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Zingiberaceae

Adelmeria Ridl. = Alpinia

Alpinia Roxb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 July 2017

Photos
  1. Alpinia alpina (Elmer) RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 37. --Adelmeria alpina Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2885; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 236;--RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 41; --Syntypes: Elmer 10534. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao (Mt Apo). Forests, 1200-2100m. Photos
  2. Alpinia apoensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2888; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 37; --Languas apoensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 230; --Type: Elmer 11889. Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao (Mt Apo). Primary forests, up to c. 1200m.
  3. Alpinia brachyantha Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 296; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 39; --Languas brachyantha (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 230; --Type: Weber 1571. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan. Forests at low and medium elevation.
  4. Alpinia brevilabris C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 110, t. 17; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 39; --Languas brevilabris (C.Presl) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 230. Endemic to the Philippines. BATANES and N LUZON to MINDANAO, in most islands and provinces. Common in primary forests at low and medium elevation. Photos
  5. Alpinia congesta Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2968; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 41; --Kolowratia congesta (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 235; --Type: Elmer 16144. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Forested slopes, c. 450m. Photos
  6. Alpinia copelandii Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 164; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 41; --Languas copelandii (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 231; --Type: Copeland s.n.  Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Lowland forests.
  7. Alpinia cumingii K.Schum., in Engl., Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 315; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 42; --Languas cumingii (K.Schum.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 231; --Type: Cuming 859. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay. Photos
  8. Alpinia diversifolia Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2919; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 43; --Languas diversifolia (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 231; --Vanoverberghia diversifolia Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2913; --Type: Elmer 8853. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Damp ravines, c. 1000m. Photos
  9. Alpinia elegans (C.Presl) K.Schum., in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 27 (1899) 288; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 43; --Kolowratia elegans C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 113, t. 20., EPFP 1 (1922) 235. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, POLILLO, MINDORO, LEYTE. Low and medium elevation thickets along streams. Photos
  10. Alpinia elmeri RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 64; --Languas longipetiolata (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 232; --Alpinia longipetiolata Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2969, non Gagnep., 1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Forests up to 600m.
  11. Alpinia flabellata Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 188; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 44; --Languas flabellata (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 231, incl. var. major (Ridl.) Merr. Nansei-shoto, Philippines. BATANES and N LUZON to MINDANAO. Perhaps not distinct from A. brevilabris C.Presl. Medium elevation forests, ascending to 2000m. Photos
  12. Alpinia foxworthyi Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 189; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 45; --Languas foxworthyi (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 231; --Type: BS 772 Foxworthy. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Lowland forests. Photos
  13. Alpinia galanga (L.) Sw., Obs. Bot. 4 (1791) 6; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 45. --Languas pyramidata (Blume) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 233. Himalayas through Malesia to the Moluccas. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon, PALAWAN, PANAY, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao, Agusan. In old clearings, etc., sometimes planted.
  14. Alpinia gigantifolia (Elmer) RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 65; --Adelmeria gigantifolia (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2963; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 236; --Zingiber gigantifolium Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2916; --Type: Elmer 9282 (BISH, MO, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Lucban, May-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Sorsogon. Forests on talus slopes and along small streams, 500-700m. Photos
  15. Alpinia glabrescens Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 185; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 45; --Languas glabrescens (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 231; --Type: BS 3679 Fenix. Endemic to the Philippines. BATANES (BATAN, SABTAN). On slopes at low elevation. According to Merrill (1922, l.c.) ‘Endemic unless identical with some Taiwan species represented by Faurie 975 of his 1913 collection.
  16. Alpinia graminea Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 189; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 45; --Languas graminea (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 232; --Type: FB 7267 Everett. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, CATANDUANES, PANAY, NEGROS. Forests, up to 800m. Photos
  17. Alpinia haenkei C.Presl, Symb. 1 (1832) 66, t. 43; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 46; --Languas haenkei (C.Presl) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 232. Java, Philippines. BATANES and N LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO, in most or all islands and provinces. Primary forests at low and medium elevation, often common. Photos
  18. Alpinia illustris Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 185; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 46; --Languas illustris (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 232; --Type: FB 544 Foxworthy. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO, PALAWAN. Forests along atreams at low elevation; according to Merrill (1922, l.c.) very similar to A. malaccensis Rosc.
  19. Alpinia intermedia Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 48 (1902) 83. China, Indochina, Japan to Philippines.
  20. Alpinia luteocarpa Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3803; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 49; --Type: Elmer 17926 (BISH, BM, K, L, MO, NY, U, –all sterile, US poor, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., Mt Makiling, ‘in humus-covered but well-drained soil of dense woods along steep ravines at 2000ft’ Jul-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna (Mt Makiling), in forest, c. 600m. Photos
