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Urticaceae

including Cecropiaceae

Astrothalamus C.B.Rob.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 October 2017

No Photos
  1. Astrothalamus reticulatus (Wedd.) C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 19; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 98; --Maoutia reticulata Wedd., Prodr. 16(1) (1869) 235(31). --?Maoutia planitora C.B.Rob., PJS 3c (1908) 180; --Type: R.S. Williams 2079, Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River, 31-Jan-1905. Marianas, Borneo (Sarawak), Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga (San Ramon; Sax River). Low elevation thickets. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11).

Boehmeria Jacq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018

Photos
  1. Boehmeria beyeri C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 309; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 89; --Type: BS 13540 Beyer (K, NY, iso), Luzon: Ifugao prov., Bila, May-1911. Endemic to Philippines (Luzon). LUZON: Ifugao, Benguet (Mt Sto Tomas). Mossy forests, up to 1900m. Conservation status: Critically Endangered.
  2. Boehmeria densiflora Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechy’s Voy. (1841) 217; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 90; --Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 199; --Type: from Japan. S China, Hong Kong, Ryukyu and Bonin Isls, Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet. Open slopes, up to 1650m.
  3. Boehmeria depauperata Wedd., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 4, 1 (1854) 202. --Pipturus mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 898; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 95; --Type: Elmer 10520 (PNH, holo, lost; K, LE, MO, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, 1125m, May-1909. --Boehmeria cypholophoides Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 368; EPFP 2 (1923) 90; --Type: Wenzel 35 (A, BM, F, G, L, US, iso), Leyte: Dagami, forested foothills, c. 60m, 20-May-1913. Pakistan, India and Bangladesh to Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, SW China, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Papua), Papua New Guinea, Philippines. LEYTE (low elevation forests), MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo, open slopes, c. 1125m). 100-1700m. Conservation status: Least Concern.
  4. Boehmeria heterophylla Wedd., Arch. Mus. Paris 9 (1856) 351; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 90; --Type: Cuming 1561 (BM, G, K, M, P, iso), Mindoro. --Boehmeria blumei Wedd., Prodr. 161 (1869) 204; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 89; --Type: Cuming 73, Luzon: Pampanga or Bulacan prov. --Boehmeria villosa C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 3; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 91; --Type: BS 3574 Fenix, erroneously cited ‘3754’ by Robinson & Merrill and Wilmot-Dear & Friis (2013) (NY, iso), Batan: Sto Domingo de Basco, 27-May-1907. SABTAN, BATAN. Indonesia (Sulawesi), Papua New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, PANAY, MINDANAO. Thickets, damp ravines, and forests, sea-level up to c. 1100m. Conservation status: Near Threatened. Photos
  5. Boehmeria multiflora C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 179, --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 90; --Type: R.S. Williams 1088 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, 10-Jun-1904. Indonesia (Bouton), Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Kalinga, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, BOHOL, MINDANAO. Open slopes and thickets, 600-2600m. Conservation status: Vulnerable. Photos
  6. Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaudich., Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 499; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 90; --Urtica nivea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 985. Not native to the Philippines.
  7. Boehmeria pilosiuscula (Blume) Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor. (Hasskarl) (1844) 79; --Urtica pilosiuscula Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 10 (1825) 491; --Type: from Indonesia. India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, S China, Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls.), Philippines. LUZON. Up to 1650m. Conservation status: Near Threatened or Vulnerable.
  8. Boehmeria rugosissima (Blume) Miq., Pl. Jungh. 1 (1851) 32; --Urtica rugosissima Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 490; --Type: from Indonesia. Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi), Philippines. MINDORO, MINDANAO. 450-1600m. Conservation status: Near Threatened or Vulnerable.
  9. Boehmeria virgata (G.Forst.) Guill., Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. II, vii. (1837) 182; --Urtica virgata G.Forst., Florulae Insularum Australium Prodromus (1786) 66, no. 345. Widespread in Tropical Africa, Madagascar, Oceania, SE Asia, Australia.
  10. Boehmeria zollingeriana Wedd., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. iv, 1 (1854) 201; --Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 381; EPFP 2 (1923) 91; --Type: from Java. SE India, Myanmar to SW China, Taiwan, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Indonesia (Java), Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Mt Nagapatan; Bangui), Pangasinan (Umingan). Low and medium elevation ravines and open slopes, ascending to 14000m. Conservation status: Least Concern.
Possible occurrence in the Philippines:
  1. Boehmeria sieboldiana Blume, Museum Botanicum Lugduno Batavum 2 (1857) 220. China, Taiwan, Japan, Ryukyu Isls, Cheju Isl, South Korea, ?Philippines.
Name of uncertain identity (Wilmot-Dear & Friis 2013):
  1. Boehmeria rupestris C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 5; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 91; --Type: BS 5542 Ramos, Luzon: Benguet prov., La Trinidad, Rio Trinidad (Balili River). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Rocks along streams, c. 1300m. Probably Boehmeria pilosiuscula.

Cecropia Loefl. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 October 2017

No Photos
  1. Cecropia peltata L., Pl. Jamaic. Pug. (1759) 28. Native of tropical America. Recently introduced in the Philippines. Very prolific. Photos

Chamabainia Wight

No Photos
  1. Chamabainia cuspidata Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Or. 6 (1853) 11; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 91; --Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 202. Sri Lanka, SW China, Taiwan. SE Asia. LUZON: Mountain Province (Mt Data), Benguet (Mt Pulag), MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Mossy forests, grassy montane summits, cliffs, etc. 1700-2800m.

Conocephalus Blume = Poikilospermum

Cypholophus Wedd.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018

Photos
  1. Cypholophus brunneolus Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 896; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 93; --Type: Elmer 11641 (MO, NY, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, dense woods at 4000ft, Sep-1909. Philippines, Borneo. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, PANAY, NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Kanlaon), MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Shaded ravines, mossy forests, etc., 600-2400m. Photos 
  2. Cypholophus microphyllus Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 895; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 93; --Type: Elmer 11588 (PNH, holo, lost; MO, NY 2 sheets, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, seepage ledges along Cati Creek at 6000ft, Aug-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). c. 1800m.
  3. Cypholophus moluccanus (Blume) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1869) 305; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 93; --Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 202; --Urtica moluccana Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 492. Taiwan, Lanyu, Micronesia, Hawaii, Sumatra, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province to Sorsogon, MINDORO, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, MINDANAO. Damp forested ravines, low elevation to 1500m. Photos 

Debregeasia Gaudich.

Photos
  1. Debregeasia longifolia (Burm.f.) Wedd., Prodr. 161 (1869) 23524; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 95; --Urtica longifolia Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 297; --Type: from India. --Debregeasia angustifolia C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 18; --Type: R.S. Williams 1551 (US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio. --Debregeasia luteocarpa Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2843; --Type: Elmer 14068 (L, MO, NA, NY, U, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, Oct-1912. India to China, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Abra (Mt Paraga), Kalinga (Balbalasang), Mountain Province (Bauco), Ifugao, Benguet (Mt Pulag; Mt Sto Tomas; Baguio; Imugan-Nozo Trail), MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Common in thickets, ravines, and in damp forests, 1000-2000m. Note: Iso sheets at L & MO annotated by Wilmot-Dear as Debregeasia velutina Gaudich. in 1987. Photos 

