banner small

Salicaceae

Including Flacourtiaceae, Samydaceae

Ahernia Merr.

Photos
  1. Ahernia glandulosa Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 37; EPFP 3 (1923) 107; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 6. Hainan, Philippines. LUZON. Primary forests up to 600m. Fl. & fr. Jan-Dec. Photos

Casearia Jacq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018

Photos
  1. Casearia brevipes Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 326; EPFP 3 (1923) 114; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 102. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, BASILAN. In forests along streams at low elevation.
  2. Casearia euphlebia Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 34; EPFP 3 (1923) 115; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 103. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, SAMAR. Low elevation forests.
  3. Casearia fuliginosa (Blanco) Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 262; --EPFP 3 (1923) 115; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 92; --Anavinga fuliginosa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 372. --Casearia glauciramea Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1517; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 115. --Casearia nitens Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 412. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, TICAO, MASBATE, SIBUYAN, SAMAR, DINAGAT, MINDANAO, TAWI-TAWI. Rather common in thickets and secondary forests below 250m, also near the sea, often on sandy or gravelly river banks and along creeks. Photos
  4. Casearia grewiifolia Vent., Choix (1803) 48; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 92. Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Peninsular Malaysia, Moluccas, New Guinea, Australia, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. Photos
  5. Casearia loheri Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 327; EPFP 3 (1923) 115; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, (1954) 104. --Casearia elliptifolia Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 115. --Casearia paucinervia Merr. & Quisumb., PJS 82 (1953) 331. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Primary forests up to 660m. Photos
  6. Casearia mindanaensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 410; EPFP 3 (1923) 116; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 96. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Once collected. In forests along streams at c. 200m.
  7. Casearia phanerophlebia Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 277; EPFP 3 (1923) 116; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 96. --Casearia wenzelii Merr. & Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 54. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Tayabas, LEYTE, MINDANAO. In primary and secondary forests, on moist soil, c 150-500m. Photos
  8. Casearia philippinensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 329; EPFP 3 (1923) 116; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 95. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, SAMAR, MINDANAO. In forests along streams from low elevation up to 850m.
  9. Casearia trivalvis (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 275; EPFP 3 (1923) 116; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 91; --Samyda trivalvis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 374. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, MARINDUQUE, MINDORO. Primary forests up to 800m. Fl. & fr. Jan-Dec.
  10. Casearia tuberculata Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 254; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 99. --Casearia hydnocarpoides Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 54; --Type: Merrill 9366 (L, isotype fragment and carbon rubbings of leaf), Palawan: Taytay, forested slopes at low elevation, 9-May-1913. Sumatra, W Java, Philippines. PALAWAN (Taytay). Once found at low elevation on forested slopes.

Erythrospermum Lam.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 October 2017

No Photos
  1. Erythrospermum sp., Soejarto et al. (1995) Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan; --Voucher: Soejarto 7683 (A, F, PNH). PALAWAN: Mt Capoas, NE foot.

Flacourtia L’Her.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 October 2017

Photos
  1. Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr., Interp. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 377; EPFP 3 (1923) 112; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 76; --Gmelina indica Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 132. --Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb., Pl. Corom. 1 (1796) 48; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 334. Widespread and often cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries. Africa, India, SE Asia and Polynesia. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Zambales, Tarlac, Bataan, Rizal, Batangas, MINDORO. Dry thickets at low elevation.
  2. Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch., Nomencl. Bot. ed. 3 (1797) 290; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 72; --Stigmarota jangomas Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 2 (1790) 634. Not known in the wild state, possibly originating from Indo-Myanmar region; now cultivated throughout the tropics around villages as a fruit tree, especially in E Africa, India, SE Asia. Lowlands to 600m. Cultivated only? Photos
  3. Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor., Syst. Verz. (1854) 33; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 113; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 73. --Flacourtia euphlebia Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 324; EPFP 3 (1923) 112. --Flacourtia peninsula Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3808. Throughout Malesia but rare in Moluccas and New Guinea. LUZON: Benguet, Pangasinan, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Batangas, Sorsogon, POLILLO, MINDORO, NEGROS, CEBU, DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Bukidnon, Davao, Agusan, BASILAN. Forests at low and medium elevation. Also cultivated for its edible fruits. Photos
  4. Flacourtia zippelii Slooten, Bijdr. Flac. (1919) 128; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 70. Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Kei; Banda; Morotai), New Guinea, Solomon Isls, New Britain. LUZON, POLILLO, MINDORO, MINDANAO, DINAGAT.