  21. Alpinia macroscaphis K.Schum. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 27 (1899) 284; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 50; --Languas macroscaphis (K.Schum.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 232. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: probably Davao (collected by Warburg, type in B, according to Merrill, 1922, l.c.)
  22. Alpinia musaefolia Ridl., LPB 2 (1909) 604; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 51; --Languas musaefolia (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 232; --Type: Elmer 9539 (SING, holo?; BISH, GH, K, MO, NY, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, ‘in rich soil of woods at 4000ft’ [=1219m], Mar 1908. --Alpinia edanoi RM Sm., xxxxxx; --Type: PNH 7132 Edaño (L, holo; A, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Mt Malbug, summit, 840m, 20-Jun-1948. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos de Negros; Mt Malbug). Forests, 840-1200m. Photos
  23. Alpinia oblonga (Merr.) Loesen., in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2, 15a (1930) 620; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 37; --Adelmeria oblonga Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 443; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 236; --Type: Vanoverbergh 3108 (US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Bauco, along streams, c. 1500m, Apr-1913. --Adelmeria albida Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2964; --Type: Elmer 15912 (BISH, GH, K, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Apr-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Sorsogon, PANAY, NEGROS. Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1500m. Photos
  24. Alpinia paradoxa (Ridl.) Loesen., in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2, 15a (1930) 620; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 53; --Adelmeria paradoxa (Ridl.) Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 444; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 236; --Hornstedtia paradoxa Ridl., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1905) 85; --Type: Elmer 6629 (K, holo). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan, Apayao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Laguna (Mt Banahaw), Quezon (Lucban), PANAY, MINDANAO: Lanao. Mossy forests and damp forested ravines, 1000-1800m. Photos
  25. Alpinia penduliflora Ridl., LPB 2 (1909) 570; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 54; --Languas penduliflora (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 233; --Type: Elmer 7288 (K, SING), Leyte: Leyte prov., Palo, Jan-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. Probably from forests at low elevation.
  26. Alpinia pinetorum (Ridl.) Loesen., in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2, 15a (1930) 620; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 54; --Adelmeria pinetorum (Ridl.) Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 180; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 236; --Elmeria pinetorum Ridl., LPB 2 (1909) 569; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 49; --Type: Elmer 8548 (K, holo), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, ‘small tufts in limestone rocks of the pine region at 5000ft [=1524m], rare’, Mar-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Montane thickets and open slopes about limestone boulders, 1300-1500m. Photos
  27. Alpinia pubiflora (Benth.) K.Schum. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 313; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 55; --Languas pubiflora (Benth.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 233; --Hellenia pubiflora Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 235. Caroline Isls, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Sorsogon, GUIMARAS, CAMIGUIN DE MINDANAO, MINDANAO. Forests at low and medium elevation.
  28. Alpinia romblonensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2889; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 56; --Languas romblonensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 233; --Type: Elmer 12050 (NY, iso). Romblon: ‘in gravelly soil along stream banks near sea level’, Mar-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. ROMBLON, SAMAR. Along streams at low elevation.
  29. Alpinia rosea Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2890; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 56; --Languas rosea (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 233; --Type: Elmer 12509. Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting). Dense forests, c. 1350m.
  30. Alpinia rufa C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 114, t. 21; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 57, Fig. 8-B; --Languas rufa (C.Presl) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 234. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon, POLILLO, CATANDUANES, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, BUCAS GRANDE, MINDANAO, BASILAN. Forests at low and medium elevation. Photos
  31. Alpinia sibuyanensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2891; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 58; --Languas sibuyanensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 234; --Type: Elmer 12316 (K, MO, NY, US, iso). Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting). Forests along streams, c. 225m.
  32. Alpinia subfusicarpa Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2892; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 59; --Languas subfusicarpa (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 234; --Type: Elmer 10506 (BISH, GH, K, MO, NY, U, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, ‘in fertile humus covered soil of deep damp woods at 4000ft [=1219m]’, May-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Damp primary forests, c. 1200m.
  33. Alpinia trachyascus K.Schum. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 336; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 60; --Languas trachyascus (K.Schum.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 234; --Type: Warburg 14514 (type in B, cited by Merrill, 1922, l.c.). Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. According to Merrill, he only saw the type which has the facies of Alpinia haenkei C.Presl.
  34. Alpinia vanoverberghii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 75; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 61, Fig. 4A; --Languas vanoverberghii (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 234; --Type: Vanoverbergh 573 (PNH, holo, possibly lost; iso: GH, K [4 sheets], MO, US), Luzon: Mountain Province, Bauco, on hillsides, c. 1250m, 11-Jun-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. On slopes, c. 1350m. Photos
  35. Alpinia vulcanica Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2971; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 61; --Languas vulcanica (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 234; --Type: Elmer 16168 (GH, MO, NY, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, ‘upper edge of a high waterfall, lodged upon the very end of the overhanging bed rocks of a very humid densely wooded gulch at 2000ft [=610m]’, May-1916. Endemic to the Philippines.LUZON: Camarines, Sorsogon, BUCAS GRANDE. Primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 800m. Photos
  36. Alpinia wenzelii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 353; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 61, as ‘wenzlii’; --Languas wenzelii (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 235; --Type: CA Wenzel 623 (L, MO, US, iso), Leyte: Leyte prov., Dagami, in forest, 500m, 11-Mar-1914. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. In forests, c. 500m.

