. (1840) 170; --Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 79. --Uncaria canescens Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 37; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 509, non Korth. (1840). --Uncaria attenuata ssp. bulusanensis Ridsdale ex Phillip. & Heming., Phytochem. 14 (1975) 1855, nom. nud; --Uncaria bulusanensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3270; --Type: Elmer 14917 (L, MO, NY, U, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Nov. 1915. Andaman Isls, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. Photos
  3. Uncaria callophylla Blume ex Korth., Verh. Nat. Gesch. Ned. Bot. (1840) 170; --Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 85. --Uncaria luzoniensis Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 57; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; --Type: Loher 14457 (UC; holotype fragment: L ), Luzon: Rizal prov., Mabiluang, Oct 1913. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, Moluccas, New Guinea.
  4. Uncaria cordata (Lour.) Merr., Interp. Herb. Amb. (1917) 479; EPFP 3 (1923) 509; --Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 75; --Restiaria cordata Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 639. Photos
  5. Uncaria lanosa Wall. in W Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 131. Photos
  6. Uncaria longiflora (Poir.) Merr., Interp. Herb. Amb. (1917) 480; EPFP 3 (1923) 509; --Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 82. --Uncaria pachyphylla Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 102; --Type: BS 16652 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., San Antonio, Sep-1912. Photos
  7. Uncaria nervosa Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 985; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 510; --Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 79; --Type: Elmer 11794 (K, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur prov., Mt Apo, Todaya, ‘in dense humid forested flats at 4000ft [= 1219 m], south of the Baruring River’, Sept 1909. Java, Borneo, Philippines, Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Isls.
  8. Uncaria perrottetii (A Rich.) Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 60; EPFP 3 (1923) 510; --Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 85, Fig. 9:8; --Sabicea perrottetii A Rich., Mém. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 5 (1834) 228; --Type: Perrottet sn (P, holo; iso: L), Philippines: “Manille”. --Uncaria hookeri Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 177; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 149; --Havil., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 33 (1897) 86, t. 4, Fig. 13-18; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 37; --Syntypes: Cuming 619; 1128 (K), Luzon: without definite locality; --Vidal 1469 (L), Luzon: Bulacan prov., Angat. Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Mt Piao), Ilocos Sur, La Union, Pangasinan, Mountain Province, Cagayan, Bataan (Dinalupihan), Pampanga (Mt Abu), Bulacan (Norzagaray), Rizal (Montalban; Bosoboso), Laguna (Los Baños; Calauan), MINDANAO: Lanao, Davao. Lowland and medium elevation forests.
  9. Uncaria roxburghiana Korth., Verh. Nat. Gesch. Ned. Bot. (1840) 172; --Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978) 89. --Uncaria brevicarpa Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3271; --Type: Elmer 16842 (BO, K, L, MO, NY, U, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Aug-1916. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. Photos
  10. Uncaria velutina Havil., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 33 (1897) 84; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 509; --Ridsdale, Blumea 24 (1978)-- 80; --Type: Cuming 1503 (K, L, syntype), Mindoro. --Uncaria canescens var. velutina Ridsdale ex Phillip. & Heming., Phytochem 14 (1975) 1855, nom. nud. --Uncaria clavisepala Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 350; --Nauclea clavisepala Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 266; --Type: Elmer 8262 (BO, K, NY, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., Los Baños, Apr-1906. Endemic to the Philippines.