Homalium Jacq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018

Photos
  1. Homalium barandae S.Vidal ex Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 94; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 110; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 53. --Homalium loheri Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 297; EPFP 3 (1923) 110; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 56. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Rizal, Batangas. In forests at low and medium elevation. Note by L.L.Co: Sleumer’s view that Homalium barandae is a mere tomentose form of Homalium loheri is here supported; the former name has priority.
  2. Homalium bracteatum Benth., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4 (1860) 37; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 110; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 61. --Homalium curranii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 297; EPFP 3 (1923) 110. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Primary forests at low elevation. Photos
  3. Homalium foetidum (Roxb.) Benth., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4 (1860) 37; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 57. --Homalium luzoniense Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 94; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 111. --Homalium platyphyllum Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 36; EPFP 3 (1923) 111. Melanesia (New Ireland, New Britain), New Guinea, Moluccas, Sulawesi, Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Philippines. LUZON, CEBU, LEYTE, MINDANAO. In thickets or rainforests, often along river banks, on clayey or sandy, often stony, whether or not periodically inundated soil, 20-200(-350)m.
  4. Homalium gitingense Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1513; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 110; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 62. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting), DINAGAT (photos by Danilo Tandang), MINDANAO: Surigao. Forests along streams, on reddish soil with a gravelly subsoil, 150m. Photos
  5. Homalium multiflorum Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 35; EPFP 3 (1923) 111; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 56. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Bataan, Rizal. In forests up to 1500m.
  6. Homalium oblongifolium Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 326; EPFP 3 (1923) 111; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 59. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Once found. Primary forests at low elevation.
  7. Homalium palawanense Regalado, Soejarto & Madulid, Edinburgh J. Bot. 57 (2000) 317; --Type: Soejarto, Fernando and Sagcal 8790 (PNH, holo; A, E, F, L, US, iso), Palawan: Mt Mantalingahan, Sindurapi Peak. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN (Mt Mantalingahan; Puerto Princesa, Mt Beaufort). Montane forest, 800-1150m.
  8. Homalium panayanum Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 94; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 111; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 55. --Homalium obovatum Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 37; EPFP 4 (1925) 253. Borneo (Sabah), Philippines. LUZON, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, SIBUYAN. On ridges in forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1400m. Photos
  9. Homalium ramosii Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 423; EPFP 3 (1923) 111; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 61. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Once found. Forested slopes, c. 450m.
  10. Homalium samarense Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 199; EPFP 3 (1923) 111; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 59. --Homalium polillense Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 38; EPFP 4 (1925) 253; --Type: Loher 14535. --Homalium villosum Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 37; EPFP 3 (1923) 112. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, POLILLO, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Primary forests at low elevation.
  11. Homalium villarianum S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 142; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 111; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 61. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, LEYTE, MINDANAO; said to occur also in PANAY and SAMAR. Forests up to 400m.

Hydnocarpus Gaertn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018

Photos
  1. Hydnocarpus alcalae C.DC, PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 37; EPFP 3 (1923) 107; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 25. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay. Low elevation forests. Cultivated and naturalized in Laguna (Mt Makiling). Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  2. Hydnocarpus cauliflora Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 323; EPFP 3 (1923) 107; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 25. MINDANAO: Cotabato. Low elevation primary dipterocarp forest.
  3. Hydnocarpus heterophylla Blume, Rumphia 4 (1848) 22; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 20.
  4. Hydnocarpus polypetala (Slooten) Sleumer in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 69 (1938) 62; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 31; --Soejarto et al. (1995) Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan; --Taraktogenos polypetalum Slooten, Bijdr. Combret. Flacourt. Ned.-Ind. (1919) 74. Sumatra (Palembang), Borneo, Philippines. N PALAWAN. Lowland to medium elevation primary forest.
  5. Hydnocarpus subfalcata Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 297; EPFP 3 (1923) 107; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 22. --Hydnocarpus ovoidea Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1514. --Hydnocarpus quadrasii Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1515; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 107. S Sumatra, Borneo (Sarawak), Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Pangasinan, Zambales, Quezon, SIBUYAN, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zurriago. Low elevation thickets and forests, on non-inundated level ground.
  6. Hydnocarpus sumatrana (Miq.) Koord., Exk. Fl. Jav. 2 (1912) 631; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 27; --Bergsmia sumatrana Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1860) 159. --Hydnocarpus hutchinsonii Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 291; EPFP 3 (1923) 107.

Excluded:

  1. Hydnocarpus unonifolia Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1779; --Type: Elmer 12936. Various duplicate types bear dets from Sinclair and Sleumer that this is an Annonaceae, probably a Pseuduvaria (J.V. LaFrankie, 4-Jun-16).

Osmelia Thwaites

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 November 2017

Photos
  1. Osmelia philippina (Turcz.) Benth., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 5 Suppl. 2 (1861) 89, as ‘philippinensis’; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 114; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 79; --Stachycrater philippinus Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 31(1) (1858) 465. --Osmelia conferta Benth., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 5 Suppl. 2 (1861) 89; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 113. --Osmelia celebica Koord., Meded. Lands Plant. 19 (1899) 624; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 113. --Osmelia subrotundifolia Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2655; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 114. --Dichapetalum spicatum Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 299. --Osmelia bartletii Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 246. --Osmelia euspicata Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2653. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, N & SE Sulawesi, Moluccas, N & SE New Guinea. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna, Quezon), CATANDUANES, TABLAS, PANAY, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao, Agusan, Surigao, DINAGAT. Lowland forests, ascending to 500m. Photos

