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Solanaceae

Brugmansia Pers. [Not native]

Photos
  1. Brugmansia suaveolens (Willd.) Bercht. & Presl, Prir. Rostl. 1 (Solanac.) (1823) 45; --Datura suaveolens Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., Enum. Hort. Berol. (1809) 227. Native of South America, widely cultivated. Photos

Brunfelsia Plumier [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 October 2017

Photos
  1. Brunfelsia americana L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 191; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 431; EPFP 3 (1923) 431. Native of tropical America. In the Philippines occasionally cultivated for ornamental purposes but nowhere spontaneous. Photos
  2. Brunfelsia brasiliensis (Spreng.) L.B.Sm. & Downs, Fl. Ilustr. Catar. 1 (Solanaceae) (1966) 303; --Gerardia brasiliensis Spreng., Syst. Veg. 2 (1825) 806. --Brunfelsia acuminata (Pohl) Benth. in DC., Prodr. 10 (1846) 199; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 414; EPFP 3 (1923) 431; --Franciscea acuminata Pohl, Pl. Bras. Icon. Descr. 1 (1826) 1. Native of tropical America. In the Philippines, occasionally cultivated for ornamental purposes but nowhere spontaneous.

Capsicum L. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 July 2017

Photos
  1. Capsicum annuum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 188; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 418; EPFP 3 (1923) 423; --D’Arcy & Peng, Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 4 (1998) 550. --Capsicum grossum L., Mant. 1 (1767) 47. --Capsicum frutescens L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 271; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 418; EPFP 3 (1923) 424. Native of tropical America, cultivated and naturalized in various forms or varieties for its edible fruits. Photos

Cestrum L. [Not native]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 June 2016

Photos
  1. Cestrum elegans (Brongn. ex Neumann) Schltdl., Linnaea 19 (1846) 261; --Habrothamnus elegans Brongn., Ann. Fl. Pomone (1844) 118. Native to S America. Naturalized in Mountain Prov. (Mt Data). Photos
  2. Cestrum nocturnum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 191; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 414; EPFP 3 (1923) 430. Introduced from tropical America. Widely cultivated in the Philippines for its flowers, which are very fragrant at night. Photos

Datura L. [Not native]

Photos
  1. Datura metel L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 179; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 430; --D’Arcy & Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 552. Probably a native of tropical America but long naturalized in tropical Asia. Now pantropically distributed.  Open waste places in and about settlements, sometimes planted (the double-flowered form). Photos

Lycianthes (Dunal) Hassl.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 October 2017

Photos
  1. Lycianthes banahaensis (Elmer) Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 509; --Solanum banahaense Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 341; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 425; --Type: Elmer 7492 (L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, forest understorey, 900m, May-1906. LUZON: Quezon (Lucban). Forested ravines along streams, c. 900m.
  2. Lycianthes biflora (Lour.) Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 461; --Solanum biflorum Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 129; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 425. --Solanum mindanaense Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2832. India (Sikkim), S China, Taiwan, Japan, across Malesia to Papua New Guinea. BATANES, LUZON: Benguet, Rizal, Laguna, Sorsogon, CATANDUANES, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Misamis, Lanao del Sur, Agusan del Norte. Ravines in forested ridges, and in thickets, 600-2000m. Variable. 
  3. Lycianthes lagunensis (Elmer) Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 511; --Solanum lagunense Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 341; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 426. --Lycianthes anisophylla (Elmer) Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 512; --Solanum anisophyllum auct. non Van Heurck & Muell.-Arg.; --Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2830; --Type: Elmer 13887 (BISH, L, NY, US), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, among boulders along streamlet near Catangan River, 3000ft, Sep-1912. --Lycianthes anisophylla (Elmer) Bitter var. masbatensis Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 513; --Type: Merrill 3046 (NY, US, iso), Masbate, Aug-1903. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDORO, MASBATE, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao, Agusan, Surigao, SIARGAO.
  4. Lycianthes laevis (Dun.) Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 484; --Solanum laeve Dunal, Encycl., Suppl. 3(2) (1814) 751.
  5. Lycianthes parasitica (Blume) Bitter, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen. 24 (1920) 504; --Solanum parasiticum Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenzorg (Blume) (1823) 55.