Dendrocnide Miq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 March 2018

Photos
  1. Dendrocnide carriana Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 45; --Type: from Papua New Guinea. NE New Guinea (Papua), Moluccas, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali, Lombok, Timor), Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Yagaw, PNH 18933 Conklin, A, L, PNH).
  2. Dendrocnide crassifolia (C.B.Rob.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 203; Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 46; --Laportea crassifolia C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 480; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 73; --Type: FB 3925 Hutchinson (US, holo; K, NY, iso), Mindanao: Misamis Occidental prov., Mataline Falls. Talaud Isls(?), Philippines. MINDANAO: Misamis, Lanao, Davao Oriental (Mt Mayo). In thickets, 400-800m.
  3. Dendrocnide densiflora (C.B.Rob.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 203; Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 24; --Laportea densiflora C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 479; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 73; --Type: Hallier 7414 (L, NY, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga prov., San Ramon. --Laportea subpeltata C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 485; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 75; --Type: FB 4586 Hutchinson (NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Misamis Occidental prov., Mt Malindang. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Lake Balinsasayao), CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga (San Ramon), Misamis Occidental (Mt Malindang). Thickets and forests, low elevation to c. 1000m.
  4. Dendrocnide elliptica (Merr.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 203; Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 16; --Laportea elliptica Merr., J. Arn. Arb. 35 (1954) 135; --Type: from Sabah (lecto). Borneo (Sabah, Sarawak, Kalimantan), Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao prov. (Banawe, PNH 80485 Conklin & Buwaya, L). 
  5. Dendrocnide luzonensis (Wedd.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 203; Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 40; --Laportea luzonensis (Wedd.) Warb., Perkins Frag. Fl. Philip. (1905) 168; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 73; --Laportea crenulata (Roxb.) Wedd. var. luzonensis Wedd., Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 9 (1856) 133; --Type: Cuming 522 (CGE, G, G-DC, K, L, M, MEL, MO, UPS, iso). --Laportea agusanensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2860; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 72; --Type: Elmer 14019 (BO, E, F, L, MO, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta. --Laportea latilanceolata Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3238, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; --Type: Elmer 15206 (A, BO, C, F, FI, K, L, MO, S, U, UC, US, Z, iso). Endemic to the Philippines.
  6. Dendrocnide meyeniana (Walp.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 204; Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 21; --Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 204; --Laportea meyeniana (Walp.) Warb. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1905) 168; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 181; EPFP 2 (1923) 73; --Urtica meyeniana Walp., Nov Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 Suppl. 1 (1843) 422. --Dendrocnide diffusa (C.B.Rob.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 203; --Laportea diffusa C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 482; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 73; --Type: FB 5149 Curran (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Tarlac prov. --Laportea gaudichaudiana Wedd., Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 9 (1856) 137; --Type: Cuming 567 (CGE, K). --Laportea leytensis C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 484; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 73; --Type: Elmer 7351 (A, BO, E, FI, K, NY, iso), Leyte: Palo. Photos
  7. Dendrocnide rigidifolia (C.B.Rob.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 205; Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 26; --Laportea rigidifolia C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 483; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 74; --Type: R.S. Williams 991 (BO, E, F, L, NY 2 sheets, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Sto Tomas. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Sablan; Mt Sto Tomas). Mossy forest, c. 2000m on Mt Sto Tomas, medium elevation in Sablan.
  8. Dendrocnide stimulans (L.f.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 206; Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 11; --Urtica stimulans L.f., Suppl. Pl. (1781) 418. --Laportea gracilipes Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 876; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 73; --Type: Elmer 10499 (PNH, holo, lost; A, BO, E, F, G, K, L, MO, NY 2 sheets, WRSL, US, Z, iso), Mindanao: Davao del Sur prov., Mt Apo. --Laportea brunnea Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 298; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 72; --Type: BS 17559 Ramos (K, US). --Laportea lanaensis C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 483; --Type: Clemens 462 (F, M), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur prov., Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley. --Dendrocnide stenophylla (Quisumb.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 206; --Laportea stenophylla Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 317; --Type: BS 49413 Ramos & Edaño (B, NY, UC, iso), Mindanao: Davao Oriental prov., Mt Mayo. Hainan, Taiwan, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali, Lombok), Anambas, Borneo (Sabah, Sarawak, Kalimantan), Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Buru). LUZON: Bataan, Laguna, Sorsogon, SAMAR (Cauayan Valley), MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley), Davao del Sur (Mt Apo), Davao Oriental (Mt Mayo), Agusan. Primary and secondary forests, thickets, near sea level to 1200m.
  9. Dendrocnide subclausa (C.B.Rob.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 206; Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 28; --Laportea subclausa C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 486; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 74; --Type: Merrill 6290 (K, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., Mt Makiling. --Laportea pendula Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 270; EPFP 2 (1923) 74; --Type: BS 30229 Ramos (K, US, iso), Catanduanes: Mt Mariguidon, along small streams in damp forests, c. 200m, 21-Nov-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela (San Mariano; Palanan), Laguna (Mt Makiling), Camarines, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), CATANDUANES (Mt Mariguidon), PANAY: Capiz (Jamindan), MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Tungao). Lowland forests, usually along streams, ascending to 800m. Photos 
  10. Dendrocnide venosa (Elmer) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 207; Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 30; --Laportea venosa Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 878; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 75; --Type: Elmer 11948 (A, BO, E, F, FI, K, L, MO, NY 2 sheets, US, WRSL, Z), Mindanao: Davao del Sur prov., Mt Apo. --Laportea monticola Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 299; EPFP 2 (1923) 74; --Type: BS 19765 R.C. McGregor (US, iso), Luzon: Ifugao prov., Mt Polis. --Laportea triplinervia Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 300; EPFP 2 (1923) 75; --Type: BS 19462 Ramos (L, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Pular. --Laportea conduplicata Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3237, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; --Type: Elmer 17152 (A, BO, C, F, FI, K, L, MO, NY, S, U, UC, US, Z), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao (Mt Polis), Quezon (Mt Pular), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Lake Balinsasayao), MINDANAO: Davao del Sur (Mt Apo). Low montane to montane mossy forests, 400-2000m. Photos

