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Asteraceae

= Compositae

Acanthospermum Schrank [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 October 2020

No Photos
  1. Acanthospermum hispidum DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 522; --Merr., PJS 60 (1936) 35; --J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 254. Native to South America. Introduced in Africa, Australia, India, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, New Guinea, Philippines. Naturalized in the Philippines. CEBU, GUIMARAS.

Acmella Rich. ex Pers.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 October 2017

Photos
  1. Acmella grandiflora (Turcz.) R.K.Jansen, Syst. Bot. Monogr. 8 (1985) 75; --Spilanthes grandiflora Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 241 (1851) 183; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 612; --J.Kost. & Philipson, Blumea 6 (1950) 353. --Spilanthes ovata Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 246; EPFP 3 (1923) 612. Philippines, Tropical Australia. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet. Open grassy slopes in the pine forests, 1200-1950m. (As Spilanthes grandiflora & Spilanthes ovata in Merr. 1923). Photos
  2. Acmella paniculata (Wall. ex DC.) R.K.Jansen, Syst. Bot. Monogr. 9 (1985) 67; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 814. --Spilanthes iabadicensis A.H.Moore, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts & Sc. 42 (1907) 542; --J.Kost. & Philipson, Blumea 6 (1950) 354. --Spilanthes acmella auct. non (L.) Murr.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 612. India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, S China, Taiwan, across Malesia, also reported from South America. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Laguna, MINDORO, BALABAC. Low and medium elevation, open waste places, old clearings, etc. Photos
  3. Acmella uliginosa Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat., ed. 2. 24 (1822) 331. Naturalized in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Pacific Islands. Native throughout the tropics in Africa, America, and Asia. Photos

Adenostemma J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 August 2019

Photos
  1. Adenostemma parviflorum (Blume) DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 111; --Adenostemma var. parviflorum (Blume) Hochr., Candollea 5 (1934) 298; --Adenostemma parviflorum (Blume) DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 111; --J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 476; --Lavenia parviflora Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 15 (1826) 905. China, India, Malaysia, Pacific, Palau Isls, Taiwan, Thailand, Philippines. See Orchard (2011) for a different taxonomic treatment.
  2. Adenostemma viscosum J.R.Forst. & G.Forst., Char. Gen. (1775) 45. --Adenostemma lavenia auct. non (L.) Kuntze; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 596; --J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 470; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 816. Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bhutan, China, Indian Ocean, Indonesia, Japan, Java, Laos, Myanmar, ?New Caledonia, Nicobar Isls, Pacific, Pakistan, Peninsular Malaysia, Ryukyu Isls, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Bataan, Bulacan, Laguna, Quezon, CULION, CATANDUANES, PANAY, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO. Sea-level to 1800m, in open wet places along streams, forests, and thickets. See Orchard (2011) for a different taxonomic treatment. Photos

Ageratina Spach [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 October 2020

Photos
  1. Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R.M.King & H.Rob., Phytologia 19 (1970) 211; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 378; --Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng., Syst. 3 (1826) 420; --J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 502. Native of Mexico, California, West Indies, now adventive in all tropical regions of the world. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Photos
  2. Ageratina riparia (Regel) R.M.King & H.Rob., Phytologia 19 (1970) 216; --Eupatorium riparium Regel, Gartenflora 15 (1866) 324; --J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 501. Native of Mexico, introduced in other parts of the world, including the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (photos), Mountain Province (photos), Nueva Vizcaya (photo). Invasive species (CABI 2020). Photos 

Ageratum L. [Not native]

Photos
  1. Ageratum conyzoides L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 839; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 467; EPFP 3 (1923) 597; --J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 484; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 820. Native of the Neotropics, now widely naturalized in all warm regions of the world. Throughout the Philippines. A common weed in open waste places, 0-2000m. Photos
  2. Ageratum houstonianum Mill., Dict. ed. 8, no. 2 (1768); --J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 490. Native of the Neotropics, now widely distributed in all warm regions of the world. Photos

Ainsliaea DC.

Photos
  1. Ainsliaea latifolia (D.Don) Sch.-Bip., Jahresber. Pollichia 18-19 (1861) 190.
    • subsp. henryi (Diels) H.Koyama, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 32 (1981) 60; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 822. --Ainsliaea reflexa Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 242; EPFP 3 (1923) 620. Himalayas, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, S China, Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Mountain Province, Benguet, Laguna-Quezon (Mt Banahaw), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon). Mossy forests, 2000-2400m. Photos

Anaphalis DC.

Photos
  1. Anaphalis morrisonicola Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formos. 8 (1919) 56; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 828; --Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth. & Hook.f. subsp. morrisonicola (Hayata) Kitam., Fauna Fl. Nepal Himalaya (1955) 244. --Anaphalis contorta auct. non (Don) Hook.f.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 608. Himalayas, Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Grassy slopes in thin pine forests, 1500-2200m. Photos

Anisopappus Hook. & Arn.

No Photos
  1. Anisopappus chinensis (L.) Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechy Voy. (1836) 196; --Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 125; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 609. --Chrysogonum philippinense Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 161; --Type: Merrill 514 (NY, iso), Culion: Halsey Harbor. Dry grassy valley, Dec-1902. Myanmar, S China, W-C Philippines. CULION. Low elevation, in dry open places. 

Artemisia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 October 2020

Photos
  1. Artemisia capillaris Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 309; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 616; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 837. China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet. Dry open sites in the montane zone, 1200-1600m. Photos
  2. Artemisia indica Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 3 (1803) 1846. --Artemisia dubia var. asiatica Pamp. --Artemisia asiatica Nakai ex Pamp., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. n.s. 36 (1930) 383; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 53. --Artemisia vulgaris auct. non L.; --Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 625; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 435; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 14; --Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 119; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 141; --Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 441; Fl. Manila (1912) 472; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 381; EPFP 3 (1923) 53. Pantropic. PANAY. Throughout the Philippines, but certainly an introduced species. In and about towns at low and medium elevation. Often planted. Naturalized.
  3. Artemisia japonica Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 310; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 616; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 839. Afghanistan, India, NE and S China, Taiwan, Lanyu, Korea, Japan, Thailand, N Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province. Dry slopes, low elevation.

Aster L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 October 2017

Photos
  1. Aster philippinensis S.Moore, J. Bot. 43 (1905) 138; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 600; --Type: Merrill 4726. --Aster luzonensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 131; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 600; --Type: Elmer 6251. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet. Montane thickets and forests, 1400-2400m. Photos
  2. Aster trinervius Roxb. ex Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 433; Hort. Beng. (1814) 61, nomen nud.; --Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 394; EPFP 3 (1923) 600. India to China, Taiwan, Japan, and N Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. On slopes in pine forests, c. 1400m.

Ayapana Spach [Not native, not naturalized]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 October 2020

No Photos
  1. Ayapana triplinervis (Vahl) R.M.King & H.Rob., Phytologia 20 (1970) 212; --Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl, Symb. 3 (1794) 97; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 467; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 376; EPFP 3 (1923) 598; --J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 493. Tropical America, Mauritius, Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO. According to Merrill, introduced here from Mexico and occasionally planted for medicinal purposes.

Bidens L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 August 2019

Photos
  1. Bidens bipinnata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 832; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 613; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 868. Probably native of E United States and E Asia, naturalized in South America, Australia, S Asia and Europe. LUZON: Benguet. Dry open slopes, c. 1300m. Photos
  2. Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Scherff in Scherff, Bot. Gaz. 88 (1929) 293; --J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 261; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 869; --Coreopsis biternata Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 508. --Bidens leucorrhiza (Lour.) DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 605; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 613; --Coreopsis leucorrhiza Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 508. Cape Verde, Madeira, Africa, Madagascar, Reunion, France (introduced), Arabia, Afghanistan, India, Thailand, Indochina, China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines, New Guinea, Australia, Polynesia. BATANES and N LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. Open waste places, thickets, etc., from sea-level to 2300m.
  3. Bidens pilosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 832; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 478; EPFP 3 (1923) 614, as ‘pilosa’; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 869. Photos
    • var. pilosa. Tropical and subtropical regions of the world. BABUYAN ISLS and LUZON to MINDANAO. Waste places, chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 2200m.
    • var. minor (Blume) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80 (1925) 387; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 869; --Bidens sundaicus Blume var. minor Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 914. Most tropical and subtropical regions of the world.
    • var. radiata Sch.Bip. in Webb & Berthel., Hist. Canar. 3 (1842-50) 242; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 870. --Bidens alba var. radiata (Sch.Bip.) R.E.Ballard ex Melchert, Phytologia 32 (1975) 295. Probably native of the United States, now naturalized and common weed in North and South America, N Africa, and S Asia.
  4. Bidens tripartita L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 831; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 614; --J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 261. Eurasia, N Africa and Australia.
    • var. tripartita. --Bidens tripartita var. repens (D.Don) Scherff, Bot. Gaz. 81 (1926) 45; --Bidens repens D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 180. Eurasia, N Africa and Australia.