Urophyllum Jack ex Wall.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Urophyllum acuminatissimum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 106; EPFP 3 (1923) 521; --Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 39; --Type: BS 20423 Ramos, Luzon: Laguna prov., San Antonio, in forest, Feb-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna (San Antonio), Quezon, Camarines Norte (Paracale), Sorsogon. In primary forests, at low elevation. An easily recognizable species, of which the flowers are still unkown.
  2. Urophyllum bataanense Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 40; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 522; --Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 40; --Type: Elmer 6810 (NY, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Nov-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, SIBUYAN, LEYTE, PANAY, NEGROS. In primary forests chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 1200m in the mossy forests. Notes: Bremekamp (1940) is of the opinion that specimens collected in parts of Luzon other than Bataan, as well as from Mindoro, Bohol, and Jolo belong in the neighborhood of U. mindorense Merr.
  3. Urophyllum caudatum Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 481; EPFP 3 (1923) 522; --Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 38; --Type: BS 33348 Ramos (A, US, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Mt Palimlim, on forested slopes, 900m, 20-Aug-1918. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Mt Palimlim), PANAY: 32302 McGregor. In primary forests, extending into the mossy forests, 900-1100m.
  4. Urophyllum elliptifolium Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 247; EPFP 3 (1923) 522; --Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 998; --Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) ; --Type: FB 3871 Curran. Palawan: Mt Pulgar, on forested slopes, 700-1300m, Feb-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN: Mt Pulgar. In forests, 700-1300m. Merrill compares this with the Bornean U. subanurum Stapf. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  5. Urophyllum lanaense (Merr.) Smedmark & B.Bremer, Taxon 60 (2011) 1405; --Pleiocarpidia lanaensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 462; EPFP 3 (1923) 524; --Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 40; --Type: Clemens 882, Mindanao: Lanao del Sur prov., Jan-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Bukidnon (Mt Candoon). In forests along streams at low and medium elevation, ascending to 800m.
  6. Urophyllum leytense Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 62; EPFP 3 (1923) 522; --Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 40; --Type: BS 15289 Ramos, Leyte: Leyte prov., Mountains back of Dagami, in forests, 13-Aug-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), LEYTE: Leyte (Mtns back of Dagami), Southern Leyte (Cabalian). In forests, probably at or above 900m.
  7. Urophyllum memecyloides (C Presl) Rolfe, J. Bot. 23 (1885) 119; --Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 38; --Cymelonema memecyloides C Presl, Epim. (1851) 210; --Type: Cuming 1678. Samar. --Urophyllum arboreum C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 227; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 521, non (Reinw. ex Blume) Korth., Nederl. Kruidk. Arch. 2 (1851) 194. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal (Mt Irig = Irid), Laguna (Infanta-Siniloan trail; Paete; San Antonio; Cavinti), Quezon (Mt Binuang; Lucban), Camarines Sur (Maagnas), POLILLO, CATANDUANES, MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon), SAMAR: Without further locality data (Cuming 1678); Northern Samar (Catubig River), LEYTE (Mt Abucayan; without precise locality (Wenzel 85)), PANAY: Capiz side of Mt Madiaas, NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Sur (Malangas), Bukidnon (Mt Dumalucpican), Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta, Cabadbaran), Surigao del Norte. Forests at low and medium elevation. Photos
  8. Urophyllum mindorense Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 464; EPFP 3 (1923) 523; --Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 39; --Type: BS 39379 (A, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental prov., Mt Calavite, forested slopes, 600-700m, Apr-1921. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (Mt Calavite, also BS 39398 Ramos in addition to the type collection). Known only from the type locality.
  9. Urophyllum panayense Merr., PJS 17 (1920, publ. 1921) 482; EPFP 3 (1923) 523; --Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 39; --Type: BS 31421 Ramos & Edaño (A, US, iso), Panay: Capiz prov., Jamindan, in forests along small streams, 22-May-1918. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY: Capiz (Jamindan, BS 31318 Ramos & Edaño), Aklan (Mt Macosolen, = Magosolon BS 30819 Ramos & Edaño). In primary forests along streams at low or medium elevation.
  10. Urophyllum platyphyllum Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 999; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 523; --Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 39; --Type: Elmer 12363 (A, GH, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, Magallanes (= Magdiwang), moist gravelly soil of humid forested gulleys at 1750 ft on the España side of the trail leading over the ridge, Apr-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting), CATANDUANES (BS 30548 Ramos). In forest at low and medium elevation. Apparently related to U. macrophyllum (Blume) Korth., but still imperfectly known.
  11. Urophyllum reticulatum Elmer, LPB 3 (1911) 999; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 523--Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 39; --Type: Elmer 12506 (A, GH, L, MO, NY, US), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, Magallanes (= Magdiwang), stony moist soil on a forested ridge, 4000 ft, May-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN: Mt Giting-giting. On ridges in the mossy forest, c. 1200m. Known only from the type collection.
  12. Urophyllum subglabrum Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 162; EPFP 3 (1923) 523; --Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 38; --Type: BS 26507 Ramos & Edaño (US, holo; iso: A, NY), Luzon: Nueva Ecija prov., Mt Umingan (= Mingan), dry slopes, c. 100m, 6-Sep-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija (Mt Umingan, BS 29196), Rizal (Mt Irig = Irid, BS 41960 Ramos). In primary forests at low medium elevation.
  13. Urophyllum urdanetense Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1900; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 524; --Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 38; --Type: Elmer 13788 (US, holo, fide Buchner; iso A, L, NY, 2 sheets, U. Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, Cabadbaran, Oct-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Mossy forest, 1500-1650m. Known from two collections in the type locality. Very near U. memecyloides (C Presl) Rolfe but imperfectly described. Nearly related, but apparently distinct from the two preceding species is a plant colleted from JOLO: Mt Dajo, BS 4391 (L), staminate.