 Distemon Wedd.  = Neodistemon

Elatostema J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018

Photos
  1. Elatostema acrophilum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 523; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 78; --Type: BS 6577 Robinson (US, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., Mt Banahaw, summit area, Jan-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, CATANDUANES (BS 75410 Ramos & Edaño, SING). Lower montane to high-montane mossy forests, 1000-2100m.
  2. Elatostema acuminatissimum Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 375; EPFP 2 (1923) 79; --Type: BS 29015 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Umiray, 2-Jun-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (Umiray). Low elevation damp forest along streams.
  3. Elatostema agusanense Elmer, LPB 8 (1908) 2845; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 79; --Type: Elmer 14250 (GH, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, Aug-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Forested ravines along small streams at medium elevation.
  4. Elatostema angustatum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 533, erroneously as ‘523’ in Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 79; --Type: FB 3266 Ahern’s collector, Luzon: Rizal prov., Bosoboso. --Elatostema camiguinense Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2849; --Type: Elmer 14227 (GH, US, iso), Camiguin: Mambajao, Nov-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO. Along streams in shaded ravines at low and medium elevation. 
  5. Elatostema antonii Elmer, LPB 8 (1908) 2847; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 79; --Type: Elmer 13894 (MO, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, Sep-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Boulders in densely shaded ravines along streams, c. 900m,
  6. Elatostema apoense Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 885; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 79; --Type: Elmer 11793 (MO, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, Sep-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Dense forests, c. 1200m. According to Merrill, near Elatostema hookerianum Wedd.
  7. Elatostema appendiculatum Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 379; EPFP 2 (1923) 79; --Type: BS 29129 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Tulaog, along small streams in damp forests at low elevation, 25-May-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (Mt Tulaog). Low elevation forests along streams.
  8. Elatostema banahaense C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 526; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 79; --Type: BS 9856 Robinson (US, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., Mt Banahaw, 1500m, Mar-1910. --Elatostema scriptum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 529; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 85; --Type: BS 9766 Robinson, Luzon: Laguna (Mt Banahaw), on rocks in forests, c. 800m. --Elatostema carinoi W.Shaw ex C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 532; PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 307; --Type: Phil. Normal Sch. 428 Cariño, Luzon: Benguet: Baguio. --Elatostema bulusanense Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3227; --Type: Elmer 16172 (A, MO, US, syn); Elmer 15575 (MO, US, syn); Elmer 16399 (GH, MO, US, syn), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao (Kiangan), Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Laguna (Mt Makiling; Mt Banahaw), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Katugasan), SIQUIJOR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Damp forests at medium and higher elevation, ascending to 2100m in the mossy forest on high mountains. Photos 
  9. Elatostema baruringense Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 890; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 79; --Type: Elmer 10916 (PNH, holo, lost; GH, MO, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, Jun-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Dense forests, c. 1200m.
  10. Elatostema benguetense C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 539; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 80; --Type: FB 5006 Curran, Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Tonglon (Sto. Tomas). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province (Mt Data), Benguet (Pauai; Mt Pulag; Mt Sto Tomas), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon), NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Kanlaon). Mossy forests, 1800-2300m. Photos 
  11. Elatostema bontocense Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 371; EPFP 2 (1923) 80; --Type: BS 37660 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Polis, on tree trunks in the mossy forest, 25-Feb-1920. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Mossy forests, 1800m.
  12. Elatostema brongniartianum Wedd., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. iv 1 (1854) 190; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 80; --Type: Cuming 629, Luzon: Laguna prov., Calauan. --Elatostema rupicolum Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3233; --Type: Elmer 18000 (GH, MO, US, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., Mt Makiling, Jun/Jul-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. N LUZON to MINDANAO. On rocks, cliffs, and banks of shaded ravines at medium elevation, in Luzon ascending to 1400m. 
  13. Elatostema brunneolum Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3219; --Type: Elmer 22102 (B, GH, MO, US, iso), Luzon: Pampanga prov., Mt Pinatubo, Camp Stotsenburg, May-1927. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pampanga (Mt Pinatubo), NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns).
  14. Elatostema brunonianum Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 318; --Type: BS 49401 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, ?lost; ?UC, iso), Mindanao: Davao Oriental prov., Mt Mayo, trunk epiphyte in mossy forest, c. 1300m. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental (Mt Mayo), trunk epiphyte in mossy forest, 1300m. Known only from the type.
  15. Elatostema buderi H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 i (1935) 6. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO.
  16. Elatostema capizense Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 372; EPFP 2 (1923) 80; --Type: BS 30748 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Panay: Aklan prov., Mt Macosolon (Magosolon), boulders along small streams in damp forests at low elevation, 19-Apr-1918. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY: Aklan (Mt Magosolon). Low elevation forests along stream.
  17. Elatostema catalonanum H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 i (1935) 28. --Elatostematoides mindanaense C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 502; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 88; --Type: Copeland 935 (staminate); Copeland 936 (pistillate), Mindanao: Davao del Sur prov., Catalunan. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO (Davao). In forests at medium elevation.
  18. Elatostema catanduanense Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 271; EPFP 2 (1923) 80; --Type: BS 30555 Ramos (US, iso), Catanduanes: Sto Domingo River, on stones along small streams in forests at low elevation, 5-Dec-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES. Rupicolous in low elevation forested streams.
  19. Elatostema catubigense ined. --Elatostema samarense Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 378, non Elatostematoides samarense Merr., which is now Elatostema samarense (Merr.) H.Schroet.; --Type: BS 34117 Ramos, Samar: Catubig River, in damp forest at low elevation, Feb-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Damp forests at low elevation.
  20. Elatostema caudatum Hallier f., Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 13 (1896) 307. Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  21. Elatostema cheirophyllum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 518; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 80; --Type: Whitford 1595 (US, iso), Negros: Negros Occidental prov., Himugaan River, May-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS: Negros Occidental, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Banks and boulders along streams in shaded ravines at medium elevation. 
  22. Elatostema contiguum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 536; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 80; --Type: BS 9479 Robinson, Luzon: Quezon prov., Mahabang Sugsugan River. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Camarines. Shaded stream embankments at medium elevation.
  23. Elatostema delicatulum Wedd., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. iv 1 (1854) 190; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 80; --Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 467; --Type: Elmer 10343 (PNH, holo, lost; GH, MO, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, Jun-1908. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Rizal, Laguna, PANAY, NEGROS. On rocks and ledges in shaded stream beds at low and medium elevation. 
  24. Elatostema discolor C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 301; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 81; --Type: BS 13475 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, in ravines, c. 1400m, May-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Benguet. Forests at or above 1400m.
  25. Elatostema diversilimbum Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 378; EPFP 2 (1923) 81; --Type: Merrill 9127 (US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga: Mtns back of Zamboanga, damp shaded ravines along small streams on banks and ledges, 200-400m, 6-Dec-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. On banks and ledges in damp, shaded ravines, 200-400m. 
  26. Elatostema edanoi Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 374; EPFP 2 (1923) 81, as ‘edañoii’; --Type: BS 37603 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Kalinga prov., Mt Masingit near Lubuagan, on tree trunks in forests along streams, c. 1300m, 17-Feb-1920. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Kalinga. In forests, c. 1300m.
  27. Elatostema edule C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 531; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 81; --Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 206. Lanyu, Lutao, N Philippines. BATAN. Along streams, ravines and moist forest floor.
  28. Elatostema elmeri Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 81; --Elatostema pictum Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2850, nom. illeg., auct. non Hallier f; --Type: Elmer 13484. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. About boulders in forests, c. 1200m. 
  29. Elatostema euphlebium Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 531; EPFP 2 (1923) 81; --Type: BS 37765 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Pukis, forested slopes, c. 1800m, 10-Mar-1920. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Forested slopes, c. 1800m.
  30. Elatostema falcifolium H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 i (1935) 28. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY.
  31. Elatostema ferrugineum (Merr.) Co, ined., non W.T.Wang; --Polychroa ferruginea Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 381; EPFP 2 (1923) 77; --Type: BS 38781 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Mindanao: Bukidnon prov., Mt Candoon, in forests, c. 1000m, 27-Jul-1920. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon (Mt Candoon). Forests, c. 1000m.
  32. Elatostema filicaule C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 516; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 81; --Type: Merrill 6621 (US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Pauai, mossy forest, c. 2100m, May-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao (Mt Polis), Benguet (Pauai; Mt Sto Tomas). Mossy forests, 1900-2300m. Synonym of Elatostema obtusum var. trilobulatum (Hayata) W.T. Wang?
  33. Elatostema gitingense Elmer, LPB 8 (1908) 2852; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 81; --Type: Elmer 12421 (US, iso), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, May-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting), PANAY (Antique). On cliffs and in wet soil along small streams in shaded ravines, 250-500m.
  34. Elatostema glaucescens Wedd., Arch. Mus. Paris 9 (1856) 325; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 81. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Bataan (Mt Mariveles), Bulacan (Norzagaray), Rizal (Jalajala), Laguna (Calauan; Los Baños; Mt Makiling), PANAY. Chiefly on mossy boulders and cliffs in shaded stream beds at low and medium elevation; in places ascending to 1200m.
  35. Elatostema glomeratum C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 302; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 82; --Type: Merrill 7642 (TAIF, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, on wet ledges in ravine. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Baguio; Mt Sto Tomas). Wet ledges, shaded ravines, and in the mossy forest, 1400-1900m.
  36. Elatostema gracilifolium Merr., PJS 13 c (1908) Bot. 8; EPFP 2 (1923) 82; --Type: BS 26428 Ramos & Edaño, Luzon: Nueva Ecija prov., Mt Umingan, on rocks in forests, 18-Aug-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija (Mt Umingan). On rocks in forests.
  37. Elatostema gracilipes (C.B.Rob.) H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 i (1935) 18; --Elatostematoides gracilipes C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 503; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 87; --Type: Merrill 5269 (NY, US, iso), Bucas Grande, 4-Oct-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE. Cliffs in shaded ravines at low elevation.
  38. Elatostema halconense C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 540; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 82; --Type: Merrill 5786 (US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Mt Halcon, ridge forest, 750m. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon). Forested ridges, c. 750m.
  39. Elatostema hastatum Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 466; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 82; --Type: Elmer 9829 (GH, MO, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, Apr-1908. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY, NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), MINDANAO: Agusan. Damp forests, c. 1200m. 
  40. Elatostema heterophyllum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 517; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 82; --Type: Merrill 6911 (US, iso), Negros: Negros Occidental prov., Mt Kanlaon, Apr-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Kanlaon). In forests on cliffs and in damp shaded ravines, 900-1320m.
  41. Elatostema holophyllum Merr., PJS 11 c (1910) Bot. 5; EPFP 2 (1923) 82; --Type: BS 23329 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bagacaua, growing on trees in the mossy forest, 20-Aug-1915. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija, Sorsogon, CATANDUANES. On boulders in shaded ravines at medium elevation, epiphytic in the mossy forests. 
  42. Elatostema inaequifolium Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 877; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 82; --Type: Elmer 11545 (US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, Aug-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). On wet rocks along streams, c. 1800m.
  43. Elatostema integrifolium (D.Don) Wedd., Prod. 16(1) (1869) 179; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 82; --Procris integrifolia D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 61. India to Java, Philippines. PALAWAN, LEYTE (Ormoc, Mt Lamban), MINDANAO: Bukidnon (Pagantocan). Damp forests at medium elevation.
  44. Elatostema iridense Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 320; --Type: BS 48515 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, ?lost; ?UC, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., Mt Irid, on rocks in damp forest, c. 700m. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal (Mt Irid). Only known from the type collection.
  45. Elatostema kalingaense Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 376; EPFP 2 (1923) 83; --Type: BS 37493 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Kalinga prov., Mt Masingit, near Lubuagan, on boulders or ledges along streams, c. 1200m, 16-Feb-1920. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Kalinga. Boulders along streams, c. 1200m.
  46. Elatostema lagunense Merr. ex C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 527; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 83; --Type: Merrill 5118 (US, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., Los Baños, 12-Mar-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao (Kiangan), Bataan (Mt Mariveles), Laguna (Los Baños; Mt Makiling), Quezon (Mt Binuang; Lucban), MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley). Damp shaded ravines along small streams at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1000m in wet forests. Photos 
  47. Elatostema lanaense C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 528; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 83; --Type: M.S. Clemens 405, Mindanao: Lanao del Sur prov., Camp Keithley. Mindanao: Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley). Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Shaded ravines, c. 700m.
  48. Elatostema lignosum Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 377; EPFP 2 (1923) 83; --Type: Merrill 9697 (US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, in shaded places about limestone boulders, c. 1400m. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Baguio), on limestone boulders, c. 1400m.
  49. Elatostema lingua H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 i (1935) 28. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR, MINDANAO.
  50. Elatostema longifolium Wedd., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. iv, 1 (1854) 189; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 83; --Type: Cuming 456, Luzon: Laguna prov., Calauan. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya (Mt Umuguen), Laguna (Los Baños; Calauan), Quezon, MINDANAO. Forests at medium elevation.