Blumea DC.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 12 August 2020

Photos

  1. Blumea aromatica DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 446; --Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 4; --Type: from Nepal. Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016). Photos
  2. Blumea axillaris (Lam.) DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 434; --Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 6; --Conyza axillaris Lam., Encycl. 2 (1786) 84; --Type: Commerson s.n. (P, holo; P, iso). --Blumea dregeanoides Sch.Bip. ex A.Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 1 (1848) 392. --Blumea chamissoniana DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 434; --Type: Chamisso s.n. (B, holo, ?lost; G-DC, GH, iso), Luzon. --Blumea mollis (D.Don) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 395; Fl. Manila (1912) 603; EPFP 3 (1923) 603; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 261; --Peng et al. in Huang(ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 864; --Erigeron molle D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 172; --Type: from Nepal. Afghanistan, Africa, Australia, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Benguet, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Bulacan, Rizal, MINDORO. Dry places in open grasslands, roadsides, etc. up to 1500m. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016).
  3. Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 447; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 470; EPFP 3 (1923) 601; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 237; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 875; --Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 8; --Conyza balsamifera L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2 (1763) 1208; --Type: from India. Australia, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Timorleste, Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, CULION, PALAWAN, BALABAC, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, SIARGAO, MINDANAO, BASILAN, SULU, TAWI-TAWI. Low and medium elevation, usually common in open grasslands and thickets. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016). Photos
  4. Blumea benguetensis (Elmer) Mattf., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 62 (1929) 425; --Merrittia benguetensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 396; EPFP 3 (1923) 606; --Senecio benguetensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 152; --Type: Elmer 6247. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet. Damp thickets and in the mossy forest, 1800-2400m.
  5. Blumea bicolor Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 356; EPFP 3 (1923) 602; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 231; --Type: Merrill 8080, Mindanao: Zamboanga. Sumatra, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON, PANAY, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Moist localities in dense forests, 900-1100m.
  6. Blumea densiflora DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 446; --Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 11; --Type: from Bangladesh. Bhutan, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, Pakistan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. NEGROS. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016).
  7. Blumea fistulosa (Roxb.) Kurz, J. As. Soc. Beng. 46 (1877) 187; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 256; --Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 12; --Conyza fistulosa Roxb. --Blumea glomerata DC. in Wight, Contrib. Bot. Ind. (1834) 15;--Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 602. India, Himalayas, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, S China, Hainan. Accredited to the Philippines by Merrill as Blumea glomerata. LUZON: Cagayan, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Zambales, Batangas, MINDORO, NEGROS, MINDANAO. No citation of occurrence in the Philippines by Randeria (1960) or Pornpongrungrueng et al. (2016).
  8. Blumea hieraciifolia (D.Don) DC., in Wight, Contrib. Bot. Ind. (1834) 15; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 246; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4(1998) 878; --Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 18; --Erigeron hieracifolius D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 172; --Type: from Nepal. --Blumea sericans (Kurz) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1881) 262; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 604; --Blumea barbata var. sericans Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 46 (1877) 188; --Type: from Bangladesh. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016). Photos
    • var. hieraciifolia. India, Bangladesh, Himalayas, Myanmar, Indochina, S China, Hainan, Taiwan, Ryukyus, Sumatra to New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Lanao, Davao. Open grasslands, chiefly at medium elevation.
  9. Blumea hirsuta (Less.) M.R.Almeida, Fl. Maharashtra 3A (2001) 79; --Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 18; --Pluchea hirsuta (L.) Less., Linnaea 6 (1831) 150; --Blumea lessingii Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 603, nom. superfl.; --Type: De Chamisso s.n. (B, holo, ?lost; P, iso), Luzon. --Blumea clarkei Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1882) 267; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 252; --Type: from India. Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, PANAY, LEYTE, MINDANAO. Along roadsides, hill slopes and clearings, upto 1000m. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016).
  10. Blumea junghuhniana (Miq.) Boerl., Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1891) 239; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 235; --Conyza junghuhniana Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1856) 55; --Type from Java. Borneo, Java, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Peninsular Malaysia, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Philippines. CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Not listed for the Philippines by Pornpongrungrueng et al. (2016).
  11. Blumea korthalsiana (Miq.) Boerl., Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1891) 239; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 229; --Conyza korthalsiana Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1856) 51; --Type: from Sumatra. New Guinea, Sumatra, Philippines. LUZON: Quezon.
  12. Blumea lacera (Burm.f.) DC. in Wight, Contr. Bot. Ind. (1834) 14; Prodr. 5 (1836) 436; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 602; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 878; --Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 21; --Conyza lacera Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 180; --Type: from Indonesia. Africa, Australia, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Timorleste, Vietnam, Philippines. BATAN, CAMIGUIN, LUZON, ALABAT, MINDORO, CULION, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Dry fields and grasslands, along roadsides, forest edges, at low and medium elevation. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016). Photos
  13. Blumea lanceolaria (Roxb.) Druce, Rept. Bot. Exch. Club Brit. Isls. 4 (1917) 609; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 53; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 218; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 884; --Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 22; --Conyza lanceolaria Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 432; --Type: from India. --Blumea lanceolaria var. spectabilis (DC.) Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 220; --Blumea spectabilis DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 446; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 604. --Blumea laxiflora Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 110; --Type: Elmer 8231 (PNH, holo; E, K, L, NY, iso), Luzon. Australia, Bhutan, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, SAMAR. Along streams in forests, and also in open places at low and medium elevation to 1200m. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016).
  14. Blumea macrostachya DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 442; --Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 23; --Blumea hieraciifolia var. macrostachya (DC.) Hook.f, Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1882) 263; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 248; --Type: from Nepal. --Blumea subsericans Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2582; --Type: Elmer 11139 (K, lecto; GH, L, MO, NY, US, isolecto), Mindanao. Bhutan, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016).
  15. Blumea manillensis DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 435; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 603. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Rizal, Cavite, Batangas. Along streams in ravines at low elevation.
  16. Blumea ramosii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 256; EPFP 3 (1923) 604; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 246. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Zambales. Damp ravines, along trail margins and hillside thickets, 1100-1600m. Fl. Mar-May.
  17. Blumea riparia (Blume) DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 444; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 213; --Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 30; --Conyza riparia Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 15 (1826) 899; --Type: from Indonesia. --Blumea pubigera (L.) Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 250; EPFP 3 (1923) 604; --Conyza pubigera L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 113; --Type: from Indonesia. --Blumea riparia var. riparia forma angustifolia J.Kost., Blumea 4(1941) 490. Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. BALABAC, BASILAN, BOHOL, CATANDUANES, JOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Mountain Province, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR, SIARGAO, SULU, TAWI-TAWI. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016). Photos
  18. Blumea saxatilis Zoll. & Moritzi, Nat. en Geneesk. Arch. N. I. 2 (1845) 243; --Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 34; --Type: from Indonesia. --Blumea tenera Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 250; EPFP 3 (1923) 605; --Type: Merrill 7363 (PNH, holo; K, iso), Luzon. Australia, Indonesia, Laos, Papua New Guinea, Thailand, Timorleste, Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON: Zambales, Rizal, CULION, PALAWAN, MANAMOC, PANAY. Among rocks or in sunny grasslands or clearings up to 700m. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016).
  19. Blumea sinuata (Lour.) Merr., Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. ser. 2, 24 (1935) 38; --Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 35; --Gnaphalium sinuatum Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 2 (1790) 497; --Type: from Vietnam. --Blumea laciniata DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 436; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 470; EPFP 3 (1923) 602; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 258; --Peng et al. in Huang(ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 878; --Type: from India. Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Guam, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON, CULION, BALABAC, SAMAR, SIARGAO, MINDANAO. Old clearings, along roadsides and in waste places up to c. 1200m. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016). Photos
  20. Blumea stenophylla Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 495; --Mattf., Bot. Jahrb. 62 (1929) 417. New Guinea, the Philippines. BOHOL: Valencia, along stream in damp forest, 300m.
  21. Blumea sylvatica (Blume) DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 447; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 605; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 223; --Conyza sylvatica Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 15 (1826) 898.
    • var. sylvatica. Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Java, Sumbawa, Ternate, New Guinea. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Bataan, Pampanga, Laguna, Quezon, PALAWAN. Forest edges, along streams and rivers.
  22. Blumea vanoverberghii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 105; EPFP 3 (1923) 605; --Mattf., Bot.Jahrb. (1929) 420; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 216. Philippines, New Guinea. LUZON: Mountain Province. On slopes, c. 1300m.
  23. Blumea virens Wall. ex DC. in Wight, Contrib. Bot. Ind. (1834) 14; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 605; --Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 36; --Type: from India. Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, La Union, Benguet, Pangasinan, Zambales, Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal, Batangas, CULION, GUIMARAS, MINDANAO. Thickets and open forests along small streams at low and medium elevation. Conservation status: Least Concern (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016).

Doubtful species: 

  1. Blumea appendiculata DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 447; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 601; --Pornpongrungrueng et al., Kew Bull. 76:1 (2016) 37; --Conyza appendiculata Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 15 (1826) 895, nom. illeg., auct. non Lam. --Type: from Java. Potentially a synonym of Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. (Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2016).
  2. Blumea confertiflora Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 254; EPFP 3 (1923) 602; --Type: FB 11027, Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental prov., Mar-1908. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (Mt Sablayan). Exposed peaks and ridges, c. 970m.
  3. Blumea incisa (Elmer) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 395; EPFP 3 (1923) 602; --Pluchea incisa Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 358; --Type: Elmer 8936, Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Sto Tomas (near Baguio), c. 2200m, Mar-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Mossy forests, 2000-2200m.
  4. Blumea longipes Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 255; EPFP 3 (1923) 603; --Type: M.S. Clemens 893, Mindanao: Lanao del Sur prov., Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Jan-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley). Open grasslands or thickets about Lake Lanao, c. 650m.
  5. Blumea mindanaensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 256; EPFP 3 (1923) 603; --Type: M.S. Clemens 736, Mindanao: Lanao del Sur prov., Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Nov-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley). Open grasslands or thickets about Lake Lanao, c. 650m.