 Ined. names & possible novelties

  1. Urophyllum sp. aff. reticulatum, Bremek., J. Arnold Arb. 21 (1940) 39. PANAY: Capiz (Jamindan). Based on BS 31165 Ramos & Edaño (A, c.fr.) and BS 31000 (L, fl. buds). According to Bremekamp, ‘doubtless a good species…’ but inavailability of flowers prevents him from formally naming it. 
  2. Urophyllum sp. aff. leytense, cited in Bremek., J. Arnold. Arb. 21 (1940) 40. Based on BS 40963 Ramos (A), female, Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Pinamalayan; and BS 40595 (A), young buds, Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Mt Halcon.
  3. Urophyllum halconense Merr., in sched., cited in Bremek., J. Arnold. Arb. 21 (1940) 40. Based on BS 40707 Ramos & Edaño (A), fr.; also BS 40603 (A), sterile. Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Mt Halcon.
  4. Urophyllum sp., cited in Bremek., J. Arnold. Arb. 21 (1940) 40. Based on BS 40885 & 41022 Ramos (A, L)., male. Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Pinamalayan.. A very curious plant with solitary subsessile flowers, provided with a 6-merous calyx and corolla and surrounded by a fairly large involucel; the buds are too young for a good description.

Vidalasia Tirveng.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

No Photos
  1. Vidalasia morindifolia (Elmer) Tirveng., Biogeographica (The Hague) 74 (1998) 166; --Gardenia morindifolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 67; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 530; --Type: BS 32706 Ramos, --Gardenia pubifolia Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 112; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 531; --Type: BS 19343 Wester (US, iso), Mindanao: Davao Oriental prov., Mati, 19-Aug-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, La Union, Bataan, Quezon, Laguna; PALAWAN, TICAO, MINDANAO: Davao Oriental. In thickets and low elevation forest, often along seashore on cliffs.