  51. Elatostema longipedunculatum Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 886; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 83; --Type: Elmer 11593 (PNH, holo, lost; MO, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, Aug-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. On seepage slopes and ledges, c. 1800m.
  52. Elatostema lutescens C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 304; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 83; --Type: Merrill 7643 (US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio and vicinity, in ravines, May-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Benguet (Baguio; Mt Sto Tomas, Sablan). Shaded cliffs, thickets, and in the mossy forests, 1000-1900m.
  53. Elatostema luzonense C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 512; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 83; --Type: BS 6135 Robinson (US, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., Montalban, 1-Aug-1908. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Pampanga (Mt Arayat), Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, PALAWAN (Mt Mantalingahan), PANAY. Common on wet cliffs, banks of ravines, etc., from sea level to at least 1200m. 
  54. Elatostema macgregorii Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 373; EPFP 2 (1923) 83; --Type: BS 32396 R.C. McGregor (US, iso), Panay: Antique prov., Culasi, in damp forests, 24-May-1918. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY: Antique (Culasi). Damp forests, 800-1300m.
  55. Elatostema manillense Wedd. ex H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 ii (1936) 100; --Elatostematoides manillense (Wedd.) C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 501; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 87; --Type: Cuming 786. Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON: Cagayan, Quezon, POLILLO, PANAY: Antique, Capiz, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Misamis, Bukidnon, Agusan. Low and medium elevation forests.
  56. Elatostema merrillii C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 305; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 84; --Type: Merrill 7647 (MO, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Tonglon (Mt Sto Tomas), in very shaded places along trail at c. 1800m, May-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Forests, 1800m. Synonym of Elatostema parvum (Bl.) Miq.?
  57. Elatostema microphyllum Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 286; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 84; --Type: Elmer 9149 (PNH, holo, lost; MO, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Lucban, May-1907. --Elatostema maquilingense Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3229; --Type: Elmer 17636 (GH, MO, US, syn); Elmer 18361 (MO, syn), Luzon: Laguna prov., Mt Makiling, Jun/Jul-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, PANAY. On boulders in damp shaded ravines alomg streams at medium elevation.
  58. Elatostema mindanaense (C.B.Rob.) H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 i (1935) 18; --Polychroa mindanaensis (C.B.Rob.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 78; --Pellionia mindanaensis C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 496; --Type: Copeland 900 (US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Apr-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon), MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley), Bukidnon, Davao, Davao del Sur (Mt Apo).
  59. Elatostema multinervium (Merr.) H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 i (1935) 18; --Polychroa multinervia Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 380; EPFP 2 (1923) 78; --Type: BS 39137 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Mindanao: Bukidnon prov., near Tangculan, on trees in damp forests at c. 900m, 5-Jul-1920. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. On trees in damp forests, c. 900m.
  60. Elatostema oblanceolatum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 524; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 84; --Type: Merrill 6909 (US, iso), Negros: Negros Occidental prov., Mt Kanlaon, on steep moss-covered shaded banks of stream, at 900m, Apr-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Kanlaon). Shaded mossy stream banks, 900m.
  61. Elatostema obovatum Wedd., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. iv, 1 (1854) 190; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 84; --Type: Cuming 628, Luzon: Laguna prov., Calauan. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. Shaded ravines at low elevation.
  62. Elatostema obtusiusculum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 537; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 84; --Type: BS 9840 Robinson, Luzon: Quezon prov., Mahabang Sugsugan River, growing on rocks at an elevation of 100-150m. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Benguet (Sablan) to Quezon, Camarines Sur (Maagnas), LEYTE, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation, on rocks and banks in shaded ravines.
  63. Elatostema palawanense C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 526; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 84; --Type: BS 677 Foxworthy (US, iso), Palawan: Mt Victoria, 1100m, Mar/Apr-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN (Mt Victoria). Damp forested slopes, c, 1100m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  64. Elatostema panayense Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 372; EPFP 2 (1923) 84; --Type: BS 32396 Ramos & Edaño, Panay: Antique prov., Culasi, damp forests along streams, May-1918. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY: Antique. Damp forests along small streams at medium elevation.
  65. Elatostema perlongifolium Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3231; --Type: Elmer 16408 (GH, MO, US), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan, Jun-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Photos 
  66. Elatostema philippinense Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 888; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 84; --Type: Elmer 11746 (MO, US, syn); Elmer 11751 (GH, MO, US, syn), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, Sep-1909. --Elatostema glabratum Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3228; --Type: Elmer 16325 (GH, MO, US, syn), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan, Jun-1916; Elmer 15576 (GH, MO, US, syn), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan, Nov-1915. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Rizal, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), POLILLO, NEGROS, MINDANAO.
  67. Elatostema pilosum Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 376; EPFP 2 (1923) 84; --Type: BS 20060 R.C. McGregor, Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya prov., near Imugan, 29-Dec-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya. In forests at medium elevation.
  68. Elatostema pinnatinervium Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 286; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 85; --Type: Elmer 9193 (PNH, holo, lost; MO, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Lucban, May-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (Infanta, Anoling River; Lucban), POLILLO (Mt Malulud). Mossy boulders in shaded ravines, 30-750m. 
  69. Elatostema plumbeum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 535; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 85; --Type: BS 3495 Mearns, Luzon: Benguet prov. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Shaded ravines on cliffs and in the mossy forest, 1000-1900m. 
  70. Elatostema podophyllum Wedd., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. iv, 1 (1854) 189; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 85; --Type: Cuming 789 (MO, iso), Luzon. Quezon prov., Mt Banahaw. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Benguet (Pauai), Quezon (Mt Binuang; Mt Banahaw; Mt Banahaw de Lucban) to Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon). Mossy forests on the higher mountains, up to 2300m.
  71. Elatostema pulchellum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 522; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 85; --Type: BS 9824 Robinson (US, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., Mt Banahaw, 5/7-Mar-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna (Mt Banahaw), Quezon, MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental (Mt Malindang), Davao (Mt Apo). Mossy forests on the higher mountains, 1800-2475m. Photos
  72. Elatostema purpureum C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 306; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 85; --Type: Merrill Phil. Plants 812 (US, syn), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Tonglon (Sto Tomas), mossy forest, c. 1900m, May-1911; Merrill 7644 (syn): also from the same mountain but at a more shaded place at a slightly lower elevation. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Mossy forests, 1800-1900m.
  73. Elatostema rigidum Wedd., Arch. Mus. Paris 9 (1856) 320; --Elatostematoides rigidum (Wedd.) C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 503; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 88; --Type: Cuming 1674, Samar. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, CATANDUANES, PANAY, NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Himugaan River), BOHOL, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta).
  74. Elatostema robinsonii Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 376; EPFP 2 (1923) 85; --Type: BS 19727 R.C. McGregor (US, iso), Luzon: Ifugao prov., Mt Polis, 30-Jan-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao (Mt Polis), apparently in mossy forests at or above 1500m.
  75. Elatostema samarense (Merr.) H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 i (1935) 28; --Elatostematoides samarense Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 380; EPFP 2 (1923) 88, non Elatostema samarense Merr. (1922); --Type: BS 17468 Ramos (US, iso), Samar: Western Samar prov., Yabong (Yabon), damp forests near small streams at low elevation, 16-Mar-1914. --Elatostema trichophlebium Merr. ex H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 i (1935) 28; --Type: BS 42378 Edaño (A, SING, iso), Panay: Aklan (previously in Capiz) prov., Mt Timbaban, May-1923. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY: Aklan, SAMAR. Lowland primary forest along streams.
  76. Elatostema scapigerum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 542; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 85; --Type: Vanoverbergh 587. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet (Baguio; Mt Sto Tomas). Damp cliffs and in the mossy forest, 1100-2000m.
  77. Elatostema serratifolium Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3234; --Type: Elmer 14712 (PNH, holo, lost; GH, MO, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan, Aug-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon.
  78. Elatostema simulans C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 519; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 86; --Type: BS 8145 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya prov., Bayombong, May-1909. --Elatostema pacificum Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3230; --Type: Elmer 14613 (MO, US, syn), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan, Oct-1915; Elmer 16173 (MO, US, syn), also from Mt Bulusan, May-1916; Elmer 16968 (GH, MO, US, syn), also from Mt Bulusan, Aug-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet to Sorsogon. Damp cliffs and in forests at low and medium elevation.
  79. Elatostema sinuatum (Blume) Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bogor. (1844) 79; --Polychroa sinuata (Blume) Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 382; EPFP 2 (1923) 78; --H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 i (1935) 29; --Pellionia sinuata (Blume) Boerl., Handl. Kenn. Fl. Ned. Ind. 3 (1900) 375; --C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 497; --Procris sinuata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 511; --Type: from Java. --Elatostema laciniatum Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 287; --H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 ii (1936) 36; --Type: Elmer 9196 (US, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Lucban, May-1907. --Polychroa urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3241; --Type: Elmer 13491 (US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, Aug-1912. Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas. C LUZON to MINDANAO. Damp forests at low and medium elevation. Exceedingly polymorphic. Photos 
  80. Elatostema sorsogonense Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3235; --Type: Elmer 16322 (GH, MO, US, syn), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan, Jun-1916; Elmer 14614 (MO, syn), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan, Oct-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon.
  81. Elatostema spinulosum Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 468; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 86; --Type: Elmer 9776 (PNH, holo, lost; MO, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, Apr-1908. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY, NEGROS. Damp forests, 600-1000m. Photos 
  82. Elatostema sublaxum (Elmer) H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 i (1935) 28; --Elatostematoides sublaxum Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2858; --Type: Elmer 13493 (A, MO, NA, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, Aug-1912. --Elatostematoides laxum (Elmer) C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 502; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 87; --Elatostema laxum Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 465; --Type: Elmer 10337 (PNH, holo, lost; A, MO, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, Jun-1908. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Sorsogon, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation damp forests. Photos
  83. Elatostema sublignosum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 541; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 86; --Type: BS 9754 Robinson (L, US, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., Mt Banahaw, 5/7-Mar-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna (Mt Banahaw; Mabalucbaluc). Forests, 600-800m.
  84. Elatostema suborbiculare Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 377; EPFP 2 (1923) 86; --Type: BS 19729 R.C. McGregor (US, iso), Luzon: Ifugao prov., Mt Polis, apparently in the mossy forest. Feb-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao (Mt Polis).
  85. Elatostema surigaoense Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2854; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 86; --Type: Elmer 13637 (GH, MO, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, Aug-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Forests, c. 1000m.
  86. Elatostema umbrinum Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2855; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 86; --Type: Elmer 13831, Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta. --Elatostema urdanetense Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2857; --Type: Elmer 14249 (MO, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, Sep-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Dense forests, c. 1600m.
  87. Elatostema variabile C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 514; PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 307; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 86; --Type: Vanoverbergh 528, Luzon: Mountain Province, Bauco, in forests, 1650m. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Forests, c. 1650m. Photos 
  88. Elatostema variegatum C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 538; PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 31; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 86; --Type: BS 9767 Robinson, Luzon: Laguna prov., base of Mt Banahaw, on rocks, 800m. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Sablan), Laguna (base of Mt Banahaw). Lithophytic in shaded stream beds, c. 800m.
  89. Elatostema viridescens Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 285; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 87; --Type: Elmer 8076, Luzon: Laguna prov., Los Baños. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pampanga (Mt Pinatubo), Bataan, Laguna, Cavite, Quezon, Sorsogon, PANAY. Low and medium elevation along streams and damp forests.
  90. Elatostema volubile (Elmer) H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 i (1935) 18; --Polychroa volubilis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 78; --Procris volubilis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2867; --Type: Elmer 13898 (MO, NA, NY, syn), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, Sep-1912; Elmer 13856 (syn), same area as preceding. Endemic to the Philippines. POLILLO, LEYTE, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Bukidnon, Agusan del Norte. Low and medium elevation damp forests, ascending to 1400m. 
  91. Elatostema wenzelii H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 i (1935) 28. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO.
  92. Elatostema whitfordii Merr., PJS 1 suppl. (1906) 48; EPFP 2 (1923) 87; --Type: Whitford 254 (US, syn), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, May-1904; FB 1234 Borden (US, syn), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Jun-1904, wet shaded banks subject to constant drip of water in canon of the Lamao River, 550-800m. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, MINDANAO: Davao (Mt McKinley, PNH 1045 Edano, SING). Densely shaded ravines along streams, at and above 600m. 
  93. Elatostema zamboangense Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 374; EPFP 2 (1923) 87; --Type: Merrill 8228 (US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River, back of San Ramon, damp shaded ravine, c. 200m, 27-Nov-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Damp shaded ravines, c. 200m.