Possibly present:

  1. Blumea bullata J.Kost., Blumea 4 (1941) 489. Java, Vietnam, ?Philippines. ?CEBU. Note by P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (3-Oct-20): Possibly represented by Bicknell 711 (L).

Carpesium L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 2 October 2020

No Photos
  1. Carpesium cernuum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 859; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 609; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 397; --Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 10-3;--J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 251; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 893. Borneo, Continental Asia, Europe, Japan, Java, Sumatra, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Open sites and light forest in the montane zone, 1800-2400m.

Possibly present:

  1. Carpesium trachelifolium Less., Linnaea 6 (1831) 233. China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Taiwan, Tibet, ?Philippines. ?LUZON: ?Benguet. Note by P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (2-Oct-20): Possibly represented by Merrill 11700 (L) and BS 5823 Ramos (L).
  2. Carpesium triste Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 19 (1874) 479. China, Japan, Korea, Russia, Taiwan, ?Philippines. ?LUZON: ?Mountain Province. Note by P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (2-Oct-20): Possibly represented by BS 40267 Ramos & Edaño (L).

Carthamus L. [Not native, not naturalized]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 13 August 2020

Photos

  1. Carthamus tinctorius L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 830; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 620. --Carthamus dentatus auct. non Vahl; --Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 616. Widely cultivated throughout the World. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated. Photos

Centipeda Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 October 2017

No Photos
  1. Centipeda minima (L.) A.Braun & Asch., Ind. Sem. Hort. Berol. (1867) App. 6; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 473; EPFP 3 (1923) 615; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 898; --Artemisia minima L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 849. Madagascar, S, SE and E Asia, Malesia, Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Fiji, Samoa. LUZON: Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Rizal, Laguna, MINDANAO: Lanao. Low and medium elevation, open waste places, rice paddies, etc.

Centratherum Cass. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 28 August 2020

No Photos
  1. Centratherum punctatum Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat., ed. 2. 7 (1817) 384; --Loeuille et al, Phytotaxa 398 (2019) 28; --Type: from Panama. --Centratherum fruticosum S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1886) 159; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 592; --Type: S. Vidal y Soler 1502 (MA, lecto; A, PNH lost, isolecto), Luzon: Mountain Prov, Lepanto Distr.  Africa, America, Australia, Hong Kong, India, New Guinea, Pacific, Peninsular Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Bataan, Rizal. Forest edges, thickets and clearings, chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 2000m. Not native to the Philippines.

Chromolaena DC. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 July 2017

Photos

  1. Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Rob., Phytologia 20 (1970) 204; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 901; --Eupatorium odoratum L., Syst. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 1205. Native of the Neotropics, escaped and naturalized in Asia. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Photos

Chrysanthemum L. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 November 2020

Photos
  1. Chrysanthemum indicum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 889; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 474; EPFP 3 (1923) 615; --Dendranthema indica (L.) Des Moul., Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 10 (1855) 561; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 929. India, China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, Russia. Widely cultivated for ornamental and medicinal purposes in the Philippines. Apparently established in some high elevation areas like the Cordillera highlands of N Luzon.
  2. Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., J. Hist. Nat. 2 (1792) 240; --L.H.Bailey, Gent. Herb. 1 (1923) 131; --Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 247. --Dendranthema grandiflora (Ramat.) Kitam., Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 29 (1978) 165. --Chrysanthemum sinense Sabine, Trans. Linn. Soc. 14 (1825) 145; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 475; EPFP 3 (1923) 615. Native of China. Cultivated for ornamental purposes in the Philippines, not naturalized.

Cirsium Mill.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 October 2020

Photos

  1. Cirsium luzoniense Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 399; EPFP 3 (1923) 620; --Type: R.S. Williams 1981 (NY 3 sheets, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Sto Tomas, 30-Nov-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Ifugao, Benguet, Laguna-Quezon, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur. High montane exposed sites, 1800-2500m. Photos

Conyza L. = Erigeron

Cosmos Cav. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 2 October 2020

Photos

  1. Cosmos caudatus Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (1820) 240; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 478; EPFP 3 (1923) 614. Native of tropical America (Mexico), now pantropical in distribution. Throughout the Philippines at low and medium elevation, a common weed in open waste places, fallow lands, etc. Invasive species (CABI 2017).
  2. Cosmos sulphureus Cav., Icon. 1 (1791) 56; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 614. Native of Mexico. Throughout the Philippines although less common than the preceding species. Lowlands and medium elevation, in open grasslands, thicket edges, etc.

Possibly present:

  1. Cosmos steenisiae Veldkamp, Blumea, 35 (1991) 479. Native to Central and South America. Possibly cultivated or naturalized in the Philippines. ?LUZON: ?Bataan, ?Camarines, ?Rizal, ?MINDANAO: ?Bukidnon, ?Zamboanga del Norte. Note by P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (2-Oct-20): Possibly represented by FB 3383 Ahern's collector (US), Frake 36276 (US), Merrill 1562 (US), Merrill 3367 (US), and Santos 5007 (L, US).

Crassocephalum Moench [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 October 2017

Photos
  1. Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S.Moore, J. Bot. 50 London (1912) 211; --J.Kost., Blumea 26 (1980) 237; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 922; --Gynura crepidioides Benth., Niger Fl. (1849) 438. Native of tropical Africa, widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics. Throughout the Philippines, generally at low to medium elevation. Common roadside weed, in waste places, abandoned cultivation, forest clearings, etc. Photos

Crepidiastrum Nakai

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 October 2017

Photos
  1. Crepidiastrum lanceolatum (Houtt.) Nakai, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 34 (1920) 150; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 53; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 924; --Prenanthes lanceolata Houtt., Handl. Pl.-Kruidk. x. (1779) 383. Japan to S Korea, China, Taiwan, N Philippines. BATAN. On littoral rocky cliff, locally frequent. Photos

Crossostephium Less.

Photos
  1. Crossostephium chinense (L.) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 20 (1906) 33; --Merr., PJS 15 (1919) 260; EPFP 3 (1923) 616; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 927; -- Artemisia chinense L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 849. --Crossostephium artemisioides Less. ex Cham. & Schltr., Linnaea 6 (1831) 220; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 471. Ryukyus, S China, Taiwan, Lanyu, N Philippines. BATANES: ITBAYAT (Lopez s.n.). Open slopes near the sea. In the Philippines this is otherwise grown in flowerpots only. Photos

Cyanthilium Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 August 2020

Photos
  1. Cyanthillium cinereum (L.) H.Rob., Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 103 (1990) 252; --Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less., Linnaea 4 (1829) 291; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 466; EPFP 3 (1923) 592; --J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 407, as 'var. typica'; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1086; --Conyza cinerea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 862. --Vernonia cinerea var. parviflora (Reinw. ex Blume) DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 24; --J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 412; --Vernonia parviflora Reinw. ex Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 15 (1826) 893. Pantropical. Throughout the Philippines at low and medium elevation, a common weed in settlements, along roadsides, cultivated lands, open wastelands, etc. Photos
  2. Cyanthillium patulum (Dryand. ex Dryand.) H.Rob., Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 103 (1990) 252; --Bunwong et al., PhytoKeys 37 (2014) 66; --Vernonia patula (Dryand. ex Dryand.) Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 439; Fl. Manila (1912) 466; EPFP 3 (1923) 594; --J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 430, as ‘var. typica’; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1091; --Conyza patula Dryand. ex Dryand., Hort. Kew 3 (1789) 184. --Vernonia patula var. multiflora J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 435. China, India, Java, Laos, Myanmar, New Guinea, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Taiwan, Philippines. Throughout the Philippines at low and medium elevation, a common weed in settlements, along roadsides, cultivated lands, open wastelands, etc. Photos

Decaneuropsis H.Rob. & Skvarla

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 13 August 2020

Photos
  1. Decaneuropsis obovata (Gaudich.) H.Rob. & Skvarla, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 120 (2007) 365; --Gymnanthemum obovatum Gaudich., Voy. Uranie (1830) 471. --Vernonia cuneata Less., Linnaea 6 (1831) 644; --Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 114; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 92; --J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 447. --Vernonia lenticellata Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 91; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 593; --Type: Elmer 6564 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Sto Tomas, near the summit, c. 2200m, Jun-1904. --Vernonia pyrrhopappa Sch.Bip. ex Klatt, Flora 68 (1885) 203; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 595. --Vernonia villarii Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2593; --Type: Elmer 13171, Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), in woods of the forested ridge at 250ft, May-1911. Philippines, Moluccas, LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Mossy forests, c. 2200m (as Vernonia lenticellata). BUSUANGA, PALAWAN, BALABAC, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Misamis. Low and medium elevation forests (as Vernonia pyrrhopappa). Photos
  2. Decaneuropsis philippinensis (Rolfe) H.Rob. & Skvarla, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 120 (2007) 365; --Vernonia philippinensis Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 312; --S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 121; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 160; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 89; --Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 393; EPFP 3 (1923) 594; --Vernonia cumingiana auct. non Benth.; --Benth., Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 4 (1852) 232 (p.p., see Robinson & Skvarla 2007); --Bunwong et al., PhytoKeys 37 (2014) 68 (p.p.); --Type: Cuming 1092 (G, K, P, syn), Luzon: Albay prov. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna. Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1000m.