Villaria Rolfe

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Villaria acutifolia (Elmer) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 248; LPB 3 (1911) 1007; EPFP 3 (1923) 532; --Gardenia acutifolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 6; --Type: Copeland 437 (holo, PNH, destroyed; NY, lecto; US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Mar-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. DINAGAT (FB 457 JF Quadras, Dinagat, Feb-1901), MINDANAO: Davao. Forest at low elevation. Alejandro et al. (2011): "Probably a coastal species, on clay-sandy soils". Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  2. Villaria fasciculiflora Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 207; --Type: BS 46775 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, destroyed; K, lecto; NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Isabela prov., San Mariano. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela (San Mariano and Palanan), Rizal. Alejandro et al. (2011): "in secondary forest, on forest margins, on clayey-sandy soils, 700 m". Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  3. Villaria glomerata (Bartl. ex DC) Mulyan. & Ridsdale, Reinwardtia 12 (2004) 195; --Platymerium glomeratum Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4 (1830) 619; --Hypobathrum glomeratum (Bartl. ex DC) K.Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 44 (1891) 156; --Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 450; EPFP 3 (1923) 533; --Type: Haenke s.n. (PR, holo), Luzon. --Serissa myrtifolia Blanco, Fl. Filip. [F.M. Blanco] (1837) 164; --Type: Merrill 71 (US, neo), Luzon, Bulacan, Baliuag, Jan-1910. --Serissa pinnata Blanco, Fl. Filip. [F.M. Blanco] (1837) 163; --Gardenia pinnata (Blanco) Merr., Philipp. Gov. Lab. Bur. Bull. 27 (1905) 53; --Type: Merrill (Species Blancoanae 223) (US, neo; L, NY, isoneo), Luzon, Bulacan, Angat, Jul-1914. --Remijia obscura Blanco, Fl. Filip. [F.M. Blanco] 2 (1845) 116; --Randia obscura (Blanco) Fern.-Vill., Fl. Filip. [F.M. Blanco] 3, 4(13A) (1880) 108; --Gardenia obscura (Blanco) Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. 18 (1885) 119; --Type: Vidal 387 (A, neo), Tarlac, Murcia. --Remijia angatensis Blanco, Fl. Filip. [F.M. Blanco] 2 (1845) 115. 1845; --Randia angatensis (Blanco) Fern.-Vill., Fl. Filip. [F.M. Blanco] 3, 4(13A) (1880) 108; --Type: Merrill (Species Blancoanae 688) (US, neo; L, isoneo), Luzon, Bulacan, Angat, Jul-1914. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Tarlac, Manila, MINDANAO (according to L.L.Co, not included in distribution range according to Alejandro et al. (2011)). In thickets, hedges, and secondary forests at low elevation (L.L.Co); in low-elevation secondary forest, on stream-sides, in shaded ravines, on clay or sandy soils, 50–550 m. (Alejandro et al. 2011). Photos
  4. Villaria lanceolata (Merr.) Alejandro & Meve, Phytotaxa 253 (2016) 172; --Randia lanceolata Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 57; EPFP 3 (1923) 527; --Type: FB 11626 Fischer (PNH, holo, lost), Luzon: Cagayan prov., Abulug River, near Tauit, on sandstone cliff along the river, apparently in situations subject to overflow during times of high water, c. 30m, Feb-1912; --Neotype: E. Fenix 28123 (US), Luzon: Apayao, May-1917. --Randia stenophylla Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 245, nom. illeg., non R. stenophylla Krause, 1909; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 528; --Type: FB 7170 Curran (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto), Luzon: Bulacan prov., Norzagaray, on rocky river banks, 16-Jun-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Bulacan, Cagayan. On rocky river banks subjected to periodic flashfloods. Low elevation. Conservation status (Alejandro & Meve 2016): EN; C2ai.
  5. Villaria leytensis Alejandro & Meve, Plant Systematics and Evolution 296 (2011) 16; --Type: Wenzel C.A. 1381 (A, holo; G, GH, US, iso), Leyte, without exact locality, 30-Jun-1915. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. Alejandro et al. (2011): "Probably also a coastal species near the boarder of Leyte gulf". Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  6. Villaria odorata (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 363; EPFP 3 (1923) 532; --Remijia odorata Blanco, Fl. Filip. [F.M. Blanco] 2 (1845) 115, 3 (1877) 205; --Type: Vidal S. 3003 (K, neo; A, isoneo), Luzon, Albay Prov., Montufar. --Gardenia elliptica Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 6; --Type: HN Whitford 705 (PNH, holo, destroyed; NY, lecto; P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Atimonan, Aug/Sep-1904. --Villaria littoralis S. Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 180; Revis. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 154; PJS 3 (1908) 437; LPB 3 (1911) 1007; --Type: Cuming M. 874 (PNH, holo destroyed; P, lecto), Albay Prov. --Villaria rolfei Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 180; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 532; --Randia rolfei (S. Vidal) Hatus., Mem. Fac. Agric. Kagoshima Univ. 7 (1970) 326; --Gardenia rolfei (Vidal) Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 50; --Type: Cuming 1271 (PNH, holo, destroyed; L, lecto; P, G, isolecto). --Villaria philippinensis Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 311, t. 10, Fig. 1-8; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 532; --Type: Vidal S. 836 (PNH, holo, destroyed; K, lecto). Lanyu and the Philippines. BATAN, BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Bontoc, Bulacan, Mountain Province, Pampanga, Cagayan, Isabela, Aurora, Quezon, Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, CATANDUANES (fide L.L.Co) SAMAR, LEYTE (fide L.L.Co), SIARGAO, MINDANAO: Surigao, DINAGAT. In thickets along the seashore, occasionally also inland thickets (L.L.Co); in coastal forests, forest margins, upper beaches, gully forest, or low- to mid-elevation secondary forest; on clay or sandy soils, 0–1500 m. (Alejandro et al. 2011). Photos
  7. Villaria uniflora Arriola & Alejandro, Phytotaxa 111 (2013) 58; --Type: Arriola, Roa & Tansiongco T026 (USTH, holo; PNH, iso), Luzon, Cavite, Mounts Palaypalay and Mataas na Gulod National Park, Barangay Palicpican, Ternate, 14°12’18.47”N, 120°38’17.37”E, 660 m, 22-Dec-2011. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cavite. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11).