Doubtful taxon:

  1. Elatostema tomentosum Wedd., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. iv, 1 (1854) 189; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 86; --Type: Callery s.n. (P), Luzon: probably Benguet. --Elatostema sessile Forst. var. tomentosum Wedd., Prodr. 16(1) (1869) 173. --Elatostema subincanum Wedd., Arch. Mus. Paris 9 (1856) 295. Endemic to the Philippines. A species of doubtful status.

Possible new species (ined.) materials at PNH:

  1. Elatostema lepantoense Merr. 

 Elatostematoides C.B.Rob. = Elatostema

 Fleurya Gaudich. = Laportea

 Gonostegia Turcz. = Pouzolzia

Laportea Gaudich.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 October 2017

Photos
  1. Laportea interrupta (L.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 25 (1969) 200; --Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 226; --Fleurya interrupta (L.) Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Or. 6 (1853) 10; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 182; EPFP 2 (1923) 75; --Urtica interrupta L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 985. Tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia and the Pacific Islands. Photos 
  2. Laportea ruderalis (G.Forst.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 21 (1965) 201; --Fleurya ruderalis (G.Forst.) Wedd., Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 4, 1 (1854) 182; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 75; --Urtica ruderalis G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. (1786) 66. Christmas Is, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago to Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. CAVILLI IS, LUZON: Bulacan, Angat.