Dendranthema (DC.) Des Moul. = Chrysanthemum

Dichrocephala L’Hér. ex DC.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 October 2017

Photos
  1. Dichrocephala chrysanthemifolia (Blume) DC. in Guill., Arch. Bot. 2 (1833) 518; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 599; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 381; --Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 11-2; --Cotula chrysanthemifolia Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 15 (1826) 918. Tropical Africa, Socotra, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali; Lombok; Timor), Philippines, Sulawesi, New Guinea. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. 1800-2200m. In pine forests, grassy slopes, along trails and roadsides. 
  2. Dichrocephala integrifolia (L.f.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 333; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 933; --Hippia integrifolia L.f., Suppl. Pl. (1782) 389. --Dichrocephala bicolor (Roth) Schltr., Linnaea 25 (1852) 209; --J.Kost., Nova Guinea, Bot. 24 (1966) 594; --Cotula bicolor Roth, Catal. Bot. 2 (1800) 116. --Dichrocephala latifolia (Lam.) DC. in Guill., Arch. Bot. 2 (1833) 518; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 599. Tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia, incl. Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, MINDORO, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Lanao. Chiefly at and above 900m, ascending to 2200m, along mountain trails, old clearings and open sites. Photos

Eclipta L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2019

Photos
  1. Eclipta angustata Umemoto & H.Koyama, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 35 (2007) 114; --Type: from Thailand. Borneo, China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Nepal, Ryukyu Isls, Singapore, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON: Laguna.
  2. Eclipta prostrata (L.) L., Mantissa (1771) 286; --J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 273; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 935; --Umemoto & H.Koyama, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 35 (2007) 111; --Verbesina prostrata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 902. --Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1881) 528; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 476; EPFP 3 (1923) 610; --Verbesina alba L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 902. --Eclipta zippeliana Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 914; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 476; EPFP 3 (1923) 611; --Pancho & Obien, Manual Weeds Tobacco Faros Philip. (1983) 177; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 937; --Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. var. zippeliana (Blume) J.Kost., in Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Jav. 2 (1965) 402.--Eclipta philippinensis Gand., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 65 (1918) 40; --Type: Cuming 2436 (syn), Philippines. Warmer regions of the world. Not native to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan, Rizal, Laguna, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Throughout the Philippines in the lowlands generally, ascending to 1600m. Common in water-logged or semi-aquatic habitats such as edges of muddy pools, canals, and rice paddies. Photos 

Elephantopus L. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 July 2017

Photos
  1. Elephantopus mollis Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (1820) 26; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 468; EPFP 3 (1923) 595; --J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 464 (nec syn. E. tomentosi L., fide Philipson, J. Bot. (1939) 14); --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 938. Native of tropical America, now pantropical in distribution. Throughout the Philippines from the lowlands to 2000m. A common weed in grasslands and other exposed sites. Invasive species (CABI 2017).
  2. Elephantopus scaber L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 814; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 468; EPFP 3 (1923) 596; --J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 457, as ‘var. typicus’; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 938. Pantropical and subtropical. Certainly a naturalized weed in the Philippines, common in lowland grasslands and waste places. Photos
  3. Elephantopus tomentosus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 814; --J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 464. Native to America. Naturalized. Photos

Emilia Cass.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 May 2018

Photos

  1. Emilia pinnatifida Merr., PJS 1 (1906) suppl. 243; EPFP 3 (1923) 619; --Type: Merrill 4664 (US, syn), Luzon: Benguet prov., Buguias, Oct/Nov-1905; --Merrill 4265 (US, syn), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, Oct/Nov-1905. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Grassy understorey of pine forests, 1300-2000m.
  2. Emilia prenanthoidea DC., Prodr. 6 (1837) 303; --J.Kost., Blumea 26 (1980) 239. India, China, Sumatra, Philippines, New Guinea. Philippines.
  3. Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC., Prodr. 6 (1837) 302; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 467; EPFP 3 (1923) 620; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 940; --Cacalia sonchifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 835.
    • var. sonchifolia. Pantropic weed of Old World origin (E Asia, Malesia to E Polynesia). Throughout the Philippines, chieflly at low to medium elevation, ascending to c. 1500m. Common in about towns and settlements, along open grassy sites, trails, rice paddy fallows, lawns, etc.
    • var. javanica (Burm.f.) Mattf., Bot. Jahrb. 62 (1929) 445; Nova Guinea 14, Bot. (1928) 529; --J.Kost., Blumea 26 (1980) 239; --Emilia javanica (Burm.f.) C.B.Rob., PJS 3 (1908) Bot. 217; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 619; --Hieracium javanicum Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 174; --Type: from Java. --Emilia marivelensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 362; --Type: Merrill 3282 (US, iso?), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Oct-1903. India to Malesia. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Bataan, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao, Misamis Occidental, Cotabato. Chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 2000m, in exposed sites. Photos

Enydra Lour. [Not native]

No Photos
  1. Enydra fluctuans Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 511; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 610. Tropical Africa and Asia to Malaya. Reportedly an introduced plant in the Philippines (possibly no longer persisting?). LUZON: Rizal (Merrill 11204). Occasional along the banks of small streams in and about Manila. 

Epaltes Cass. = Sphaeromorphaea (Philippines)

Erechtites Raf. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 October 2017

Photos
  1. Erechtites valerianifolius (Link ex Spreng.) DC., Prodr. 6 (1837) 295; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 617; -- Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 944, Photo 447; --Senecio valerianifolius Link ex Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3 (1826) 565. Native of South America. LUZON: Sotrsogon, CATANDUANES, NEGROS, SAMAR, MINDANAO, BALUT, BUCAS GRANDE. Old clearings at low and medium elevation, often abundant. Photos

Erigeron L. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & Jerby Anne Basilio, 21 April 2021

Photos

  1. Erigeron bellioides DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 288. Native to the Caribbean. Not native to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna (photos). Naturalized weed along roadside in village. Photos
  2. Erigeron sumatrensis Retz., Obs. 5 (1789) 28; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 600; --Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) Walker, J. Jap. Bot. 46 (1971) 72; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 919. --Erigeron linifolius auct. non Willd.; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 474. Native of South America, early established in Sumatra. Now pantropic in distribution. Not native to the Philippines.
    • var. sumatrensis. --Erigeron bonariensis auct. non (L.) Cronquist. Throughout the Philippines, lowlands to c. 2000m, in open waste places, old clearings, etc. Often abundant. Note by P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (3-Oct-20): the name Erigeron bonariensis has been commonly misapplied to this taxon (Pruski & Sancho 2006). Photos

Eschenbachia Moench

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 August 2019

No Photos
  1. Eschenbachia japonica (Thunb.) J.Kost., Blumea 7 (1952) 290; --Erigeron japonicus Thunb., Syst. Veg., ed. 14 (1784) 754; --Conyza japonica (Thunb.) Less., Syn. Comp. (1832) 204; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 601; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 918. Afghanistan, India (Himalayas, Khasya Mtns) China, Japan, Taiwan, N Vietnam, Thailand, across Malesia to New Guinea. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Montane sites at 1200-2400m, in open sunny places, grasslands, along foot trails, pine forest, etc.
  2. Eschenbachia leucantha (D.Don) Brouillet, Fl. China 20-21 (2011) 556; --Erigeron leucanthus D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 171; --Conyza leucantha (D.Don) Ludlow & Raven, Kew Bull. 17 (1963) 71; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 918. --Conyza viscidula Wall. ex DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 383; --Wall., Cat. (1831) No. 3006, nom. nud.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 601. India, Thailand, S China, Taiwan, Ryukyus, Java, Philippines, Australia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Bulacan, Rizal, PANAY. Lowlands to 1800m, in old clearings, thickets and foot trail in open forests.

Ethulia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 August 2019

No Photos
  1. Ethulia luzonica M.G.Gilbert, Kew Bull. 43 (1988) 189; --Type: Merrill 11703 (K, holo; BM, L, iso), Luzon: Benguet Prov, Mt Santo Tomas, Dec-1922. --Ethulia conyzoides auct. non L.f. ex L.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 591; --J.Kost., Nova Guinea, Botany 24 (1966) 499. --Ethulia megacephala auct. non Sch.Bip. ex Miq.; --J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 373. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Montane thickets in stream depressions, also in the mossy forests, 1300-2300m.

Euchiton Cass.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 August 2020

Photos

  1. Euchiton japonicus (Thunb.) Holub, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 9 (1974) 271; --Flann, Australian Syst. Bot. 23 (2010) 301; --Gnaphalium japonicum Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 311; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 608; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 394; --Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 10-5; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 977. --Euchiton collinus Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat., ed. 2. 56 (1828) 216. --Gnaphalium oblancifolium Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 123; --Type: Elmer 6568, Luzon: Benguet Prov., Santo Tomas, 1903. Australia, China, Japan, Korea, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand, Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, Quezon, Zambales. Montane meadows and open slopes, 1500-2400m. Photos

Possibly present:

  1. Euchiton sphaericus (Willd.) Holub, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 9 (1974) 271; --Gnaphalium sphaericum Willd., Enum. Pl. 2 (1809) 868. --Gnaphalium involucratum Forst. var. simplex DC., Prodr. 6 (1838) 236; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 976. Australia, Java, New Zealand, Taiwan, ?Philippines. Note by P.B. Pelser (12-Aug-20): Euchiton sphaericus is not reported for the Philippines by Flann (2010). Chen & Bayer in Chen et al. (2011) use a broader delimitation of Euchiton involucratus (G.Forst.) Holub (as Gnaphalium involucratum) than Flann (2010), which includes Euchiton sphaericus (as Gnaphalium sphaericum) and report that this taxon is present in the Philippines. However, Flann (2010) does not list Euchiton involucratus for the Philippines either.