Pangium Reinw.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 March 2014

Photos
  1. Pangium edule Reinw. ex Blume, Syll. Pl. Nov. ii. (1828) 12; --Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenz. (1823) 112, nom. nud.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 108; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 35. Melanesia (New Ireland, New Britain, New Hebrides), Micronesia (Yap), throughout Malesia. LUZON: Camarines, Sorsogon, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Primary and secondary forests at low and medium elevation. Photos

Ryparosa Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018

Photos
  1. Ryparosa cauliflora Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 325; EPFP 3 (1923) 109; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 42. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao, TINAGO. Forests at low elevation.
  2. Ryparosa aff. fasciculata King, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 59 (1890) 127. PALAWAN. Photos
  3. Ryparosa hullettii King, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 59 (1890) 126. Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. PANAY: Antique (Mt. Poras: Reynoso 21076).

Salix L.

Photos
  1. Salix babylonica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1017; --Jacobs, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 109. Possibly wild in Iran, China, Japan and widely cultivated in S and C Europe, SW and S Asia, the Himalayas. In Malesia only cultivated in Peninsular Malaysia, Java and the Philippines. LUZON. Known from one sterile specimen. Cultivated. Photos
  2. Salix tetrasperma Roxb., Pl. Corom. 1 (1795) 66; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 22; --Jacobs, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 107. Afghanistan and the Punjab (cultivated) eastwards through Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, to S China (cult.?, Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong) and Taiwan, N & C Sumatra. Simalur Is, Peninsular Malaysia (introduced), N part of C & E Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Lombok; Sumbawa; Sumba; Flores), E Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Laguna, Bulacan, Rizal, BOHOL, MINDANAO. In forests in swamps and near streams at low and medium elevation. Photos

Scolopia Schreb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018

Photos
  1. Scolopia luzonensis (?C.Presl) Warb. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, 6a (1893) 30; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 109; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 11. --Scolopia saeva auct. non (Hance) Hance; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 109. Borneo (Sabah), Philippines, NE, SW and SE Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (Flores). LUZON (widespread), CATANDUANES, MINDORO, MASBATE, PANAY, GUIMARAS, MINDANAO. Dry thickets and secondary forests, up to 680m, often common on clayey soil or along the beach, also on limestone. Fl. Sep-Mar; fr. Apr-Jun. Photos
  2. Scolopia spinosa (Roxb.) Warb. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, 6a (1893) 29; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 110; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 10. Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Sumatra (also Simalur), Banka, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Talaud Isls, Philippines. PALAWAN.

Not accounted for in Sleumer’s FM revision is:

  1. Scolopia oldhamii Hance, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. v 5 (1966) 206; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 109. China, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, Philippines.

 Taraktogenos Hassk. = Hydnocarpus section Taraktogenos (Hassk.) Warb.

Trichadenia Thwaites

No Photos
  1. Trichadenia philippinensis Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 298; EPFP 3 (1923) 108; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 39. --Vitex curvifrutescens Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2873. Solomon Isls, New Britain, New Guinea, Schouten Isl, Moluccas (Morotai; Buru; Bacan; Tenimber; Kei), S Sulawesi,  Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Quezon, Laguna, Camarines, SIBUYAN, PANAY, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Lanao, Davao. Low elevation primary or old secondary forests, on flat or hilly but non-inundated places, ascending to 500m.

Xylosma G.Forst.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 August 2017

Photos
  1. Xylosma luzonensis (C.Presl) Clos, Ann. Sci. Nat. iv, 8 (1857) 229; --Merr., EPFP   3 (1923) 112; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 68; --Prockia luzonensis C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2 (1835) 94. --Flacourtia lanceolata Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 455; EPFP 3 (1923) 113. --Xylosma cumingii Clos, Ann. Sc. Nat. IV, 8 (1857) 231. Moluccas (Kei), Lesser Sunda Isls, S Sulawesi, Buton Is, Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Mountain Province, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Zambales, Quezon, Rizal, Laguna, Cavite, Batangas. Thickets and (mostly secondary) forests at low elevation, ascending to c. 1700m.
  2. Xylosma palawanensis Mend., PJS 93 (1964) 514; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1972) 944b; --Type: PNH 80778 Gutierrez (PNH, syn; A, L, K, US, isosyn); PNH 80769 Gutierrez  & Espiritu (PNH, syn; A, L, K, US, isosyn). Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN: Quezon, Lipuun Point. On limestone hill. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  3. Xylosma suluensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 324; EPFP 3 (1923) 112; --Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 5 (1954) 66. Borneo, Moluccas, Taliabu, Philippines. TAWI-TAWI (Ubian, Bongao). Thickets behind the beach forest. Photos

Acknowledgements

Danilo Tandang kindly contributed some of the photos on this webpage. James V. LaFrankie provided taxonomic edits.


Literature

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Jacobs, M. 1954. Salicaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 5: 107-110.

Sleumer, H. 1954. Flacourtiaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 5: 1-106.

Sleumer, H. 1954. Florae Malesianae Precursores VII. New Malaysian Flacourtiaceae. Blumea 7: 484-497

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 3 June 2018