Lecanthus Wedd.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 October 2017

Photos
  1. Lecanthus peduncularis (Wall. ex Royle) Wedd., Prod. 16(1) (1869) 164; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 77; --Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 226; --Procris peduncularis Wall. ex Royle, Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts. (1839) pl. 83. Africa, S Asia, China, Taiwan, Philippines, Java, Pacific islands. LUZON: Ifugao (Mt Polis), Benguet (Pauai; Mt Pulag), MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). On the higher mountains above 1900m. Photos 

Leucosyke Zoll. & Moritzi

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018

Photos
  1. Leucosyke arcuatovenosa Unruh, Bot. Jahrb. 73 (1943) 246. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON.
  2. Leucosyke aspera C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 23; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 96; --Type: BS 2915 Mearns, Luzon: Albay prov., Mt Mayon. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines, Albay, SIBUYAN, PANAY. Forests, c. 1000m. Photos
  3. Leucosyke benguetensis Unruh, Bot. Jahrb. 73 (1943) 247. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Mt Pico de Loro, PNH 17997, SING), Apayao (Mt Duraragan, PNH 19884 Edano, SING). Photos
  4. Leucosyke brunnescens C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 25; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 96; --Unruh, Bot. Jahrb. 73 (1943) 243; --Type: BS 7821 Ramos, Luzon: Cagayan prov., Maunan. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur (Sugpon), Cagayan, Isabela (San Mariano, BS 47163, SING), Nueva Vizcaya (Dupax, BS 11388 McGregor, SING), Pangasinan, Bataan (Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, Merrill 2544, SING). Low and medium elevation thickets. Photos
  5. Leucosyke buderi Unruh, Bot. Jahrb. 73 (1943) 245. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON
  6. Leucosyke capitellata Wedd., Prodr. 16(1) (1869) 235; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 96. --Leucosyke capitellata var. celtidifolia (Gaudich.) Wedd., Prodr. 16(1) (1869) 235; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 97. --Leucosyke palawanensis Unruh, Bot. Jahrb. 73 (1943) 229; --Type: Elmer 13247 (GH, isosyn), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), May-1911. --Leucosyke leytensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 269; EPFP 2 (1923) 97; --Type: Wenzel 1061 (GH, US, iso), Leyte: Buenavista, Jaro, in forests, c. 500m, 20-Aug-1914. --Leucosyke angusta Unruh, PJS 84 (1955) 167; --Type: PNH 6480 Castro & Añonuevo (A, holo), Polillo: along Anibawan River, sea level, 28-Nov-1948. --Leucosyke samarensis Unruh, PJS 84 (1955) 172; --Type: PNH 6334 Sulit and Coñese (A, holo), Samar: Western Samar prov., Bagacay, Concord, open place near road km 58.5 near bridge, 2nd growth forest, 200m, 20-Jun-1950. Taiwan, Philippines, Java to New Guinea. Throughout the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Bataan, Pampanga, Rizal, Laguna, Cavite, Batangas, Quezon, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, POLILLO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, MASBATE, PANAY, NEGROS, CEBU, BOHOL, LEYTE, SAMAR, BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao del Sur, Davao. In thickets, second-growth forests, etc. at low and medium elevation. In the Cordillera Highlands ascending to at least 2000m. Common. Photos
  7. Leucosyke elmeri Unruh, Bot. Jahrb. 73 (1943) 246. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO.
  8. Leucosyke hispidissima (Wedd.) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat.2 (1859) 265; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 97; --Missiessya hispidissima Wedd., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. IV, 1 (1854) 195; --Type: Callery s.n., Luzon: ‘in insulae Manillae montibus Igorrotes’ (possibly Benguet prov. not far from Baguio). --Leucosyke magallanensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 677; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 97; --Type: Elmer 12282 (PNH, holo, lost; GH, MO, US, iso), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, Magallanes (Magdiwang), Apr-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Ecija, SIBUYAN, PANAY: Antique (BS 32516 McGregor, SING). Thickets, forested river banks up to c. 1400m. Photos
  9. Leucosyke mindorensis C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 22; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 98; --Type: FB 11461 Merritt (US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental prov., Amnay River, 600m, Apr/May-1908. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental. Forests, c. 600m.
  10. Leucosyke negrosensis C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 27; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 98; --Type: FB 4316 Everett (US, iso), Negros: Negros Occidental prov., Pioc River, in dense forest. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Agusan. Low and medium elevation forests. Photos 
  11. Leucosyke nivea C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 21; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 98; --Type: M.S. Clemens s.n., Mindanao: Lanao del Sur prov., Camp Keithley, Sep-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO. Forests, 500-800m. 
  12. Leucosyke ovalifolia C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 26; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 98; --Type: Merrill 481, Culion. --Leucosyke merrillii Unruh, Bot. Jahrb. 73 (1943) 225; --Type: Merrill 706 (GH, iso), Palawan: E-wi-ig (Iwahig) River. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales, CULION, PALAWAN (Iwahig), PANAY: Capiz (Mt Timbaban, BS 42489 Edaño, SING). Low elevation dry thickets and open forests. Photos
  13. Leucosyke quadrinervia C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 28; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 98; --Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 228. Lanyu, Lutao, N Philippines. BATANES (SABTAN), BABUYAN ISLS (CAMIGUIN). Along streams at low elevation. Closely allied to Leucosyke capitellata Wedd. Photos
  14. Leucosyke rizalensis Unruh, Bot. Jahrb. 73 (1943) 247. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal
  15. Leucosyke weddellii Unruh, Bot. Jahrb. 73 (1943) 226. Endemic to the Philippines.

Maoutia Wedd.

Photos
  1. Maoutia setosa Wedd., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. iv, 1 (1854) 194; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 98; --Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 229. Ryukyus, Lanyu, Lutao, Philippines. N LUZON to MINDANAO. Forests and thickets, in some regions at low and medium elevation; ascending to 2200m in Benguet. Photos

Musanga C.Sm. ex R.Br. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 October 2017

No Photos
  1. Musanga cecropioides R.Br. ex Tedlie, Miss. Ashantee (1819) 372. Native of Congo, now pantropic in cultivation. Recently introduced into forest plantations in the Philippines (Pancho, Fl. Mt Makiling 1 (1983) 121).

Neodistemon Babu & A.N.Henry

No Photos
  1. Neodistemon indicum (Wedd.) Babu & A.N.Henry, Taxon 19 (1970) 651; --Distemon indicum Wedd., Arch. Mus. Paris 9 (1857) 551; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 93. India (Assam) to Myanmar, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Rizal (Antipolo; Morong). Open slopes at low elevation.

Nothocnide Blume

No Photos
  1. Nothocnide discolor (C.B.Rob.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Sing. 24 (1969) 368; --Pipturus discolor C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 15; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 95; --Type: M.S. Clemens 676 (NY, iso), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur prov., Camp Keithley, Sep/Oct-1906. New Guinea, Philippines. PANAY, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (along Lake Lanao), Bukidnon, Agusan, Davao. Forests, 700m and above.
  2. Nothocnide repanda (Blume) Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1856) 137; --Pipturus repandus (Blume) Wedd., Arch. Mus. Paris 9 (1856) 448; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 95; --Urtica repanda Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 501; --Type: from Java. --Pipturus subalpinus Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3221; --Type: Elmer 22016 (MO, US, iso), Luzon: Pampanga prov., Mt Pinatubo, Camp Stotsenburg, May-1927. Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Java, Bali, Moluccas, New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago and Solomon Islands. LUZON: Mountain Province to Sorsogon, MINDORO, PANAY, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Damp forested ravines near streams, at low and medium elevation. In Mountain Province sprawling over ledges and boulders up to 1600m. 

Oreocnide Miq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 October 2017

Photos
  1. Oreocnide rubescens (Blume) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1869) 306; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 96; --Urtica rubescens Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 506; --Villebrunea rubescens (Blume) Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1856) 167. Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon to MINDANAO. Damp shaded ravines, near streams at low and medium elevation. Photos
  2. Oreocnide trinervis (Wedd.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1(1) (1854) 196; Fl. Ind. Bat. 12 (1859) 270; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 96; --Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 230; --Villebrunea trinervis Wedd., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. iv, 1 (1854) 196; --Type: Cuming 777 (MO, NY, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov. Lanyu, Philippines, Borneo, Java. BATAN ISLS to MINDANAO. Thickets and forests, especially along streams at low and medium elevation. Photos

Pellionia Gaudich. [Not native, not naturalized]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 July 2017

No Photos

  1. Pellionia repens (Lour.) Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 6 (1928) 326; --Elatostema repens (Lour.) Hallier f. in H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 i (1935) 25; --Polychroa repens Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 559; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 78. Native of Myanmar and Indochina.