Known only in cultivation

  1. Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt & RM Sm., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 31 (1972) 204. --Languas speciosa (Wendl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 234. China, Japan. Cultivated in other warm countries. Occasionally planted for ornamental purposes, but not a native of the archipelago and nowhere naturalized. Photos

Doubtful species

  1. Alpinia eruciformis (Ridl.) ined.; --Kolowratia eruciformis Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 182; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 235; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 43; --Type: Merrill 5258 (US, iso), Bucas Grande, 4-Oct-1906. Material inadequate. ?sect. Kolowratia. BUCAS GRANDE. Dry slopes at the borders of forests at low elevation.
  2. Alpinia mollis C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 110; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 51; --Languas mollis (C.Presl) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 232. “Hab. in insula Luzon.” The type was collected by Haenke. It is known only from the original description…” –Merrill, 1922, l.c. Endemic to the Philippines.
  3. Alpinia pendula (Quisumb. & Merr.) ined.; --Languas pendula Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 138; --Type: BS 43328 Ramos (UC, holo), Bohol: Bohol prov., Sevilla, in thickets, c. 300m, 17-Sep-1923. BOHOL (Sevilla; Bilar). Thickets and damp forests, 300-700m. Under Languas subg. Probolocalyx.
  4. Alpinia pinatubensis (Elmer) ined.; --Languas pinatubensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3225; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 54, as ‘pintatubensis’; --Type: Elmer 22058 (BM). ‘Described from fruiting material and considered by Elmer to be close to A. flabellata Ridl. (sect. Alpinia subsect. Presleia). Since the character of the labellum cannot be checked, no new combination has been made’. –RM Sm., op. cit. 57.
  5. Alpinia pulchella K.Schum., in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 27 (1899) 276, t. 2E; --RM Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 55; --Languas pulchella (K.Schum.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 233. New Guinea. Merrill (l.c.) cites a Warburg specimen from Mindanao although noting that no Philippine material representing the species has been seen by him. New Guinea.
  6. Alpinia scorpioidea (Quisumb. & Merr.) ined.; --Languas scorpioidea Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 139; --Type: BS 48947 Ramos & Edaño sn (PNH, holo, lost; iso: K, NY UC, US), Mindanao: Davao Oriental prov., Mati, along streams in forests at low elevation, 16-Apr-1927. Probably belonging to sect. Dieramalpinia. Labellum not described; no flowers on all extant type material. Photos