Eupatorium L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 August 2019

Photos

  1. Eupatorium benguetense C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) 217; --Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 393. Endemic to Philippines.
  2. Eupatorium camiguinense Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 355; EPFP 3 (1923) 597; --Type: BS 14688 Ramos, Camiguin: Camiguin prov., Mt Mahinog, 11-Apr-1912. --Eupatorium catense Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2584; --Type: Elmer 11506 (BISH, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, scandent among small trees along the Cati Creek above the falls at 5750ft, Aug-1909. CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Davao. Medium elevation thickets and forests, ascending to 1700m. Endemic to Philippines.
  3. Eupatorium formosanum Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 25 Art. 19 (1908) 122.  --Eupatorium cannabinum ssp. asiaticum Kitam., Acta Phytotax. et Geobot. 19 (1961) 16; Acta Phytotax. et Geobot. 32 (1981) 139. --Eupatorium formosanum Hayata var. quasitripartitum (Hayata) Kitamura, Acta Phytotax. et Geobot. 1 (1932) 284; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 53; --Eupatorium quasitripartitum Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 8 (1919) 44. --Eupatorium japonicum auct. non Thunb.; --Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 355; EPFP 3 (1923) 597. --Eupatorium reevesii auct. non Wall.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 597. Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Philippines. BATAN, SABTAN, LUZON: Tayabas (E coast). Lowland thickets, hill grasslands, boulders on the seashore.
  4. Eupatorium leonardii Ferreras & E.E.Lamont, Brittonia 64 (2012) 368; --Type: Ferreras 426 (PNH, holo; US, NY, UC, PUH, iso), Luzon: Aurora, Central Sierra Madre Mountains, Mt. Mingan. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora. Photos
  5. Eupatorium lindleyanum DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 180; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 597; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 960. China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, N Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya. Low and medium elevation in open damp places.
  6. Eupatorium nodiflorum Wall., Cat. (1828) 3166 comp. 276; --J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 494. Bangladesh, Assam, Himalayas, Thailand, Vietnam, China, Philippines, Lombok. LUZON.
  7. Eupatorium sambucifolium Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 102. Endemic to the Philippines.
  8. Eupatorium toppingianum Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 101; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 597; --J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 500. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Zambales, Laguna, NEGROS. Stream depression thickets, mossy forest clearings, mountain meadows, 1300-2400m.

Fenixia Merr. [Endemic to the Philippines]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 May 2018

No Photos
  1. Fenixia pauciflora Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 119; EPFP 3 (1923) 611; --Type: BS 26036 Fenix (L, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Bukidnon prov., Gaboc, vicinity of Tanculan, damp rocky hillsides associated especially with Begonia, 13-Jul-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Damp rocky slopes at medium elevation. 

Galinsoga Ruiz & Pav. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 November 2020

Photos
  1. Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Icon. Descr. Pl. 3 (1795) 41;--Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 368; --Canne, Rhodora 79 (1977) 373; --J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 267; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 967. Native of tropical America now widely distributed in the temperate, subtemperate and tropical regions of the world. LUZON: Benguet and Mountain Province, 1200-2400m. Very common weed in the temperate vegetable areas. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Photos
  2. Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav., Syst. Veg. Fl. Peruv. Chil. 1 (1798) 198; --Canne, Rhodora 79 (1977) 355; --Type: from Peru. --Galinsoga ciliata S.F.Blake, Rhodora 24 (1922) 35. Native to Mexico, naturalized elsewhere. LUZON: Benguet. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Photos

Glebionis Cass. [Not native, not naturalized?]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 July 2017

Photos
  1. Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass. ex Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég. (Spach) 10 (1841) 181; --Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 890; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 475; EPFP 3 (1923) 615. Europe to SE Asia. Cultivated in the Philippines. Not naturalized? Photos

Glossocardia Cass.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 May 2018

Photos
  1. Glossocardia bidens (Retz.) Veldk., Blumea 35 (1991) 468; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 971; --Zinnia bidens Retz., Obs. Bot. 5 (1788) 28. --Glossogyne tenuifolia Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 51 (1827) 475; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 613 (excl. syn. Bidens tridentata & Glossogyne tridentata); --J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 256. S Asia, Taiwan, Australia, New Caledonia. Photos
  2. Glossocardia tridentata (Turcz.) Veldk., Blumea 35 (1991) 478; --Guerreroia tridentata (Turcz.) Steen., Blumea 30 (1985) 429; --Bidens tridentata Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 24 (1851) 183; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 613. --Guerreroia monocephala Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 118; EPFP 3 (1923) 613. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Photos

Glossogyne Cass. = Glossocardia

Gnaphalium L. = Pseudognaphalium [Philippine species]

Grangea Adans. [Not native]

No Photos
  1. Grangea maderaspatana (L.) Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Suppl. 2 (1812) 825; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 471; EPFP 3 (1923) 599; --Soejima & Peng in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 982; --Artemisia maderaspatana L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 849. Africa, India, Indochina, Taiwan, Java, Philippines. LUZON: La Union, Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal. An occasional weed in open waste places in and about towns, certainly introduced. 

Guerreroia Merr. = Glossocardia tridentata

Gynura Cass.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser 21 May 2018

Photos

  1. Gynura aurantiaca (Blume) DC., Prodr. (DC.) 6 (1838) 300; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 425; --Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 12-3. Sri Lanka, India, China, Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi. Not native to the Philippines. Photos
  2. Gynura elliptica Y.Yabe & Hayata ex Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Tokyo 18, no. 8 (1904) 25; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 617; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 984; --Type: from Taiwan. Taiwan, Philippines. BATAN, SABTAN. Old fields, low elevation.
  3. Gynura japonica (Thunb.) Juel., Acta Horti Berg. 1 (1891) 86; --Senecio japonicus Thunb. in Murray, Syst.Veg. (1784) 315; --Type: from Japan. --Gynura segetum Lour. ex Merr., PJS 15 (1919) 260; --Type: from China. China, Japan, Taiwan, Nepal, Philippines.
  4. Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 618; --Cacalia procumbens Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 485. --Cacalia sarracenia Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 618. --Gynura affinis Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 24, 1 (1851) 201; --Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 120; --Type: Cumming 926 (K, holo, iso), Luzon: Albay. --Gynura angulosa auct. non (Wall) DC.; --Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 119. --Gynura agusanensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2585; --Type: Elmer 13864 (BISH, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Sep-1912. --Gynura clementis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 244; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 145; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 617; --Type: Clemens 49 (PNH, holo), Mindanao: Lake Lanao, Camp Keithy. --Gynura latifolia (S.Moore) Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 145; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 617; --Crassocephalum latifolium S.Moore, J. Bot. 43 (1905) 138; --Type: Whitehead s.n. (BM, holo), Negros. --Gynura piperi Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 355; EPFP 3 (1923) 617; --Type: Piper 384 (K. holo), Siquijor. --Gynura sarmentosa (Blume) DC., Prodr. 6 (1837) 298; --Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 120; --S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 163; Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 122; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 146; --Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 127; --Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 381; --Cacalia sarmentosa Lesch. ex Blume, Bijdr. 15 (1826) 907. --Gynura scabra Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 24, 1 (1851) 201; --Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 120; --Type: Cumming 1638 (K, holo), Panay. --Senecio cacaliaster Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 441; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 24, nom. illeg., auct. non Lam. --Senecio mindorensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 155; --Type: Elmer 5936 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Sto Tomas, Mar-1904. Tropical west Africa, India, China, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea. N LUZON (Cagayan) to MINDANAO, in most islands and provinces. Photos 
  5. Gynura rubiginosa (Elmer) J.R.Drummond ex Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 127; EPFP 3 (1923) 618; --Senecio rubiginosus Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 154; --Type: Elmer 6246 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Sto Tomas, May-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Damp thickets, 1600-2000m.
  6. Gynura vidaliana Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 144; J.R.Drummond ex Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 127; --Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 398; EPFP 3 (1923) 618; --Type: Merrill 3937 (NY, iso), Luzon: Pampanga prov., Mt Arayat, Oct-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
    • var. vidaliana. --Gynura purpurascens S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 164, nom. illeg., auct. non DC. --Gynura macgregorii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 398; EPFP 3 (1923) 617; --Type: McGregor PNH 8381 (K, lecto). LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya. Mossy forests, 2000-2500m. --Gynura acuminatissima Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 121; EPFP 3 (1923) 617; --Type: BS 26556 Ramos & Edaño (K, holo; L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Aurora prov., Mt Dingalan, Aug/Sep-1916; --Gynura subglabra Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 120; EPFP 3 (1923) 618; --Type: BS 27023 Ramos (K, holo; NY, US, iso), Luzon: Abra prov., Mt Posuey, Feb-1917. Endemic to Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Kalinga, Mountain Province, Benguet, Zambales, Pampanga (Mt Arayat), Aurora (Mt Dingalan), Batangas, PALAWAN. Mossy forest, damp thickets and forests, 750-2500m.
    • var. apoensis (Elmer) F.G.Davies, Kew Bull. 35 (1981) 732; --Gynura apoensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2587; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 617; --Type: Elmer 11584 (L, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, Aug-1909. Endemic to Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. c. 1800m, along streams. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN.

