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Sparmanniaceae

Alternative classification: Malvaceae s.l. subfam. Grewioideae

Colona Cav.

Edited by James V. LaFrankie & Pieter B. Pelser, 14 May 2016

Photos
  1. Colona blancoi (Rolfe) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 6 (1904) 17; --Columbia blancoi Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 308; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 28. LUZON: Rizal. Low elevation thickets and forests.
  2. Colona hastata (Warb.) ined.;  --Columbia hastata Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 105; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 28. LUZON: Zambales, Bataan. Low elevation primary forests; apparently very rare or local.
  3. Colona lanceolata (Warb.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 804; --Columbia lanceolata Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 107; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 28. LUZON: Pangasinan, Zambales. Low elevation thickets along streams.
  4. Colona longipetiolata Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 6 (1904) 16; --Columbia longipetiolata (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 29. LUZON: Bataan. Lowland dipterocarp forests.
  5. Colona macgregorii (Merr.) ined.; --Columbia macgregorii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 297; EPFP 3 (1923) 28; --Type: BS 11492 McGregor. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya. Medium elevation thickets or forests.
  6. Colona megacarpa (Merr.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 800; --Columbia megacarpa Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 298; EPFP 3 (1923) 28; --Colona velutinosa Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 443, nom. superfl.; --Type: Manalo FB 7416 (NY, US), Palawan: 1 mile NE of Tanabag. PALAWAN: Low elevation thickets and secondary forests.
  7. Colona mindanaensis (Warb.) ined.; --Columbia mindanaensis Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 107; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 29; --Type: Warburg 14440 (B). MINDANAO: Davao. Thickets or forests, c. 300m. Note by L.L.Co: According to Merrill (1923) doubtfully distinct from Colona serratifolia Cav.
  8. Colona mollis (Warb.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 802; --Columbia mollis Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 108; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 29; --Type: Warburg 13473. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija. Lowland thickets and secondary forests up to c. 350m.
  9. Colona philippinensis (S.Vidal) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 813; --Columbia philippinensis (S.Vidal) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 29; --Diplophractum philippinense S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 71; --Type: S. Vidal 1001, Luzon: Pampanga. LUZON: Pampanga. According to Merrill (1923) may be identical with Colona mollis.
  10. Colona serratifolia Cav., Icon. 4 (1797) 47; --Ashton, Man. Non-Dipt. Trees Sarawak 2 (1988) 438; --Columbia serratifolia (Cav.) DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 512; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 313; EPFP 3 (1923) 29. Peninsular Malaysia (coastal Johore and Pahang), Borneo (NE Sarawak, Sabah, E Kalimantan southwards to Banjermasin), Philippines, Sulawesi. BABUYAN ISLS and N LUZON to MINDANAO and PALAWAN. Lowland, highly disturbed or early re-growth forests, along river banks, etc., preferentially in regions with pronounced rainy and dry seasons. Usually common. Photos
  11. Colona subaequalis (Planch. ex S.Vidal) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 802; --Columbia subaequalis Planch. ex S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 99; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 30; --Type: Cuming 1507, Mindoro. MINDORO. Low elevation secondary forests.
  12. Colona subintegra (Merr.) ined.; --Columbia subintegra Merr. PJS 10 c (1915) 323. MINDANAO: Zamboanga (Foxworthy 13776 and Villamil 21861).

Dubious taxa:

  1. Colona hirsuta (Warb.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 804; --Columbia hirsuta Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 106; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 28; --Type: Warburg 14774 (B). MINDANAO: Davao. Note by L.L.Co: The type is a sterile specimen and appears as if the material was from a sapling. The validity of the species is doubtful.
  2. Colona jagori (Warb.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 813; --Columbia jagorii Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 106; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 28; --Type: Jagor s.n. (B), Luzon.

Columbia Pers. = Colona

Corchorus L.