Amomum L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Amomum bulusanense Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2973; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 238; --Type: Elmer 16395 (BISH, GH, MO, NY, US, iso). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Primary forests, c. 600m.
  2. Amomum dealbatum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 42. Nepal to China to Indo-China, Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon.
  3. Amomum elegans Ridl., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 84; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 238. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Low and medium elevation primary forests. Photos
  4. Amomum hedyosmum I.M.Turner, Asian J. Trop. Biol. 4: 18 (2000). --Amomum trilobum Ridl., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 85, nom. illeg.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 241; --Type: Bolster 67 (K [2 sheets], US), Luzon: Pampanga prov., Mt Arayat, May-1905. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, PALAWAN, PANAY. Low and medium elevation primary forests.
  5. Amomum linearifolium Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2975; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 239; --Type: Elmer 16926 (BISH, GH, MO, NY, US). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Thickets bordering forests, c. 300m.
  6. Amomum loheri K.Schum. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 247; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 239. – Type: Loher 675 (K). “Luzon central”, without definite locality. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. No further locality data. “I saw Loher’s specimen at Kew in 1907 and at that time made a note that it was very similar to A. trilobum Ridl.” –Merrill, (1922), loc. cit.
  7. Amomum luzonense Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2976; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 239; --Type: Elmer 15645 (not seen). Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin (Mt Bulusan), ‘well-drained ground of secondary woods or shrubberies’, Jun-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, BILIRAN. Low and medium elevation secondary forests.
  8. Amomum mindanaense Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2894; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 239; --Type: Elmer 10822 (BISH, GH, MO, NY, US, iso). Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, ‘in damp deeply humus-covered ground of the oak forests at 3750ft [=1143m] S of the Baruring River’, Jun-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Primary forest, c. 1100m.
  9. Amomum palawanense Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2897; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 239; --Type: Elmer 12795 (BISH, GH, MO, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (=Thumb Peak), ‘in good soil among open thickets of woods along a creek bottom at 250ft [=76m], Mar-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Lowland forests along streams. Very similar to A. mindanaense Elmer. Photos
  10. Amomum pubimarginatum Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2900; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 240; --Type: Elmer 10546 (BISH, K, NY, US, iso). Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, ‘well-drained soil of dense woods at 4250ft [=1295m] S of the Sibulan River’, May-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Primary forest, c. 1300m.
  11. Amomum warburgii (K.Schum.) K.Schum. in H.G.A.Engler (ed.), Pflanzenr., IV, 46 (1904) 257. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO.

Dubious or imperfectly known taxa

  1. Amomum deuteramomum K.Schum. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 27 (1899) 313; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 238; --Type: Warburg 15735. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. In forest. Known only from description.

Boesenbergia Kuntze

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Boesenbergia longipetiolata (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 243; --Gastrochilus longipetiolatus Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 166; --Type: FB 9110 Whitford & Hutchinson. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Lowland primary forests.
  2. Boesenbergia macropoda Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 391; --Type: BS 44394 (K, NY, US, iso), Jolo: near cultivated areas at low elevation, Sep-1924. Endemic to the Philippines. JOLO. Lowlands near cultivated areas.

Catimbium Juss. = Alpinia

Curcuma L.