Helianthus L. [Not native, not naturalized]

Photos
  1. Helianthus annuus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 904; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 476; EPFP 3 (1923) 612. Native of tropical America, now planted in all warm countries. Cultivated here and there for ornamental purposes but nowhere established. Sunflower. Photos

Ixeridium (A.Gray) Tzvelev

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 29 August 2020

Photos
  1. Ixeridium laevigatum (Blume) Pak & Kawano, Mem. Fac. Sci. Kyoto Univ., Ser. Biol. 15 (1992) 45; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 993; --Lactuca laevigata (Blume) DC., Prodr. 7 (1838) 140; --J.Kost., Blumea 23 (1976) 169; --Ixeris laevigata (Blume) Yamamoto, J. Soc. Trop. Agric. Taiwan 8 (1936) 353; --Prenanthes laevigata Blume, Bijdr. 2 (1826) 836. --Lactuca luzonica S.Vidal, Revis. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 165; --C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 218; --Type: Vidal 1505 (MA, syn), Luzon: Bontoc; Vidal 1509 (K, syn), Vidal 1511 (syn), Luzon: Lepanto; Cuming 1642 (K, syn), Panay. --Lactuca laevigata (Blume) DC. var. exciso-dentata J.Kost., Blumea 23 (1976) 174. --Lactuca dentata auct. non (Thunb.) C.B.Rob.; --C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 218; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 621, pro parte. --Ixeris laevigata (Blume) Sch.Bip. var. oldhamii (Maxim.) Kitam., Mem. Coll. Sci. Univ. Kyoto, ser. B, 281, Art. 14 (1956) (Compos. Jap. 5) 111; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 54; --Lactuca oldhamii Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 19 (1874) 532. Cambodia, China, Japan, Laos, New Guinea, Pakistan, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philipines. BATANES, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Apayao, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Pampanga, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Albay, MINDORO, NEGROS, MINDANAO, PANAY. Chielfly along shaded streams at medium elevation, ascending to 2000m. Photos

Ixeris Cass.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 May 2018

Photos

  1. Ixeris integra (Merr.) Stebbins, J. Bot. 75 (1937) 50; --Lactuca integra Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 475; EPFP 3 (1923) 622; --Type: BS 26586 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Aurora prov., Dingalan, on rocks along the seashore, 24-Aug-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora.

Lactuca L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 June 2015

Photos

  1. Lactuca indica L., Mant. 2 (1771) 278; --Pterocypsela indica (L.) C.Shih, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 26 (1988) 387; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1043;  --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 621. --Lactuca brevirostris Champ. in Hook., J. Bot. Kew Miscell. 4 (1852) 237; --Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 120; --S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 165; Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 122; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 182. --Lactuca squarrosa Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1864) 189; --Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) 442. India, Indochina, S China, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, Japan, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines, New Guinea. BATANES, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Laguna, Quezon, ALABAT, MINDORO, PANAY. Chiefly at medium elevation, occasionally at sea level or ascending to 1500m. Grassy hillsides, open waste places along trails and streams, old clearings and garden regrowths, etc. Photos
  2. Lactuca sativa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 795; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 479; EPFP 3 (1923) 622. Cultivated for food, but nowhere established. Lettuce. Not native.

Lagenophora Cass.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 December 2019

 Photos

  1. Lagenophora stipitata (Labill.) Druce, Rep. Bot. Exch. Cl. Brit. Isl. (1917) 630; --Cabrera, Blumea 14 (1966) 301; --Bellis stipitata Labill., Nov. Holl. Pl. 2 (1806) 55. --Lagenophora billardieri Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 25 (1826) 111; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 599. Photos
    • var. stipitata. India to China, Papua, SE Australia, Tasmania, Philippines. LUZON: Bontoc, Benguet, Zambales (photos). On open grassy slopes and in thin pine forests, 1400-1700 m.

Laggera Sch.Bip.

Photos
  1. Laggera alata (D.Don) Sch.Bip. ex Oliver, Trans. Linn. Soc. 39 (1873) 94; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 606; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 390; --Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 11-6; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1006; --Erigeron alatum D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 171. South and tropical Africa and the Comoros to SE Asia, N Sumatra (Aceh; Toba Lands), Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali; Lombok; Sumba; Sumbawa), N Philippines, Sulawesi, New Caledonia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Ecija (photos by Leonardo Cristobal Udasco), Rizal. Chiefly in medium elevation grasslands, ascending to 1500m. Photos

Laphangium (Hilliard & B.L.Burtt) Tzvelev

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 12 August 2020

Photos
  1. Laphangium luteoalbum (L.) Tzvelev, Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol. 98 (1994) 105; --Helichrysum luteoalbum (L.) Rchb., Handb. Gewächsk., ed. 2. 2 (1829) 1460; --Gnaphalium luteoalbum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 851; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 609; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 394; --Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 10-7 & 8; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 977. --Laphangium affine (D.Don) Tzvelev, Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol. 98 (1994) 105; --Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum ssp. affine (D.Don) Hilliard & B.L.Burtt, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 82 (1981) 206; --Gnaphalium affine D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 173. Europe and Africa to India, China, Taiwan and Japan towards Australia, in Malesia scattered through Philippines and Indonesia. LUZON: Pangasinan, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines. Chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 2400m, along trails, sunny places, talus slopes, etc. Note by P.B. Pelser (12-Aug-20): It is presently unclear if Laphangium it better considered as a synonym of Helichrysum or Pseudognaphalium. Likewise, the delimitation of Laphangium luteoalbum is problematic. Therefore, I have used a broad concept here that includes Laphangium affine, which is reported (as Pseudognaphalium affine) for the Philippines by Chen & Bayer in Chen et al. (2011) instead of Laphangium luteoalbum. Photos

Lipoblepharis Orchard

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 January 2017

No Photos
  1. Lipoblepharis stenophylla (Merr.) Orchard, Nuytsia 23 (2013) 452; --Wedelia stenophylla Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 429; --Type: FB 29751 (PNH, holo, lost; UC, iso), Mindanao: Misamis prov., on the top of Angyar Ridge, c. 400m, 22-Jul-1924. Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines. MINDANAO.

Melampodium L. [Not native]

Photos

  1. Melampodium diffusum Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 59 (1829) 238; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 609. --Melampodium manillense Less., Linnaea 5 (1830) 155. --Melampodium divaricatum auct. non (Rich. ex Rich.) DC.; --Rolfe, J. Bot. 23 (1885) 213; --S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 162; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 161. --Melampodium sericeum auct. non Lag.; --Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 117; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 160. Native of Mexico. Naturalized in the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Cavite, Laguna. Open dry sandy soil in and about towns.

Melanthera Rohr = Wollastonia (Philippine species)

Merrittia Merr. = Blumea

Microglossa DC.

No Photos
  1. Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 1 (1891) 353; --J.Kost., Nova Guinea, Bot. 24 (1966) 558; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1014; --Conyza pyrifolia Lam., Encycl. 2 (1786) 89. --Microglossa volubilis (Wall.) DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 320; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 600; --Conyza volubilis Wall., Cat. (1831) 3057, nomen nud. Tropical Africa, Madagascar, Comoros, India, Myanmar, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines, New Guinea. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, NEGROS, MINDANAO. Chiefly medium elevation thickets, ascending to 1500m.

Mikania Willd. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 October 2017

Photos
  1. Mikania cordata (Burm.f.) B.L.Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 104 (1934) 65; --J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 504; --Eupatorium cordatum Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 176. --Mikania scandens auct. non (L.) Willd.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 598. Photos
    • forma undulata J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 506. Native of tropical America, now pantropic in distribution. Throughout the Philippines in all islands and provinces. Very common in lowland and medium elevation thickets, ascending to 1600m.
    • forma villosa J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 509.
  2. Mikania micrantha Kunth in Humb., Bonpl., & Kunth, Nov. Gen. 4 (1820) 134; --J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 510; Nova Guinea, Bot. 24 (1966) 522. Tropical America. Introduced to Fiji, Marianas, Solomon Isls, New Britain, New Guinea, Philippines.

Myriactis Less.

Photos
  1. Myriactis humilis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 244; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 394; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 129; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 600; --Soejima & Peng in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1017. Taiwan, Philippines, Borneo, New Guinea. LUZON: Benguet, Quezon (Mt Banahaw), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon), NEGROS. Photos
  2. Myriactis mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2589; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 600; -- J.Kost., Nova Guinea, Bot. 24 (1966) 610; --Type: Elmer 11507 (BISH, L, NY, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, upon water-soaked moss-covered rocks strewn along the Cati creek at 5750ft of the east to northeastern side of Mt Apo, Aug-1909. Borneo (Sabah: Mt Kinabalu), S Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea. MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental (Mt Malindang), Davao (Mt Apo). Photos

Pluchea Cass.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 3 October 2020

Photos

  1. Pluchea indica (L.) Less., Linnaea 6 (1831) 150; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 471; EPFP 3 (1923) 606; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1036; --Baccharis indica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 861. --Pluchea scabrida DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 453; --Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 116; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 106; --Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 309; EPFP 3 (1923) 606; --Type: Haenke s.n. (?G-DC). India, Thailand, Indochina, S China, Taiwan, Japan, across Malesia, N Australia, Hawaii. N LUZON to MINDANAO. Along the seashore, common in littoral sites such as mangroves, brackish swamps, and tidal flats. Occasionally more inlands. Photos

Possibly present:

  1. Pluchea pteropoda Hemsl. ex F.B.Forbes & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 23 (1888) 422. Cambodia, China, Laos, Taiwan, Vietnam, ?Philippines. ?LUZON: ?Ilocos Norte. Note by P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (3-Oct-20): Possibly represented by BS 27487 Ramos (L).