Lycopersicum Mill. = Solanum

Nicotiana L. [Not native]

Photos
  1. Nicotiana tabacum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 180; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 415; EPFP 3 (1923) 430. Native of tropical America, now planted in all warm countries. Cultivated throughout the Philippines, in some provinces (e.g. Ilocos provinces, Isabela) as a major cash crop. Tobacco. Photos

Physalis L. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 July 2017

Photos
  1. Physalis angulata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 183; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 419; EPFP 3 (1923) 423; --D’Arcy & Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 560. --Physalis lanceifolia Nees, Linnaea 6 (1831) 473; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 423. Native of tropical America, now widely distributed in tropical and temperate regions.  N LUZON to MINDANAO. Widely scattered in open waste places in and near settlements. Photos
  2. Physalis minima L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 183; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 419; EPFP 3 (1923) 423. Pantropic. BABUYAN ISLS and N LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. Common weed in open waste places at low elevation, ascending to 1600m.
  3. Physalis peruviana L. Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1670; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 423; --D’Arcy & Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 562. Native of tropical America. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Weed in temperate vegetable gardens and open waste places, up to 2200m. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Photos

Solanum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 October 2017

Photos
  1. Solanum americanum Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8, (1768) No. 5; --Edmonds, Kew Bull. 27 (1972) 103; --Symon, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4 (1981) 37. --Solanum nigrum auct. non L.; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 416; EPFP 3 (1923) 427. Possibly a native of South America. Widespread in the tropics. Part of the Solanum nigrum complex. Throughout the Philippines in open waste places, recently disturbed soil, etc., 0-2000m. Photos
  2. Solanum athroanthum Dunal in DC., Prodr. 131 (1852) 208; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 417; EPFP 3 (1923) 425. Introduced from Java. LUZON: Manila. In hedges about houses. Rare.
  3. Solanum cumingii Dunal in DC., Prodr. 131 (1852) 363; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 416; EPFP 3 (1923) 425. Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation waste places.
  4. Solanum cyanocarphium Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 700; --Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 247. --Solanum sparsiflorum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1836; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 428; --Type: Elmer 13157 (BISH, NY, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, along the trail to Napuan, on sticky soil in thickets bordering dense forest, 500-750ft, May-1911. Peninsular Malaysia to Java, Borneo and the Philippines. PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Thickets near lowland forests, 150-230m.
  5. Solanum diphyllum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 184; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 425. Native of Mexico and Central America. LUZON: Manila, based on Merrill 8498. Lowland waste places. Photos
  6. Solanum erianthum D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 96; --Roe, Taxon 17 (1968) 176-178; --Symon, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4 (1981) 93; --Hepper, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6 (1987) 370. --Solanum verbascifolium auct. non L.; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 416; EPFP 3 (1923) 429, pro parte; --Backer & Bakh. f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 471. Originally from South America, now widespread in tropical Asia and Oceania. Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests. Photos
  7. Solanum inaequilaterale Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 236; EPFP 3 (1923) 426. LUZON: Abra, Mountain Province, Benguet, MINDANAO: Lanao. Montane thickets, chiefly in or near mossy cloud forests, 1300-2400m. Photos
  8. Solanum lasiocarpum Dunal, Hist. Nat. Solanum (1813) 222; --D’Arcy & Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 567. --Solanum ferox auct. non L.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 426. Tropical India east through Indochina, extreme southern China, across Malesia to New Guinea. Throughout the Philippines. Generally low to medium elevation, ascending to 2000m.  Disturbed sites such as forest clearings, second-growth thickets, roadsides and wastelands. Photos
  9. Solanum lianoides Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 733; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 427. SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting), MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao. Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1100m.