[Not native]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Curcuma longa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 2; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 243. --Curcuma domestica Valeton, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg ser. II, 27 (1918) 31. India to W Malesia. Not native to the Philippines.
  2. Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Rosc., Monandr. Pl. (1828) t. 109; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 158; EPFP 1 (1924) 243. Himalaya to India. Not native to the Philippines. Photos

Etlingera Giseke

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 July 2017

Photos
  1. Etlingera brevilabrum (Valeton) R.M.Sm., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 43 (1986) 243. Borneo, Philippines?
  2. Etlingera coccinea (Blume) S.Sakai & Nagam., Edinburgh J. Bot. 60 (2003) 190. --Etlingera punicea (Roxb.) R.M.Sm., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh: 43 (1986) 249. Indo-China to W Malesia, Philippines. Photos
  3. Etlingera dalican (Elmer) A.D.Poulsen, Blumea 48 (2003) 524; --Amomum dalican (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 238; --Hornstedtia dalican Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2906; --Type: Elmer 11626 (BISH, GH, K, MO, NY, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, ‘in fertile moist soil in open glens near springs or streamlets among the forests at 3500ft [=1067m]’, Sep-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Small streamlets in forests, c. 1100m.
  4. Etlingera pandanicarpa (Elmer) A.D.Poulsen, Blumea 48 (2003) 525; --Amomum pandanicarpum (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2899; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 240, excl. syn. Hornstedtia sorsogonensis; --Hornstedtia pandanicarpa Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2899; --Type: Elmer 10508 (BISH, GH, MO, NY, US), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, ‘rich soil of a steep open glen among monstrous wild “abaca” or Manila hemp plants at 3500ft [=1067m] elevation’, May-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao (Mt Apo). Medium elevation forests, ascending to 1100m. Photos
  5. Etlingera philippinensis (Ridl.) RM Sm., Not. Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 43 (1986) 248; -- Amomum philippinense (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 240; --Hornstedtia philippinensis Ridl., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 86, excl. fruit description; LPB 2 (1909) 605; PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 175; --Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2905; ibid. 8 (1919) 2981. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, BILIRAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Low and medium elevation forests. Photos
  6. Etlingera purpurea (Elmer) A.D.Poulsen, Blumea 48 (2003) 525; --Amomum purpureum (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 240; --Hornstedtia purpurea Elmer, LPB 9 (1919) 2984; --Type: Elmer 16819 (BISH, K, MO, NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Aug-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan). Densely forested ravines, c. 450m.
  7. Etlingera sorsogonensis (Elmer) A.D.Poulsen, Blumea 48 (2003) 526; --Hornstedtia sorsogonensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2985; --Type: Elmer 16925 (GH, K, MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, ‘in loose humus-covered damp soil of thickets along borders of woods at 1000ft [=305m]’, Aug-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan). Lowland forest, c. 300m.

Possible occurrence

  1.  Etlingera sessilanthera R.M.Sm., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 43 (1986) 240. Borneo, Philippines? A plant from Palawan represented by a single photo might belong to this species (A.D. Poulsen, 7-Sep-15). Photos

Known only from cultivation

  1. Etlingera elatior (Jack) RM Sm., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 43 (1986) 244. --Phaeomeria speciosa (Blume) Koord., Exkurs.-Fl. Java 1 (1911) 332. --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 241. Photos

Geocharis (K.Schum.) Ridl.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 October 2016

Photos
  1. Geocharis fusiformis (Ridl.) RM Sm., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 43 (1986) 458; --Amomum fusiforme Ridl. in Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 604, nom. nud.; PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 171; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 238. Photos

