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Asparagaceae

including Agavaceae, Anthericaceae, Convallariaceae, Dracaenaceae, Laxmanniaceae, Ruscaceae

Agave L. [or Agavaceae; not native, not naturalized]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 October 2017

Photos

  1. Agave cantala (Haw.) Roxb. ex Salm-Dyck, Index Pl. Succ. Hort. Dyck. (1829) 1; --Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 25, nom. nud.; Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 167; --Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 144; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 99; EPFP 1 (1922) 212; --Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 253; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 146; --Furcraea cantala Haw., Suppl. Pl. Succ. (1818) 42. --Agave americana Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 258; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 180; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 322; --Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 253; --Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 23. Introduced from Mexico during the Spanish colonial period, now widely distributed in the Philippines. In some provinces extensively grown for its fiber. Maguey. Cultivated only.
  2. Agave sisalana Perine ex Engelm., Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 3 (1875) 314; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 213. Native of tropical America, introduced into the Philippines during the early part of the 20th century, here planted for its fiber. Cultivated only. Photos

Asparagus L. [or Agavaceae]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 October 2017

Photos
  1. Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr., PJS 15 (1919) 230; EPFP 1 (1922) 206; --Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 216; --Melanthium cochinchinense Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 216. Korea, Japan, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, S China, Indochina, N Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Loher 1928, probable from above 1200m). Photos

Cultivated taxa, not naturalized:

  1. Asparagus aethiopicus L., Mant. Pl. (1770) 1. --Asparagus sprengeri Regel, Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 11 (1890) 302. Photos
  2. Asparagus officinalis L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 313. Photos
  3. Asparagus setaceus (Kunth) Jessop, Bothalia 9 (1966) 51; --Asparagopsis setacea Kunth, Enum. Pl. 5 (1850) 82. --Asparagus plumosus Baker, Baker, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 14 (1875) 613.

Cordyline Comm. ex R.Br. [or Agavaceae; not native, not naturalized?]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 October 2017

Photos

  1. Cordyline fruticosa (L.) A.Chev., Cat. Pl. Jard. Bot. Saigon (1919) 66; --Taetsia fruticosa (L.) Merr., Interp. Herb. Amb. (1917) 137; EPFP 1 (1922) 205; --Convallaria fruticosa L. in Stickm., Herb. Amboin. (1754) 16. --Cordyline terminalis Kunth, Abh. Acad. Berlin (1820) 30, nom. superfl.; Enum. 5 (1850) 25; --Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 558; --Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 265; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 145. Native of Malaya (R.L.Reyes: or Pacific to Southeast Asia?), now pantropic in cultivation. Widely cultivated in the Philippines for ornamental purposes. Cultivated only? Photos

Disporopsis Hance [or Convallariaceae, Ruscaceae]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 October 2016

Photos
  1. Disporopsis luzoniensis (Merr.) J.M.H.Shaw, Hanburyana 5 (2011) 48; --Disporum luzoniense Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 338; EPFP 1 (1922) 206. --Disporopsis fusco-picta auct. non Hance; --Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 219. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Mossy forest, 1700-2500m. Also in secondary pyrogenous pine savanna. Photos

Disporum Salisb.: no true representatives in the Philippines = Disporopsis

Dracaena Vand. ex L. [or Dracaenaceae, Ruscaceae]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2018

Photos

  1. Dracaena angustifolia Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 24; Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 155; --Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 264; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 35, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 400; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 61; --Pleomele angustifolia (Roxb.) N.E.Br., Kew Bull. (1914) 277; --Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 137; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 96; EPFP 1 (1923) 205. India through Malaya to Australia. Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces. Chiefly in lowland and medium elevation primary forests. Photos
  2. Dracaena bangueyensis (Merr.) ined.; --Pleomele bangueyensis Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 355; PJS 30 (1926) 390; --Type: from Banguey (off Sabah). Banguey, Philippines. CALAMIANES (BICAWAYAN), TAWI-TAWI. Lowland thickets.
  3. Dracaena multiflora Warb. ex Sarasin Reisen, Sulawesi 1 (1905) 136; --Pleomele multiflora (Warb.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 205. Philippines, Sulawesi. BATANES, LUZON: Nueva Ecija, Quezon, POLILLO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, TICAO, MASBATE, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Chiefly on coastal limestone formations. Photos
  4. Dracaena roxburghiana (Schult.f.) Byng & Christenh., Global Fl. 4 (2018) 66; --Sansevieria roxburghiana Schult. & Schult.f. in Roemer & Schultes, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 7 (1829) 357; --Cordyline roxburghiana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 206. --Sansevieria zeylanica Roxb., Pl. Coromandel. 2 (1798) 43, nom. illeg., auct. non (L.) Willd.; --Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 265; Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. 422; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 144, EPFP 1 (1922) 206. Native of tropical Asia, now pantropic in distribution. In the Philippines often cultivated, in many regions naturalized, occurring in thickets and hedges at low and medium elevation. Bowstring hemp.