Pseudelephantopus Rohr [Not native]

Photos
  1. Pseudelephantopus spicatus (Juss.) Rohr, Skrivt. Nat. Selsk. Kiob. 2 (1792) 213; --J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 465; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1041; --Elephantopus spicatus Juss. in Aubl., Pl. Guin. 2 (1775) 808; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 469; EPFP 3 (1923) 596. Native of South America, introduced and naturalized in Asia. Common throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces. Lowland waste places and settlements generally. Photos

Pseudognaphalium Kirp.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 October 2019

Photos

  1. Pseudognaphalium adnatum (Wall. ex DC.) Y.S.Chen, Fl. China 20-21 (2011) 816; --Gnaphalium adnatum Wall. ex DC., Prodr. 6 (1838) 274; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 973; --Anaphalis adnata (Wall. ex DC.) DC., Prodr. 6 (1837) 274; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 608. China, India, Indochina, Myanmar, Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Open slopes in pine forests, 1300-2000m.
  2. Pseudognaphalium hypoleucum (DC.) Hilliard & B.L.Burtt, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 82 (1981) 205; --Gnaphalium hypoleucum DC. in Wight, Contrib. Bot. Ind. (1834) 21; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 608; --Peng et al. in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 975. Photos
    • var. hypoleucum. S & SE Asia, China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. 1200-2200m, in open vegetation associated with pine forests, frequently on steep slopes.

Pterocaulon Elliot 

Photos

  1. Pterocaulon redolens (G.Forst. ex Willd.) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 116; --Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 122; EPFP 3 (1923) 607; --Gnaphalium redolens G.Forst., Prodr. (1786) 91. --Pterocaulon cylindrostachyum C.B.Clarke, Comp. Ind. (1786) 98; --Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 116; --S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 122; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 162; --Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 379. --Sphaeranthus elongatus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 636; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 443; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 30. Myanmar to Australia and New Caledonia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Mountain Province, Benguet, Bataan, Batangas, MINDORO. Lowlands and medium elevation, in open waste places. 

Senecio L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 May 2018

Photos
  1. Senecio luzoniensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 245; PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 127; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 399; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 154; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 619; --Type: Merrill 4791 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Suyoc to Pauai, Oct/Nov-1905. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Zambales. High montane thickets, steep slopes and forests, 1800-2600m. Photos
  2. Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 178; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 619; --Peng & Chung in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1056. S Asia, Thailand, Indochina, China, Taiwan, Japan, N Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet. 1300-2200m, in thickets. Photos

Siegesbeckia = Sigesbeckia

Sigesbeckia L.

  1. Sigesbeckia orientalis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 900; --Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 117; --S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 122; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 163; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 162; --Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 411; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 397; EPFP 3 (1923) 610; --J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 274; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1062. Africa to India, SE Asia, China, Taiwan, Japan, Australia. BATANES, LUZON: Abra, Mountain Province, Benguet, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao. Chiefly at medium elevation, ascending to 2100m in the Cordillera highlands of N Luzon. In waste places, fallow fields, etc.

Solidago L.

Photos
  1. Solidago virgaurea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 880; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 126; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 245; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 393; EPFP 3 (1923) 598. Afghanistan, Africa, Continental Asia, Europe, India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan, Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. 1400-2100m, in thin pine forests on grassy slopes. Photos

Sonchus L. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 9 August 2020

Photos
  1. Sonchus oleraceus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 794; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 479; EPFP 3 (1923) 621; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1073. Eurasia, in temperate and subtemperate countries. An introduced plant in the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Laguna, Mountain Province, Rizal. 1200-2400m in the Cordillera highlands of N Luzon, where it thrives as a common weed in temperate vegetable farms, talus slopes, sunny trails and other exposed sites. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Photos
  2. Sonchus wightianus DC., Prodr. 7 (1838) 187; --Boulos, Bot. Not. 126 (1973) 185; --Shi & Kilian, Fl. China 20-21 (2011) 241. --Sonchus arvensis auct. non L.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 621. Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, Hong Kong, India, Java, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON: E Abra, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet. Montane areas at 1000-2400m. Common weed in cultivated lands, thin pine forests, along trails, talus slopes, open waste places, etc. Photos

Sparganophorus Boehm. = Struchium

Sphaeranthus L.

Photos
  1. Sphaeranthus africanus L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 1314; --Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 116; --S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 122; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 162; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 118; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 469; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 379; EPFP 3 (1923) 607; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1073. --Sphaeranthus alatus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 635. --Sphaeranthus indicus auct. non L.; --Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 722; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 29; --Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 116. Tropical Africa and Asia through Malesia and Australia. Throughout the Philippines at low and medium elevation. A weed in open rather damp waste places in and about towns. Photos

Sphaeromorphaea DC.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 November 2019

No Photos
  1. Sphaeromorphaea littoralis (Retz.) A.R.Bean, Austrobaileya 9 (2013) 45; --Artemisia littoralis Retz., Observ. Bot. 5 (1788) 28; --Type: from India. --Sphaeromorphaea russeliana DC., Prodr. 6 (1838) 140. --Cotula quinqueloba Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 626, nom. illeg., auct. non L.f..--Epaltes australis auct. non Less.; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 473; EPFP 3 (1923) 607; --Bean, Austrobaileya 9 (2013) 40. Australia, China, India, Malaysia, Marianas, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Lowlands, on fallow rice paddies.

Sphagneticola O.Hoffm.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 October 2017

Photos
  1. Sphagneticola calendulacea (L.) Pruski, Novon 6 (1996) 411; --Verbesina calendulacea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 902. --Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 111; EPFP 3 (1923) 611; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1094; --Solidago chinensis Osbeck, Dagb. Ostind. Resa (1757) 241. India, SE Asia, China, Taiwan, Japan. Paddy ridges, moist grassy fields.
  2. Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski, Fl. St. John (Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 78) (1996) 114; --Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc., Rep. (Annual) Missouri Bot. Gard. 4 (1893) 99; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1097; --Silphium trilobatum L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 2 (1759) 1233. Native of tropical America. Widely cultivated as an ornamental ground cover. Escaping cultivation and fast becoming naturalized in many parts of the Philippines. Photos

Spilanthes Jacq. = Acmella

Strobocalyx (Blume ex DC.) Sch.Bip.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 May 2018

Photos
  1. Strobocalyx arborea (Buch.-Ham.) Sch.Bip., Jahres. Pollichia 18-19 (1861) 171; --Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham., Trans. Linn. Soc. 14 (1825) 218; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 592; --J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 384, as 'var. typica'; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 371; --Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 12-6; --Vernonia florescens Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 685; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 593; --Type: Elmer 11613 (BISH, NY, US), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, in moist humus-covered soil of woods at 3500ft of Mt Calelan, Sep-1909. --Vernonia urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2591; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 595; --Type: Elmer 13634 (BISH, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, woods of the saddle between Duros and Cawilanan peaks at 3500ft, Aug-1912. Tropical SE Asia and throughout Malesia. N LUZON to MINDANAO, in most islands and provinces. Low and medium elevation, ascending to c. 1000m, mostly along forest edges and secondary forests. Photos
  2. Strobocalyx vidalii (Merr.) H.Rob., S.C.Keeley, Skvarla & R.Chan, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 121(1) (2008) 31; --Vernonia vidalii Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 6; PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 138; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 91; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 595. --Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham. var. vestita S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 160, non Vernonia vestita Baker. Myanmar, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya (Bagabag), Zambales, Bataan, Rizal (San Mateo; Tanay), Laguna. Chiefly in secondary forests, sea-level to 1300m.