Globba L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 July 2017

Photos
  1. Globba aurea Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2902; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 244; --Type: Elmer 13243. Endemic to the Philippines. BUSUANGA, PALAWAN. Low and medium elevation thickets and rock crevices along streams. Photos
  2. Globba campsophylla K.Schum. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 145; --Ridl., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 83; PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 159; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 244; --Type: Cuming 1090. --Globba brevifolia K.Schum. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 145;--Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 160; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 244; --Globba parviflora C.Presl var. brevifolia K.Schum. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 27 (1899) 330; --Type: Warburg 14066, Luzon: Zambales. --Globba merrillii Ridl., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 83; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 245; --Type: Merrill 3869, Luzon: Bataan. --Globba gracilis K.Schum. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 145; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 244; --Type: Warburg 14580 (B, cited by Merr., 1924). -- Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 161; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 244; --Type: Merrill 4064. --Globba latifolia. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Quezon, CATANDUANES, CORRIGIDOR, MINDORO, PANAY, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Low and medium elevation damp thickets and forests, on and about cliffs, etc. Photos
  3. Globba leucocarpa Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 161; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 244; --Type: Elmer 6465. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, POLILLO, MINDORO, LEYTE. Low and medium elevation, in damp primary forests, on shaded cliffs, etc.
  4. Globba marantina L., Mant. 2 (1771) 170; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 244. Across Malesia to the Bismarck Archipelago. Introduced to the Philippines. LUZON: La Union, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Cavite, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS. Lowland and medium elevation thickets near human settlements. Often common. Photos
  5. Globba parviflora C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 115; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 245; --Type: Haenke s.n. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Albay, Sorsogon, LEYTE, MINDANAO. Lowland and medium elevation forests.
  6. Globba pyramidata Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 48 (1901) 208, t. 7, Fig. 5-7; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 245. Cambodia, Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan, Weber 1128. Lowland primary forests.

 Dubious or imperfectly known:

  1. Globba ustulata Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 48 (1901) 208, t. 7, Fig. 5-7; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 245; --Type: Marche 227B (P, cited but not seen by Merr., 1924), Balabac.

Hedychium Koenig

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 July 2017

Photos
  1. Hedychium coronarium Koenig in Retz., Obs. 3 (1783) 73; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 157; EPFP 1 (1922) 241. Native of India, now widely cultivated and naturalized in many parts of the tropics. Introduced and cultivated in the Philippines for ornamental purposes. Kamia. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Photos
  2. Hedychium philippinense K.Schum. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 47; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 242; --Type: Vidal 3924 (K), Jolo. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, POLILLO, NEGROS, LEYTE, JOLO, MINDANAO. Lowland and medium elevation humid forests, ascending to 1100m, often epiphytic or pseudoepiphytic. Photos

Hornstedtia Retz.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 July 2017

Photos
  1. Hornstedtia conoidea Ridl. in Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 605; PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 175; --Amomum conoideum (Ridl.) Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2972; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 238; --Type: Elmer 10246 (K [3 sheets], NY, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, ‘in fertile soil of damp ravines at 2000ft [=610m], Jun-1908. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley), Davao. Damp forested ravines, medium elevation. Photos
  2. Hornstedtia havilandii (K.Schum.) K.Schum., Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 193; --Amomum havilandii K.Schum. In Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 27 (1899) 303; --Type from Sabah. Borneo (Sabah; Sarawak), SW Philippines. JOLO. (Based on BS 44454 Ramos & Edaño). Lowland second-growth forests.
  3. Hornstedtia irosinensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2981; --Amomum irosinense (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 239. --Honstedtia peninsula Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2983; --Type: Elmer 16455 (MO, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, ‘wet stony ground of herbaceous thickets in a densely shaded gulley between forested ridges at 1750ft [=533m]’, Jun-1916. --Hornstedtia subviridis Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2987; --Type: Elmer 16437, Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, ‘on a well-drained stony incline among jungled woods at 1000ft [=305m]’, Jun-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan). Forested ravines, 350-500m.
  4. Hornstedtia lepicarpa (Ridl.) Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2979; --Amomum lepicarpum Ridl. in Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 605; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 239; --Type: Elmer 10044. --Amomum subviridis Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2987. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Davao. Photos (as Amomum lepicarpum)
  5. Hornstedtia lophophora Ridl., LPB 2 (1909) 607; --Amomum lophophorum (Ridl.) Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2973; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 239; --Type: Elmer 10365. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. Forested ravines, c. 1200m.
  6. Hornstedtia microcheila Ridl. in Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 606; PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 176; --Amomum microcheila (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 239; --Type: Elmer 10279. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns). Seepage banks along streams, c. 900m.
  7. Hornstedtia muricarpa (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2980; --Amomum muricarpum Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2896; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 239; --Type: Elmer 10947. China to Indo-China, Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Cotabato, Davao. Low and medium elevation primary forests.
  8. Hornstedtia propinqua (Ridl.) Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2979; --Amomum propinquum Ridl., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 84; PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 172; --Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2894; --Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 111; EPFP 1 (1922) 240; --Type: Elmer 6284. --Amomum echinatum Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 3; ibid. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 4, non Willd. --Amomum aculeatum Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 224, non Roxb. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, Batangas, Quezon, Sorsogon, MASBATE, BILIRAN, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. Lowland and medium elevation forests. Photos
  9. Hornstedtia pubescens (Ridl.) Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2979; --Amomum pubescens (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 240; --Amomum lepicarpum Ridl. var. pubescens Ridl. in Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 604; --Type: Elmer 10384. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns). Forests, c. 1100m.