Pilea Lindl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018

Photos
  1. Pilea apoensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 882; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 76; --Type: Elmer 11551 (L, NY, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, on moss-covered wet ledges along Cati Creek at 5750ft, Aug-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao (Mt Apo). Forests, c. 1700m.
  2. Pilea benguetensis C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 488; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 76; --Type: Elmer 6304 (MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, May-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet (Baguio; Mt Pulag), Nueva Vizcaya. On limestone boulders, damp shaded ravines, cliffs, etc., 1300-2000m.
  3. Pilea calcicola C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 493; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 76; --Type: BS 9529 C.B. Robinson (L, NY, US), Luzon: Rizal prov., Montalban, 2-Nov-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan, Rizal. Low and medium elevation forests on limestone, on limestone cliffs and gorges. 
  4. Pilea dataensis C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 494; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 76; --Type: Merrill 4602 (US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Data, mossy forest, 2100m, Nov-1905. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province (Mt Data), Ifugao (Mt Polis). Mossy forests, c. 2100m. 
  5. Pilea humilis C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 488; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 76; --Type: Merrill 6912 (L, NY, US, iso), Negros: Negros Occidental prov., Mt Kanlaon, Apr-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Kanlaon). In ravines, in the mossy forest, and on open peaks of the higher mountains, 1200-2800m.
  6. Pilea intumescens C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 492; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 76; --Type: M.S. Clemens 1223 (NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur prov., along Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Sep/Oct-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Damp shaded ravines, c. 700m.
  7. Pilea loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 23; EPFP 4 (1925) 252; --Type: Loher 12797, Luzon: Rizal prov., Balintingan, Jul-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal (Balintingan).
  8. Pilea luzonensis Merr., PJS 1 suppl. (1906) 48; EPFP 2 (1923) 76; --Type: Whitford 279 (US, syn), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, May-1904; Whitford 1129 (US, syn), Luzon: Bataan prov., Lamao River, Mar-1905. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Baguio; Mt Sto. Tomas), Nueva Vizcaya (Caraballo Sur), Bataan (Mt Mariveles), Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Damp shaded ravines along streams at medium elevation, ascending to 1400m.
  9. Pilea melastomoides (Poir.) Wedd., Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. ser. 4, 1 (1854) 186; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 76; --Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 242; --Urtica melastomoides Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Suppl. 4 (1816) 223. India, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Philippines, Java. LUZON: Kalinga, Ifugao, Mountain Province (Mt Data), Benguet (Mt Pulag; Pauai; Mt Sto Tomas), Laguna (Mt Banahaw). Mossy forests, 1800-2300m. Photos
  10. Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm., Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. 52 (1851) 302; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 76; EPFP 2 (1923) 76; --Parietaria microphylla L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10 2 (1759) 1308. Native to S America, widely naturalized in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Throughout the Philippines in and about towns, on damp walls, etc. Photos
  11. Pilea monticola C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 489; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 77; --Type: BS 5533 Ramos, Luzon: Benguet prov., Rio Trinidad (Balili River); BS 5566 Ramos (US, para), Luzon: Benguet prov., Rio Trinidad (Balili River), Dec-1908. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet (Mt Pulag; Mt Sto. Tomas; La Trinidad). Mossy forests, damp shaded ravines, etc., 1200-2300m.
  12. Pilea peploides (Gaudich.) Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. (1832) 96; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 27; --Dubrueilia peploides Gaudich., Voy. Uranie (1830) 495.
  13. Pilea rigida C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) 491; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 77; --Type: BS 8181 Ramos (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya prov., Mt Dalemdim, 1500m, 19-May-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Nueva Vizcaya. c. 1500m.
  14. Pilea robinsonii Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 880; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 77; --Type: Elmer 10487 (MO, NY 2 sheets, US, syn), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, black humus-covered soil of moist dense woods at 3750ft, May-1909; Elmer 11758 (MO, NY 2 sheets, US, syn), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, among boulders below the Colan Creek Falls and at its junction with the Baruring River at 3750ft, Sep-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao (Mt Apo). Damp forests, c. 1000m.
  15. Pilea sylvatica Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 879; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 77; --Type: Elmer 11698 (MO, NY 2 sheets, US, syn), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, on moist, fertile humus-covered soil of densely wooded flats at 4000ft, Sep-1909; Elmer 11547 (MO, NY, US, syn), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, on moss-covered seepage ledges along the Cati Creek at 5750ft, above its falls of Mt Apo, Aug-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao (Mt Apo). Damp forests and on wet cliffs, 1200-1800m. Photos

Pipturus Wedd.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018

Photos
  1. Pipturus angustifolius Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 379; EPFP 2 (1923) 94; --Type: BS 15320 Ramos (US, iso), Leyte: Dagami, thickets along streams at low elevation, 6-Aug-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. Thickets along streams at low elevation.
  2. Pipturus arborescens (Link) C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 13; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 94; --Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 253; --Urtica arborescens Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. 2 (1822) 386; --Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 483; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 100. --Pipturus asper Wedd., Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 4, 1 (1854) 197. Ryukyus, Taiwan (Lanyu and Lutao), Philippines, Borneo. Very common and widely distributed in all islands and provinces. Chiefly in low and medium elevation thickets and second-growth forests, ascending to 2000m in Benguet. Photos
  3. Pipturus argenteus (G.Forst.) Wedd., Prodr. 16(1) (1869) 23519; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 94; --Urtica argentea G.Forst., Prodr. (1784) 65. Sumatra to Australia and Polynesia. BALABAC, LUMBUCAN (near Balabac), MINDANAO: Surigao. On sandy soil, open forests near the sea.
  4. Pipturus dentatus (C.B.Rob.) C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 311; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 95; --Pouzolzia dentata C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) 7; --Type: Merrill 4741 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Pauai, Oct/Nov-1905. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao (Mt Polis), Benguet (Mt Pulag; Pauai; Mt Sto Tomas). Open slopes, thin pine forests, etc., 1900-2300m.
  5. Pipturus succulentus Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 897; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 95; --Type: Elmer 10739 (PNH, holo, lost; MO, NA, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, May-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Thickets along Baruring River, c. 1000m.

Poikilospermum Zipp. ex Miq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018

Photos
  1. Poikilospermum acuminatum (Trecul.) Merr., Contr. Arnold Arb. 8 (1934) 49; --Conocephalus acuminatus Trecul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 3, 8 (1847) 91; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 70. --Poikilospermum diffusum (Merr.) Merr., Contr. Arnold Arb. 8 (1934) 49; --Conocephalus diffusus Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 355; EPFP 2 (1923) 70. --Conocephalus diffusus var. obtusus Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 70. --Poikilospermum grande (Wedd.) Merr., Contr. Arnold Arb. 8 (1934) 50; --Conocephalus grandis (Wedd.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 70; --Procris grandis Wedd., Arch. Mus. Paris 8 (1856) 337; --S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 256; Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 146; --Type: Cuming 1730 (K). --Poikilospermum grandifolium (Warb.) Merr., Contr. Arnold Arb. 8 (1934) 50; --Conocephalus grandifolius Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 167; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 71. --Poikilospermum molle (Merr.) Merr., Contr. Arnold Arb. 8 (1934) 51; --Conocephalus mollis Merr., PJS 18 (1921) 51; EPFP 2 (1923) 71; --Type: BS 17582 Ramos. --Poikilospermum warburgii (Elmer) Merr., Contr. Arnold Arb. 8 (1934) 52; --Conocephalus warburgii Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 278; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 72; --Type: Elmer 8973. Taiwan, Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON (widespread), CATANDUANES, PANAY, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Lowland to montane forests (including mossy) and thickets. Photos
  2. Poikilospermum erectum (Blanco) Merr., Contr. Arnold Arb. 8 (1934) 49; --Conocephalus erectus (Blanco) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 203; --Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 80; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 129; EPFP 2 (1923) 70; --Procris erecta Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 707; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 490; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 111; --Type: Not extant, 'Illustrative specimen': Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 871, 960. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Rizal, Cavite, Laguna, Quezon. Lowland and medium elevation forests.
  3. Poikilospermum oblongifolium (Barg.-Petr.) Merr., Contr. Arnold Arb. 8 (1934) 51; --Conocephalus oblongifolius Barg.-Petr., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. n.s., 9 (1902) 222. Borneo, S Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Bukidnon (Mt Kitanglad). Lowland riverine forests to as high as 1800m.
  4. Poikilospermum suaveolens (Blume) Merr., Contr. Arnold Arb. 8 (1934) 47; --Conocephalus suaveolens Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 483; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 71. --Poikilospermum piperi (Elmer) Merr., Contr. Arnold Arb. 8 (1934) 51; --Conocephalus piperi Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2770; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 71. India to Malaya. N LUZON to MINDANAO. Lowland and medium elevation forests (Merrill 1923). Photos