Struchium P.Browne [Not native]

Photos
  1. Struchium sparganophorum (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 366; --Ethulia sparganophora L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 2 (1763) 1171. --Sparganophorus vaillantii Crantz, Inst. Rei Herb. 1 (1766) 261. Native to tropical America. Photos

Synedrella Gaertn. [Not native]

Photos
  1. Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn., Fruct. 2 (1791) 456; --Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. 404; --Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 118; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 171; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 472; EPFP 3 (1923) 612; --J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 271; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1075; -- Verbesina nodiflora L., Amoen. Acad. 4 (1759) 290. --Blainvillea latifolia auct. non (L.f.) DC.; --Walp., Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 Suppl. 1 (1843) 266; --Ceron, Cat. Pl. Herb. (1892) 102. --Blainvillea rhomboidea auct. non Cass.; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 165. Native of tropical America, now a common pantropic weed. Throughout the Philippines at low and medium elevation, a ubiquitous weed in open waste places. Photos

Tagetes L. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 December 2020

Photos
  1. Tagetes erecta L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 887; --Novis. App. (1880) 119; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 136; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 474; EPFP 3 (1923) 614; --Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 296. Native of Mexico, now pantropical in cultivation. A common ornamental plant in the Philippines. Not native to the Philippines. Naturalized in rice fields. Photos
  2. Tagetes patula L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 887; --Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 632; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 440; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 23; --Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 381; EPFP 3 (1923) 614. Native of Mexico, now widely distributed in cultivation. A common ornamental plant in the Philippines, said to be throughly naturalized in the Cordillera highlands of N Luzon, along streambanks and gravel bars at 1200-1500m elevation. Marigold. Also considered a synonym of Tagetes erecta L. Photos

Taraxacum Weber ex F.H.Wigg. [Not native]

Photos
  1. Taraxacum officinale Weber in Wiggers, Prim. Pl. Holst. (1780) 56; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 621; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1079. Temperate zone weed, native of Eurasia. In the Philippines, thoroughly naturalized in LUZON: Benguet (vicinity of Baguio-La Trinidad), in temperate vegetable gardens, roadsides, lawns, etc., c. 1400m. Photos

Tithonia Desf. ex Juss. [Not native]

Photos
  1. Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A.Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 19 (1883) 5; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 611; --J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 264; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1083; --Mirasolia diversifolia Hemsl., Biol. Centr. Amer., Bot. 2 (1881) 168. Native of Mexico and Central America. Naturalized in many other tropical countries. Invasive species (CABI 2017) Photos

Tridax L. [Not native]

Photos

  1. Tridax procumbens L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 900; --J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 263; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1084. Native of tropical America, now in all warm countries. Thoroughly naturalized in the lowland areas of the Philippines. Photos

Vernonia Schreb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 February 2020

Photos

  1. Vernonia acrophila Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 253; EPFP 3 (1923) 592; --Type: FB 8057 Curran & Merritt (NY, iso), Luzon: Zambales prov., Mt Tapulao (High Peak), in the elfinwood, exposed peaks, above 2000m, 13-Oct-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales (High Peak). Exposed peaks and ridges near the summit, c. 2000m. 
  2. Vernonia apoensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 687; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 592; --Type: Elmer 10764 (BISH, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, in forest at 3750ft, May-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Davao (Mt Apo). In forests, 650-2200m. 
  3. Vernonia benguetensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 94; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 592; --Type: Elmer 6584. China, Thailand, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Ifugao, Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya. Open grasslands up to 1500m. Note by L.L.Co: Similar to some forms of Vernonia cinerea Less., should be in Cyanthilium??
  4. Vernonia bontocensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 473; EPFP 3 (1923) 592; --Type: BS 37752 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Pukis, open slopes, c. 1300m, Mar-1920. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Open slopes, c. 1300m.
  5. Vernonia elmeri Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 252; EPFP 3 (1923) 592; --J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 417; --Type: Merrill 793 (syn). --Gynura angulosa auct. non (Wall.) DC.; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 146, excl. syn. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Nueva Vizcaya, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Davao. Low and medium elevation thickets. Photos
  6. Vernonia fimbrillata J.Kost., Blumea 1 (1935) 401. In the Philippines a specimen has been collected, that seems to be very closely related to [Vernonia fimbrillata]; the involucral scales are not so long-fringed, however, but shortly ciliate along the margin, and subacute, the achenes are densely glandular and glabrous. Borneo, Philippines. LUZON, Mountain Province (Vanoverbergh 689: K, L). A specimen from BUSUANGA (Lopez 41367, L) has leaves with narrow tips (leaves to 5.5 cm broad, 16 cm long); it apparently belongs to the same species.
  7. Vernonia glandulifolia Merr., PJS 14 c (1919) Bot. 456; EPFP 3 (1923) 593; --Type: BS 7490 Ramos. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, PALAWAN. Low and medium elevation. Forested slopes.
  8. Vernonia lancifolia Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 253; EPFP 3 (1923) 593; --Type: R.S. Williams 420 (US, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, 2-Jan-1904. --Vernonia acuminatissima Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3076; --Type: Elmer 18064 (BISH, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., Mt Makiling, Jun/Jul-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Forested ridges, 900-1300m. Photos
  9. Vernonia maritima Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 440; EPFP 3 (1923) 593; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1091. S Taiwan, Xiao Lanyu Is, N Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (photos by Pelser & Barcelona), BATAN. On littoral rocky cliffs. Possibly synonymous with Vernonia zollingeriana Sch.Bip. in Zoll., Syst. Verz. Ind. Arch. (1854) 119 (Koster 1935). Photos
  10. Vernonia mindanaensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 474; EPFP 3 (1923) 594; --Type: BS 38886 Ramos & Edaño, Mindanao: Bukidnon prov., Mt Candoon, damp forest, c. 1000m, Jun-1920. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley), Bukidnon (Mt Candoon). Damp forests, 600-1000m.
  11. Vernonia phanerophlebia Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 106; EPFP 3 (1923) 594; --Type: Vanoverbergh 688, Luzon: Mountain Province, Malamey (Pinggat), in forest, c. 1450m, 23-Jul-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Montane forests, c. 1500m.
  12. Vernonia pulgarensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2590; --Type: Elmer 12948, cited as 12848 in the original protologue (BISH, MO, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, scandent upon small trees on steep rocky soil of forests at 2000ft, 1-Apr-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Primary forests, c. 600m.

Wedelia Jacq. = Lipoblepharis (Philippine species)

Wollastonia DC. ex Decne.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 January 2017

Photos

  1. Wollastonia biflora (L.) DC., Prodr. 5 (1836) 546; --Melanthera biflora (L.) Wild, Kirkia 5 (1965) 4; --Wedelia biflora (L.) DC. in Wight, Contrib. Bot. Ind. (1834) 18; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 477; EPFP 3 (1923) 611; J.Kost., Blumea 25 (1979) 269; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1093; --Verbesina biflora L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 2 (1763) 1272; --Type: from India. --Spilanthes peregrina Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 622; --Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae No. 528 (PNH?, neo; BM, K, L, isoneo), Palawan: Taytay, May-1913. Africa, across Indian Ocean to India, Malesia, Australia, China, Japan, Pacific. In littoral sites. Photos
    • var. biflora. Africa, across Indian Ocean to India, Malesia, Australia, China, Japan, Pacific. LEYTE. Conservation status: Not threatened (Orchard 2013).
  2. Wollastonia dentata (H.Lév. & Vaniot) Orchard, Nuytsia 23 (2013) 397; --Eclipta dentata H.Lév. & Vaniot, Bull. Acad. Int. Géogr. Bot. sér. 3, 20(243) 11. China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. Beach dunes.

Xanthium L. [Not native]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 September 2012

Photos
  1. Xanthium strumarium L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 987. Widespread distribution. Not native to the Philippines. NEGROS.  Photos

Xerochrysum Tzvelev [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 October 2017

Photos
  1. Xerochrysum bracteatum (Vent.) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 27 (1990) 151; --Helichrysum bracteatum (Vent.) Andrews, Bot. Repos. 6 (1805) sub t. 428. Native to Australia. Not naturalized? Photos

Youngia Cass.

Photos
  1. Youngia japonica (L.) DC., Prodr. 7 (1838) 194; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 437; --Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 9-8; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1098; --Crepis japonica (L.) Benth., Fl. Hongkong. (1861) 194; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 479; EPFP 3 (1923) 622; --Prenanthes japonica L., Mantissa (1767) 107. India to Japan, across Malesia to Australia and the tropical Pacific isls. Weed in clearings, talus slopes, riverbanks, etc. Photos

Zinnia L. [Not native, not naturalized?]

Photos
  1. Zinnia elegans Jacq., Icon. Pl. Rar. 3 (1793) t. 589. Cultivated. Not naturalized? Photos

Possibly present:

  1. Austroeupatorium inulifolium (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob., Phytologia 19 (1970) 434; --Eupatorium inulifolium Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 4(15) (1818) 85 (ed. fol.). South America. Not native to the Philippines. Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited.
  2. Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt., J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 2 (1821) 114. Americas. Not native to the Philippines. Reported for the Philippines by Moody (1989) as a weed in rice, but no specimens cited. Photos
  3. Cotula hemisphaerica (Roxb.) Wall. ex C.B.Clarke, Compos. Ind. (1876) 150; --Artemisia hemisphaerica Roxb., Fl. Ind. 3 (1832) 422. Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Pakistan, Taiwan, Thailand, ?Vietnam. Note by P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (3-Oct-20): Possibly represented for the Philippines by Cuming s.n. (L3682416).

Excluded:

  1. Achillea millefolium L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 89. --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 623. Not native. Cultivated only. Photos
  2. Petrobium arboreum R.Br., Observ. Compositae (1817) 113; --Laxmannia arborea J.R.Forst. & G.Forst., Char. Gen. Pl. (1775) 4; --Type: from St Helena. --Pharetranthus ferrugineus Klatt, Flora 68 (1885) 204; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 623; --Type: Cuming 2454 (BM, K), St Helena. Note by P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (7-Aug-2020): previously mistakenly attributed to the Philippines (Merrill 1923, Blake 1930).

Acknowledgements

Jerby Anne Basilio, Philippe Heyer, Jasper John Obico, Ravan Schneider, Wally Suarez, Leonardo Cristobal Udasco, and Matt Walters kindly contributed some of the photographs on this webpage. John Paul Collantes brought names to our attention that were not included in a previous version of this checklist page. Jerby Anne Basilio attended us to the presence of Erigeron bellioides DC. in the Philippines.

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Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

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Last updated 21 April 2021