Photos
  1. Corchorus aestuans L., Syst. ed. 10 (1774) 1079; --Liu & Lo in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 3 (1993) 724. --Corchorus acutangulus Lam., Encycl. 2 (1786) 104; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 315; EPFP 3 (1923) 23. Pantropic, but probably a native of tropical Asia. Certainly an introduced weed in the Philippines. Throughout the archipelago in open waste places at low and medium elevation.
  2. Corchorus capsularis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 529; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 315; EPFP 3 (1923) 23. Cultivated or naturalized throughout the tropics. In the Philippines apparently not planted. In clearings, on rice paddy banks, and in open, low, usually wet places in and near settlements throughout the archipelago. Jute.
  3. Corchorus fascicularis Lam., Encycl. 2 (1786) 104; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 23. Tropical Africa, India, Myanmar, tropical Australia, but not recorded from Peninsular Malaysia. LUZON: Bulacan, Pampanga. Open fallow lands, swamp margins, etc. at low elevation.
  4. Corchorus olitorius L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 529; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 315; EPFP 3 (1923) 23. Pantropic but a native of the Old World (said to be a native of India). Throughout the Philippines in and near settlements, on rice paddy banks, fallow paddies, etc. Occasionally cultivated as a vegetable.

Grewia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 October 2017

Photos
  1. Grewia asiatica L., Mant. 1 (1767) 122; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 25. India to Thailand to Indochina and the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Cagayan. Dry slopes at low elevation.
  2. Grewia bilamellata Gagnep., Not. Syst. 1 (1909) 118; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 25. --Grewia parva Merr., PJS, C 7 (1912) 301. Indochina, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Ilocos Sur. Low elevation thickets.
  3. Grewia eriocarpa Juss., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 4 (1804) 93; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 25. Indochina, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Zambales, Rizal, Quezon, MINDORO, SEMIRARA, BUSUANGA, NEGROS, CEBU, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Low and medium elevation dry thickets, often common. Photos
  4. Grewia inflexa Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 194; EPFP 3 (1923) 25. SAMAR. Low elevation forests along streams.
  5. Grewia laevigata Vahl, Symb. Bot. (Vahl) i. (1790) 34; --Type from India. --Grewia umbellata Roxb. ex DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 509; --Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 42, nom. nud.; Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 591; --Burrett, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 701. --Grewia acuminata Juss., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 4 (1804) 91; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 24. India, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, La Union, Pangasinan, Tarlac, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, PALAWAN, BALABAC, ROMBLON, NEGROS, SIQUIJOR, CEBU, SULU ARCHIPELAGO, BASILAN, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation thickets, often abundant. Photos
  6. Grewia multiflora Juss., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 4 (1804) 89; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 313; EPFP 3 (1923) 26; --Type: Anon. s.n. 12554 (12555) (P-JU, holo). Peninsular Malaysia to New Guinea. LUZON: Cagayan to Quezon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO. Common in thickets and secondary forests. Photos
  7. Grewia palawanensis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 300; EPFP 3 (1923) 26. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Low elevation thickets and secondary forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  8. Grewia retusifolia Pierre, Fl. Forest. Cochin. 2 (1889) t. 168; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 26. Indochina, Java, Philippines, Australia. LUZON: Rizal, MINDANAO: Cotabato. Open grasslands at low elevation. Rare.
  9. Grewia rizalensis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 303; EPFP 3 (1923) 27. LUZON: Rizal, Cavite. Low and medium elevation thickets and forests.
  10. Grewia rolfei Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 302; EPFP 3 (1923) 27. LUZON: Cagayan, Pampanga, Bulacan, Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Low elevation thickets.
  11. Grewia serrata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 444; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 27. --Grewia ovata Merr., PJS 7 (1912) 299. LUZON: Bataan, Rizal. Low elevation thickets or secondary forests. Rare or local.
  12. Grewia setacea Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 89. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Ecija. Thickets and forests, 1300-2000m.

Microcos Burm. ex L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 25 June 2017

Photos
  1. Microcos philippinensis (Perkins) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 731; --Grewia philippinensis Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 103; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 26. --Grewia edulis Merr., PJS 7 (1912) 298. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Cagayan, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Batangas, Camarines. Low elevation forests.
  2. Microcos stylocarpa (Warb.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 735; --Ashton, Man. Non-Dipt. Trees Sarawak 2 (1988) 447; --Grewia stylocarpa Warb. in Perkins Frag. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 104; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 27. --Microcos pyriformis (Elmer) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 735; --Grewia pyriformis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2841; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 26. Borneo (Sarawak, Sabah, E Kalimantan), Philippines. LUZON (Cagayan to Sorsogon), MINDORO, PALAWAN, TABLAS, SIBUYAN, TICAO, MASBATE, PANAY, NEGROS, BILIRAN, LEYTE, SAMAR, BASILAN, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation mixed dipterocarp forests and thickets. Photos
  3. Microcos tomentosa Sm. in Rees, Cyclopaedia 23, 2, 46 (1813) 2. Borneo, China, Indochina, Java, Myanmar, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand, Philippines. Note by P.B. Pelser (2-Aug-15): Presence in the Philippines as per Chung & Soepadmo (2011).