 Polychroa Lour. = Pellionia = Elatostema

Pouzolzia Gaudich.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 February 2018

Photos
  1. Pouzolzia arachnoidea (Walp.) Wedd., Prodr. 16(1) (1869) 228; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 91; --Boehmeria arachnoidea Walp., Nov. Actorum Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19(Suppl. 1) (1843) 423; --Type: Anonymous s.n. (?Lost), Luzon: Manila, 'fl. September'. --Stachyocnide luzonica Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1856) 228; --Type: Cuming 1492 (L, holo; BM, G, K, P, UPS, iso), Luzon: Batangas prov., incorrectly as Mindoro in protologue (Wilmot-Dear & Friis 20004). --Pouzolzia macrura Wedd., Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. 8 (1856) 395; --Type: Cuming 1492 (G, holo; K, L, LE, P, UPS, iso). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur (San Quintin), Rizal (Montalban; Antipolo; Morong), Batangas (de la Paz), MINDORO. Boulders and cliffs and in thickets and thin forests at low and medium elevation. 
  2. Pouzolzia hirta (Blume) Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bogor. (1844) 80; --Gonostegia hirta (Blume) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1869) 303; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 92; --Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 223; --Urtica hirta Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 495; --Type: Indonesia. --Gonostegia integrifolia auct. non Miq.; --C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 10. Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Solomon Isls, Taiwan, Thailand, Philippines.
  3. Pouzolzia pentandra (Roxb.) Benn., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1832) 64; --Gonostegia pentandra (Roxb.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1869) 302; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 93; --Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 224; --Urtica pentandra Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 583; --Type: from India. India, SE Asia, Taiwan. LUZON to MINDANAO. Cultivated lands along streams and in swampy places at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1400m.
  4. Pouzolzia rubricaulis (Blume) Wedd., Prodr. 16(1) (1869) 229; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 92; --Type: from Indonesia. Java, Madura, Papua New Guinea, Sumatra, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Ambuklao to Daklan, Merrill 4390). Damp shaded banks, c. 1400m.
  5. Pouzolzia zeylanica (L.) Benn. & R.Br., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1838) 67; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 92; --Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 254; --Parietaria indica L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 128; --Type: from Sri Lanka. Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan, ?Polynesia, Singapora, Socotra, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor, Vietnam, Philippines.

Procris Comm. ex Juss.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018

Photos
  1. Procris brunnea Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 5; EPFP 2 (1923) 88; --Type: BS 23705 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Pocdal, epiphytic in mossy forest, 7-Aug-1915. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Epiphytic in the mossy forest. Perhaps not sufficiently distinct from Procris frutescens Blume.
  2. Procris dolichophylla Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 369; EPFP 2 (1923) 88; --Type: Wenzel 98 (US, iso), Leyte: Dagami, climbing on trees in forested foothills, c. 60m, 29-Mar-1923. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan. Epiphytic in low and medium elevation damp forests. 
  3. Procris frutescens Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 510; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 88. --Procris frutescens var. nervosa Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2863; --Type: Elmer 13602 (MO, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, Aug-1912. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Laguna (San Antonio), Quezon (Lucban), NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Kanlaon), MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley), Davao (Mt Apo), Agusan del Norte (Waloe; Mt Urdaneta). Damp forests at low and medium elevation. Photos
  4. Procris laevigata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 508; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 88; --Yang et al., Fl. Taiwan 2nd ed., 2 (1996) 254. Africa and tropical Asia. Taiwan. N LUZON to MINDANAO. In forests, usually epiphytic, sometimes on ledges, sea-level to 1000m or more, widely scattered.
  5. Procris mindanaensis H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 45 (1938) 189. Endemic to the Philippines.
  6. Procris pedunculata (J.R.Forst & G.Forst.) Wedd., Prodr. 16(1) (1869) 191; --H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 45 (1938) 259; --Elatostema pedunculatum J.R.Forst. & G.Forst., Char. Gen. Pl. (1775) 53. Mascarenes, Malayan Region, Philippines, Polynesia.
  7. Procris urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2865; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 89; --Type: Elmer 13792 (NA, NY, US, syn), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, Sep-1912; Elmer 13708 (MO, US, syn), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, Sep-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Mossy forest, 1600-1800m. Closely allied to Procris frutescens Blume. Photos
  8. Procris wightiana Wall. ex Wedd., Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. 9(1-2) (1856) 336; --Wall., Cat. (1831) no 4638, nom. nud.; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 89; --H.Schroet., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 83 i (1935) 191. --Procris crenata C.B.Rob., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 507; --Type: Vanoverbergh 635 (US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Bauco, 1400m, Nov/Dec-1910. India to China and Taiwan. LUZON: Mountain Province. Epiphytic, c. 1400m. Reduced by some authors to Procris laevigata Blume.

Urtica L.

Photos
  1. Urtica bullata Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1856) 145; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 72; --Type: from Java. Java, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet (Mt Pulag), MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Open pine or cogon slopes, 1900-2400m on Mt Pulag. Photos

 Villebrunea = Oreocnide


Literature 

Babu, CR & AN Henry. 1970. A new generic name in Urticaceae. Taxon 19: 651.

Chew, WL. 1963. Poikilospermum. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 20: 1-103.

Chew, WL. 1965. Laportea and allied genera (Urticaceae). Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 21: 198-208.

Chew, WL. 1965. Nothocnide (Urticaceae) in Malesia. Gardens Bulletin Singapore 24: 361-373.

Chew Wee Lek, 1969. A monograph of Dendrocnide (Urticaceae). Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 25: 1-104.

Chew, WL. 1969. A monograph of Laportea (Urticaceae). Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 25: 111-178.

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Johns, RJ. 1988. Urticaceae. The Flowering Plants of Papuasia, Dicotyledons, 2: 7-57.

Robinson, CB. 1911. Philippine Urticaceae. Philippine Journal of Science 6, no. 1, sect. C (Botany) 1-33.

Robinson, CB. 1911. Philippine Urticaceae. Philippine Journal of Science 6, no. 4, sect. C (Botany) 299-314.

Robinson, CB. 1911. Philippine Urticaceae. Philippine Journal of Science 5, no. 6, sect. C (Botany) 445-543.

Schröter, H. 1935-36. Feddes Repert. Beih. 83, 1-2 (1935-36).

Shih, B-L, Y-P Yang & H-Y Liu. 1995. A revision on Pilea, Lecanthus, and Procris (Urticaceae) of Taiwan. Taiwaniana 40: 256-290.

Unruh, M. 1943. Monographie der Gattung Leucosyke Zoll. et Mor. Botanische Jahrbücher 73: 191-258.

Wilmot-Dear, CM. 2009. Urticaceae for the non-specialist: identification in the Flora Malesiana region, Indochina and Thailand. Blumea 54: 233-241

Wilmot-Dear, CM & I Friis. 2004. The Old World species of Pouzolzia (Urticaceae, tribus Boehmerieae). A taxonomic revision. Nordic Journal of Botany 24: 5-111.

Wilmot-Dear, CM & I Friis. 2013. The old world species of Boehmeria (Urticaceae, tribus Boehmerieae). A taxonomic revision. Blumea 58: 85-216

Wilmot-Dear, CM, I Friis & RHA Govaerts. 2014. Nomenclatural corrections to the taxonomic revision of the old world species of Boehmeria (Urticaceae, tribus Boehmerieae) by Wilmot-Dear & Friis (2013). Blumea 59: 95-97

Yang, Y-P, B-L Shih & H-Y Liu. 1996. Urticaceae. Flora of Taiwan ed. 2, 2: 197-257.


Acknowledgements 

Racquel Tan Chua-Barcelo, Philippe Heyer, and Danilo Tandang provided photographs for this Urticaceae page.


Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 21 August 2018