Wendlandia Bartl. ex DC.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Wendlandia brachyantha Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 128; EPFP 3 (1923) 505; --Type: Whitford 449 (US, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles. On ridges on the mossy forest, c. 1050m, Jul-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan. Known only from the type collection.
  2. Wendlandia glabrata DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 411; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 505. India to Taiwan, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Pampanga, Rizal, Camarines, Sorsogon, MINDORO. Medium elevation forests, ascending to 2100m. Not reported for the Philippines by Govaerts et al. (2011).
  3. Wendlandia luzoniensis DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 412; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 506.
  4. Wendlandia nervosa Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 263; EPFP 3 (1923) 506; --Type: BS 5007 Ramos (NY, US, IT). Luzon: Zambales prov., Nov/Dec-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales. Forests, probably above 1000m. Photos
  5. Wendlandia philippinensis Cowan, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 16 (1932) 274; --Type: Merrill 4409 (NY, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Daklan to Kabayan, Oct/Nov-1905. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet.
  6. Wendlandia sibuyanensis Cowan, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 16 (1932) 299; --Type: Elmer 12345 (A, NY), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, Magallanes (= present day Magdiwang), moist gravelly soil of wooded banks along Pauala River, 1000ft, Apr-1910. Endemic to the Philippines.
  7. Wendlandia syringoides (Cowan) Cowan, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 18 (1934) 187; --Wendlandia luzoniensis var. syringoides Cowan, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 16: 295 (1932). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Included as a variety of Wendlandia luzoniensis DC. by L.L.Co.
  8. Wendlandia uvariifolia Hance, J. Bot. 8 (1870) 73; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 506. S China, Taiwan, Indochina, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Cagayan. Low elevation thickets and second growth forests. Not reported for the Philippines by Govaerts et al. (2011).
  9. Wendlandia warburgii Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 495; EPFP 4 (1925) 251; --Type: Warburg 12016. Luzon: Isabela prov. Apr-1888. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela. 