Ledebouria Roth [or Hyacynthaceae; not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser. 22 July 2017

Photos

  1. Ledebouria socialis (Baker) Jessop, Journ. S. Afr. Bot. 36 (1970) 253; --Scilla socialis Baker, Refug. Bot. 3 (1870) t. 180. Native to South Africa. Philippines. SAMAR. Naturalized? Photos

Liriope Lour. [or Convallariaceae, Ruscaceae]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 October 2017

Photos
  1. Liriope graminifolia (L.) Baker, J. Soc. Bot. 17 (1879) 499; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 207; --Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 225; --Asparagus graminifolius L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 450. --Liriope muscari auct. non (Decne.) L.H.Bailey; --Hatus., Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 62. Japan to S China (including Hongkong), Taiwan, Philippines. BATAN, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Benguet, MINDORO. Low elevation (in Batan) to c. 1400m in open slopes (in N Luzon).

Ophiopogon Ker [or Convallariaceae, Ruscaceae]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 October 2017

Photos
  1. Ophiopogon caulescens (Blume) Backer, Handb. Fl. Java 3 (1924) 74; --Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 226; --Chloopsis caulescens Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae (1827) 14. --Ophiopogon malayanus Ridl., J. Strait Branch Roy. As. Soc. 41 (1904) 34; EPFP 1 (1922) 207. Continental SE Asia and W Malesia. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Langkawi, Java, Borneo (Sabah: Mt Kinabalu area), SW Philippines. JOLO (Clemens 9374). Forested slopes, elevation c. 700m.
  2. Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker Gawl. in Curtis’ Bot. Mag. 27 (1807) t. 1063; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 207; --Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 227; --Convallaria japonica Thunb., Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal., ser. 2, 3 (1780) 208. Japan, S China, Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Pampanga, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao (Mt Apo). Chiefly in the mossy forest, rather common in the Mountain Province, 850-2400(-2900)m. Fl. May-Jul; fr. Dec-Jan. Also a commonly cultivated garden plant in Malesia, especially for lining borders, but never flowering in the lowlands. Photos

Sansevieria Thunb. = Dracaena

Thysanotus R.Br. [or Anthericaceae, Laxmanniaceae]

Photos
  1. Thysanotus chinensis Benth., Fl. Hongk. (1861) 372; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 202; --Jessop, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 9 (1979) 211. S China (including Hongkong), N Vietnam, S Peninsular Thailand, Lesser Sunda Isls (Flores), Philippines, Sulawesi (Masamba), Moluccas (Aru Isls), New Guinea, Australia (Western Australia; Northern Territory). LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan, Mountain Province, Benguet. Open grasslands at medium elevation, grassy pine forest, ascending to 1600m, in the more seasonal parts of the archipelago. Photos

Pleomele Salisb. = Dracaena

Taetsia Med. = Cordyline


Acknowledgements

Jonah van Beijnen kindly provided some of the photos on this web page.

Literature

Backer, CA & Bakhuizen van den Brink. 1968. Flora of Java 3: 157-165.

Jessop, JP. 1979. Liliaceae - I. Flora Malesiana - Series 1, Spermatophyta 9: 189-235

Lu, P-L & CW Morden. 2014. Phylogenetic relationships among dracaenoid genera (Asparagaceae: Nolinoideae) inferred from chloroplast DNA loci. Systematic Botany 39: 90-104.

Shaw, JMH. 2011. Miscellaneous nomenclatural and taxonomic notes mainly relating to cultivated plants. Hanburyana 5: 47-56. [Disporopsis]

Takawira-Nyenya, R, L Mucina, WM Cardinal-McTeague & KR Thiele. 2018. Sansevieria (Asparagaceae, Nolinoideae) is a herbaceous clade within Dracaena: inference from non-coding plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data. Phytotaxa 376: 254-276.


Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 22 November 2018