Trichospermum Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 October 2017

Photos
  1. Trichospermum discolor Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1641; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 24; --Type: Elmer 11903. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO: Lanao, Davao. Low elevation forests in Cagayan, elevation 700-900m in Mindanao. Photos
  2. Trichospermum eriopodum (Turcz.) Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 17; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 24; --Grewia eriopoda Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 31(1) (1858) 231. LUZON: Sorsogon, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, SIARGAO. Low and medium secondary forests.
  3. Trichospermum involucratum (Merr.) Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1641; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 24; --Halconia involucrata Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) 281. MINDORO, SIBUYAN, NEGROS. Forested ridges, 900-1400m. Photos
  4. Trichospermum lanigerum (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 250; EPFP 3 (1923) 24; --Erotium lanigerum Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 440. LUZON: Rizal, MINDORO. Forests at low elevation.

Triumfetta L.

Photos
  1. Triumfetta annua L., Mant. 1 (1767) 73; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 30. Tropical Africa to India to Malaysia and the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, PALAWAN, PANAY, MINDANAO: Davao. Ravines and open slopes at low elevation, ascending to 1500m in Benguet.
  2. Triumfetta benguetensis Sprague, Kew Bull. (1915) 345; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 31; --Type: R.S. Williams 1303. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Thickets, c. 1200m.
  3. Triumfetta pilosa Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. (1821) 233; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 31. India across Malesia from Peninsular Malaysia to New Guinea. LUZON: Kalinga, Abra, Mountain Province, Ifugao, Benguet, MINDANAO: Lanao, Bukidnon, Davao. Thickets and open slopes up to 1200m.
  4. Triumfetta procumbens G.Forst., Prodr. (1786) 35; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 31. Indian Ocean islands (Seychelles, Diego Garcia, Keeling Isls) through Malesia to W Polynesia northward to the Marianas. COMIRAN (in Sulu Sea). On sandy seashores.
  5. Triumfetta repens (Blume) Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 111; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 31; --Porpa repens Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1825) 118. Madagascar, Keeling Isls, Indochina to Java, Borneo, Philippines and eastward to the small islands off the coast of Queensland. LUZON: Cagayan, Pangasinan, Camarines, MINDORO, PALAWAN (photos by Pelser & Barcelona). Sandy seashores. Photos
  6. Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq., Enum. Pl. Carib. (1762) 22. --Triumfetta bartramia L., Syst. Ed. 10 (1759) 1044; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 30. Pantropic weed, certainly introduced in the Philippines. Common in open waste places in all islands and provinces at low and medium elevations. Photos
  7. Triumfetta semitriloba Jacq., Enum. Pl. Carib. (1760) 22; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 314; EPFP 3 (1923) 31. Pantropic. Widely distributed in the Philippines. Low and medium elevation dry thickets.
  8. Triumfetta tomentosa Bojer, Ann. Sci. Nat. II, 20 (1843) 103; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 31. E Africa to India, S China, Indochina, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. On slopes, 1250m. Note by L.L.Co: Very similar to Triumfetta pilosa Roth but with straight spines.

Literature

Ashton, PS. 1988. Tiliaceae. Manual of the Non-Dipterocarp Trees of Sarawak 2: 426-468.

Burrett, M. 1926. Notizbl. Berlin Dahlem 9: 592-880.

Brunken, U & AN Muellner. 2012. A new tribal classification of Grewioideae (Malvaceae) based on morphological and molecular phylogenetic rvidence. Systematic Botany 37: 699-711.

Chung, RCK. 2005. Revision of Grewia (Malvaceae-Grewioideae) in Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 62: 1-27

Chung, RCK & E Soepadmo. 2011. Taxonomic revision of the genus Microcos (Malvaceae-Grewioideae) in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Blumea 56: 273-299

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Kochummen, KM. (repr.1983). Tiliaceae. Tree Flora of Malaya 2: 392-412.

Kostermans, AJGH. 1972. A synopsis of the Old World species of Trichospermum Blume (Tiliaceae). Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh 41: 401-430.

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 17 November 2017