Williamsia Merr. = Praravinia

 Xanthophytum Blume

No Photos
  1. Xanthophytum ferrugineum (DC) Merr., in Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamb. 7 (1937) 270; --Axelius, Blumea 34 (1990) 462, t. 23; --Metabolus ferrugineus DC, Prodr. 4 (1830) 436; --Type: Haenke s.n. (Herb Prague, cited by Merrill, 1909). Luzon: without definite locality. --Xanthophytum fruticulosum Reinw. ex Blume Bijdr. (1826) 989; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 492. Java, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon, POLILLO, PANAY, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Norte. Low and medium elevation damp primary forests. (Distribution based on Merr., 1923).

Literature

Alejandro, GJD & S Liede. 2003. The Philippine Rubiaceae genera: updated synopsis in Intkey databases of the DELTA system. Blumea 48: 261-277

Alejandro, GJD & U Meve. 2016. Recollection of former Randia species, recognition of a rheophytic species of the Philippine endemic Villaria (Octotropideae, Rubiaceae). Phytotaxa 253: 171-175.

Alejandro, GJD & U Meve. 2016. Rubovietnamia coronula sp. nov. (Rubiaceae: Gardenieae) from the Philippines. Nordic Journal of Botany 34: 385–389.

Alejandro, GJD, U Meve, M Uy, M Thiv & S Liede-Schumann. 2010. Molecular support of the classification of Greeniopsis Merr. in Aleisanthieae (Rubiaceae), with a revision of the genus. Taxon 59: 1547–1564.

Alejandro, GJD, U Meve, A Mouly, M Thiv & S Liede-Schumann. 2011. Molecular phylogeny of and taxonomic revision of the Philippine endemic Villaria Rolfe (Rubiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 296: 1-20.

Alejandro, GJD, EH Arenas, MCM Cremen & AH Arriola. 2013. A new record of Pyrostria (Vanguerieae-Rubiaceae) from the Philippines inferred from molecular and morphological data. Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology 7: 1-12

Alejandro, GJD, CMM Magdaleno, JAT Pacia, LD Paraguison, KKC Quiogue, AED Wong, KMR Yeyen & AH Arriola. 2014. Generic affiliations of Canthium species placed under Pyrostria group B sensu Bridson (Vanguerieae, Rubiaceae) inferred from morphology and molecular data. Botanical Studies 55: 65

Alejandro, GJD, LAR Santos, HWC Hsu, MSS Mejillano, PJR Santor & VB Amoroso. 2014. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Bikkia (Rubiaceae) including a new endemic Philippine inland forest species Bikkia montoyae. Philippine Science Letters 7: 88-96


Alejandro, GJD, U Meve & S Liede-Schumann. 2016. A taxonomic revision of Philippine Mussaenda (Rubiaceae, Mussaendeae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 101: 457-524.

Ali, SI & E Robbrecht. 1991. Remarks on the tropical Asian and Australian taxa included in Diplospora or Tricalysia (Rubiaceae-Ixoroideae-Gardenieae). Blumea 35: 279–305

Arriola, AH & GJD Alejandro. 2013. A new species of Villaria (Octotropideae, Rubiaceae) from Luzon, Philippines including its conservation status. Phytotaxa 111: 57-60.

Arriola, AH & GJD Alejandro. 2013. A new species of Psydrax (Vanguerieae, Rubiaceae) from Luzon, Philippines. Phytotaxa 149: 27-30.

Arriola, AH & GJD Alejandro. 2015. A new species of Discospermum (Coffeeae, Rubiaceae) from Luzon, Philippines including its conservation status. Phytotaxa 206: 43-46.

Arriola, AH, PD Camacho, MJA Calaramo & GJD Alejandro. 2015. Pyrostria triflora, a new species of Vanguerieae (Rubiaceae) from Luzon, Philippines. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 22: 55-58.

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Acknowledgements

Axel Arriola, Lim Bryan Kutat, Jasper Obico and Ravan Schneider kindly provided some of the photographs on this webpage. Cecilia Banag identified many of the Ixora photos.

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Last updated 18 August 2017