  10. Solanum luzoniense Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 58; EPFP 3 (1923) 427; --D’Arcy & Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 567. --Solanum luzoniense Merr. var. glabrum Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 59; EPFP 3 (1923) 427; --Type: Merrill 4237 (US, iso), Luzon: Bulacan prov., Calumpit, Sep-1905. Lanyu, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Mountain Province, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Tarlac, Bulacan, Laguna, PANAY. Lowland thickets and waste places.
  11. Solanum lycopersicum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 185. --Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8, (1768) No. 2; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 418; EPFP 3 (1923) 429. Distributed worldwide, but is really known only from cultivation, specimens collected from natural habitats are, in our opinion, feral escapes and not truly wild populations. Tomato; kamatis. Photos
  12. Solanum macaonense Dunal in DC., Prodr. 13(1) (1852) 264; --D’Arcy & Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 569. Sri Lanka, S China, Taiwan, Philippines.
  13. Solanum mammosum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 187; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 427. Introduced from tropical America. LEYTE, JOLO, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Lowlands, in thickets and waste places. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Photos
  14. Solanum mauritanum Scop., Delic. Fl. et Faunae Insubr. 3 (1788) 16; --Hepper, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6 (1987) 369. --Solanum verbascifolium auct. non L.; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 416; EPFP 3 (1923) 429, pro parte. Native of Argentina and introduced into Mauritius (from where it was described), and many tropical countries.
  15. Solanum melongena L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 186; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 416; EPFP 3 (1923) 427. Cultivated in all warm countries. Cultivated throughout the Philippines for its edible fruit, but nowhere spontaneous. Eggplant; talong. Photos
  16. Solanum pseudocapsicum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 184; --D’Arcy & Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 575. Native to Central and South America. Widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide, often escaping.
  17. Solanum retrorsum Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 342; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 428. LUZON: Benguet (Baguio; La Trinidad), Nueva Vizcaya (Caraballo Mtns), Quezon, MINDORO. In thickets, 1000-1600m. Photos
  18. Solanum seaforthianum Andrews, Bot. Repos. (1808) t. 504. Native to South America. Naturalized in Philippines. MINDANAO: Misamis Oriental. Photos
  19. Solanum spirale Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. Carey & Wall. 2 (1824) 247; Hort. Beng. 16 (1814) 16, nom. nud.;. --Solanum apoense Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 730; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 425; --Type: Elmer 11599. Old World tropics from India, S China, SE Asia to tropical Australia (Queensland). MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. Damp forested ravines, c. 1500m. Photos
  20. Solanum torvum Sw., Prodr. (1788) 47; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 417; EPFP 3 (1923) 428; --D’Arcy & Peng, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 576. Native of the Caribbean, now pantropic. Throughout the Philippines. Low and medium elevation, in open waste places. Photos
  21. Solanum tuberosum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 185; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 428. Native of tropical America. In the Philippines cultivated at higher elevtion, especially the Cordillera highlands of N LUZON. Potato; patatas. Photos
  22. Solanum violaceum Ortega, Nov. Pl. Desc. Dec. (1798) 56; --D’Arcy & CI Peng  in Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 578. --Solanum indicum auct. non L.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 426. Widespread in tropical Asia. BATANES (BATAN, IBUHOS), BABUYAN ISLS (DALUPIRI), LUZON: Manila, MINDANAO: Cotabato (Buayan), Davao.

Tubocapsicum Makino

No Photos
  1. Tubocapsicum anomalum (Franch. & Sav.) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 22 (1908) 19; --D’Arcy & CI Peng  in Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 580; --Capsicum anomalum Franch. & Sav., Enum. Pl. Jap. 2 (1879) 452; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 424. Korea, Japan, Ryukyu Isls, Quelpaert, Taiwan, S China, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. In Benguet in mossy montane forests, 1800-2200m. In other regions along streams in shaded ravines at low and medium elevation. 

Literature

Backer, CA & RC Bakhuizen van den Brink. 1965. Flora of Java 2: 464-483.

CABI Invasive Species Compendium

Symon, DE. 1985. The Solanaceae of New Guinea. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Garden 8: 1-171.

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 8 October 2017