Kaempferia L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Kaempferia galanga L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 2; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 157; EPFP 1 (1924) 242. India through Malaya to the Moluccas. LUZON: Mountain Province, Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Lowland and medium elevation grasslands. Photos
  2. Kaempferia philippinensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 296; EPFP 1 (1924) 242; --Type: BS 14952. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. Lowland and medium elevation forests along streams.

 Kolowratia C.Presl = Alpinia

 Languas Koenig = Alpinia

Leptosolena C.Presl

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Leptosolena haenkei C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 111, t. 28; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 236; --Funakoshi et al., Acta Phytotax. et Geobot. 56 (2005) 45, Fig. 1-3; --Type: Haenke s.n. (PR, lecto; PR isolecto). --Leptosolena auriculata Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3808, nom. nud.; --Voucher: Elmer 17997 (cited by Funakoshi et al., 2005: F, L, NY, W). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, La Union, Benguet (Twin Peaks), Mountain Province (Supan; Dandanac, Besao; Alab and Balili, Bontoc; Mt Data), Cagayan (Bauan-Mt Tabuan), Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales (Villar, Mt Pinatubo), 300-1300m. Abundant on sunny rocky slope in the pine belt of N Luzon. Photos

Phaeomeria Lindl. = Etlingera

Plagiostachys Ridl.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Plagiostachys corrugata Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2908; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 237; --Type: Elmer 11130. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Forests, c. 450m.
  2. Plagiostachys elegans Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 178; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 237; --Type: Clemens s.n. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Forests, c. 900m.
  3. Plagiostachys escritorii Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2910; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 237; --Type: Elmer 10516. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Medium elevation forests, ascending to 1300m.
  4. Plagiostachys lata Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3805, not validly published, no Latin diagnosis; --Syntypes: Elmer 18234 and 17618. LUZON: Laguna (Mt Makiling). Open places or among shrubberies of the foothills. Endemic to the Philippines.
  5. Plagiostachys parviflora (C.Presl) Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 178; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 237; --Type: Elmer 16215. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, PANAY, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Low elevation primary forests.
  6. Plagiostachys philippinensis Ridl. in LPB 2 (1909) 571; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 237; --Type: BS 33614 Ramos & Edaño. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, POLILLO, SIBUYAN, CATANDUANES, PANAY, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation primary forests.
  7. Plagiostachys rolfei (K.Schum.) Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 179; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 237; --Type: Cuming 1327 (K, 2 sheets), Luzon: Cagayan prov. (according to Merrill, 1924 not Albay as label suggests). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan.

Vanoverberghia Merr.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Vanoverberghia sepulchrei Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 76; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 238; --Type: Vanoverbergh 956. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Sorsogon, PANAY. Steep slopes along stream gullies, medium elevation to 1500m. Photos

Zingiber Boehmer

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 October 2016

Photos
  1. Zingiber apoense Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2914; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 228; --Type: Elmer 10545. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Forests, 1000-1300m. Photos
  2. Zingiber banahaoense Mood & Theilade, Nordic J. Bot. 21 (2001) 129; --Type: Mood 506 (AAU, holo; K, iso), Luzon, Quezon, Delores, Mt. Banahao, above Kinabuhayan village. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Photos
  3. Zingiber brevifolium NE Br., Gard. Chron. 26 (1886) 390, non K.Schum. (1904); --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 228; --Type: W Bull sn (K). ?Philippines. Described from cultivated specimens said to have originated from the Philippines. Otherwise unknown.
  4. Zingiber bulusanense Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2993; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 228. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan). Primary forests, c. 450m.
  5. Zingiber matutumense Mood & Theilade, Nordic J. Bot. 21 (2001) 130; --Type: Hepton W83P754 (AAU, holo), Mindanao: South Cotabato prov., Mt Matutum, 830m, 1982. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: South Cotabato (Mt Matutum). Photos
  6. Zingiber molle Ridl., LPB 2 (1909) 607, nom. nud.; PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 168; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 229. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet (Mt Sto Tomas), Pampanga, Quezon (Mt Banahaw). Forested stream gullies, 1100-1600m. Photos
  7. Zingiber negrosense Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2917; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 229; --Type: Elmer 10421 (BISH, K, MO, NY, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, Jun-1908. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Forested ravines, c. 1050m.
  8. Zingiber officinale Rosc., Trans. Linn. Soc. 7 (1807) 348; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 229. Native of tropical Asia, pantropical in distribution. Widely cultivated in the Philippines but nowhere naturalized. Ginger. Luya. Photos
  9. Zingiber pubisquama Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 169; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 229; --Type: MS Clemens 1163a (K), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Sep-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur prov. (Camp Keithley). Cogon grasslands, c. 650m.
  10. Zingiber sylvaticum Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2919; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 229; --Type: Elmer 9843 (NY, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, Jun-1908. LUZON: Cagayan, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon, POLILLO, CATANDUANES, NEGROS. Mainly in medium elevation forests, ascending to 1300m. Synonym of Zingiber molle Ridl.? Photos
  11. Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Sm., Exot. Bot. 2 (1804) 103, t. 112; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 229. Tropical and subtropical Asia, Philippines.

Doubtful occurrence

  1. Zingiber montanum (J.Koenig) Link ex A.Dietr., Sp. Pl. 1 (1831) 52. --Zingiber cassumunar Roxb., Asiat. Research 11 (1810) 347, t. 5; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 229. Native of tropical Asia, pantropic in cultivation. Reportedly in Mindanao (Misamis), but Merrill also noted having seen no Philippine material representing this species.

Literature

Acma, FM. 2014. Amomum dealbatum Roxb. (Alpinioideae, Zingiberaceae), a new record for the Philippine flora. Asia Life Sciences 23: 527-535.

Funakoshi, H, WJ Kress, J Škorničková, AZ Liu and K Inoue. 2005. Return from the lost: rediscovery of the presumed extinct Leptosolena (Zingiberaceae) in the Philippines and its phylogenetic placement in gingers. Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 56: 41-53.

Holttum, RE. 1950. The Zingiberaceae of the Malay Peninsula. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 13: 1-249.

Mood, J, I Theilade. 2001. Two new species of Zingiber (Zingiberaceae) from the Philippines. Nordic Journal of Botany 21: 129-133.

Naive, MAK. 2017. Zingiberaceae of Kalatungan Mountain Range, Bukidnon, Philippines. Bioscience Discovery 8: 311-319.

Poulsen, AD. 2003. One new name and new combinations of Malesian Zingiberaceae. Blumea 48: 523-527


Smith, RM. 1985. A review of the Bornean Zingiberaceae. Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden of Edinburgh 42: 261-314.

Smith, RM. 1986. A review of the Bornean Zingiberaceae. Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden of Edinburgh 43: 439-466.

Smith, RM. 1987. A review of the Bornean Zingiberaceae. Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden of Edinburgh 44: 203-232.

Smith, RM. 1988. A review of the Bornean Zingiberaceae. Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden of Edinburgh 45: 409-423.

Zingiberaceae Resource Centre

Acknowledgements

Hidenobu Funakoshi, Diana Limjoco, John Mood, Mark Arcebal Kling Naive, Oliver C. Pe, Ravan Schneider, and Wally Suarez kindly contributed photographs for this page. Mark Newman and Axel Poulsen provided many of the identifications for the associated photos.

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 9 July 2017