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Linderniaceae

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 December 2013

Artanema D.Don

No Photos
  1. Artanema longifolium (L.) Vatke, Linnaea 43 (1882) 307; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 436; --Columnea longifolia L., Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 2 (1767) 427; Mant. Pl. 1 (1767) 90. Africa, Tropical Asia and Malesia. LUZON: Cagayan.

Bonnaya Link & Otto

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 January 2020

Photos
  1. Bonnaya antipoda (L.) Druce, Rep. Bot. Exch. Club. Brit. Isles 3 (1914) 415; --Lindernia antipoda (L.) Alston in Trimen, Handbook Fl. Ceylon 6, suppl. (1931) 214; --Vandellia antipoda (L.) T.Yamaz., J. Jap. Bot. 30 (1955) 177; --Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 604; --Ilysanthes antipoda (L.) Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 467; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 439; --Ruellia antipoda L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 635; --Type: from Sri Lanka. --Bonnaya veronicifolia (Retz.) Sprengel, Syst. 1 (1825) 41; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 426; --Gratiola veronicifolia Retz., Observ. Bot. 4 (1786) 8; --Type: from Australia. --Kyrtandra capsularis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 17. --Cyrtandra serrata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 18. --Cyrtandra glaberrima Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 12; --Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 453 (K, neo; BM, BO, GH, L, isoneo), Luzon: Manila. Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Indochina, S and C China, Taiwan, Japan, Malesia, Papua New Guinea, Australia, Micronesia, Polynesia. Throughout the Philippines. A characteristic rice paddy weed, usually very common.
  2. Bonnaya ciliata (Colsm.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1 (1824) 41; --Lindernia ciliata (Colsm.) Pennell, Brittonia 2 (1936) 182; --Vandellia ciliata (Colsm.) T.Yamaz., J. Jap. Bot. 30 (1955) 177; --Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 605; --Ilysanthes ciliata (Colsm.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 461; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 440; --Gratiola ciliata Colsm., Prodr. Desc. Gratiola (1793) 14; --Type: from Java. --Lindernia serrata (Roxb.) F.Muell., Census (1882) 97; --Ilysanthes serrata (Roxb.) Urban, Ber. Deutsch. Gesellsch. 2 (1884) 436; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 440; --Gratiola serrata Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 140. --Bonnaya brachiata Link & Otto, Icon. Pl. Sel. (1821) 25; --Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 148; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 426; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 348; --Type: Chamisso s.n. (K, holo), Luzon: Manila. --Kyrtandra personata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 18; --Cyrtandra personata (Blanco) Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 13; --Bonnaya personata (Blanco) Hassk., Flora 47 (1864) 56; --Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 67 (BM, neo; BO, CAL, GH, K, L, isoneo). Nepal, India, Myanmar, Indochina, S China, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, Malesia, Papua New Guinea, Australia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Philippines. N LUZON to MINDANAO, in most islands and provinces. Low and medium elevation in the settled areas, in meadows, fallow rice paddies, along streams and open places in forests, etc. Photo
  3. Bonnaya ruellioides (Colsm.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1 (1824) 41; --Fisher et al., Willdenowia 43 (2013) 221; --Gratiola ruellioides Colsm., Prodr. Descr. Gratiol. (1793) 12; --Type: from Java and India. India, Myanmar, S China, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON.
  4. Bonnaya sanpabloensis Y.S.Liang & J.C.Wang, Austr. Syst. Bot. 27 (2014) 192; --Type: Y.S. Liang 1534 (PNH, holo; TAIF, TNM, TNU, iso), Luzon: Laguna Prov., San Pablo City, 23-Nov-2007. Thailand, China, Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Pangasinan, MINDORO. Photos

Legazpia Blanco

Photos
  1. Legazpia polygonoides (Benth.) T.Yamaz., J. Jap. Bot. 30 (1955) 359; --Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 599; --Torenia polygonoides Benth., Scroph. Ind. (1835) 39; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 437. --Legazpia triptera Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 339. Taiwan, India, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, across Malesia to New Guinea, Micronesia. Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces. Lowland and medium elevation forests, old clearings, etc. Photos

Lindernia All.

Photos
  1. Lindernia procumbens (Krock.) Borbas, Bekesm. Fl. (1881) 80; --Philcox, Kew Bull. 22 (1968) 30; --Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 606; --Anagalloides procumbens Krock., Fl. Siles. 2 (1790) 398. --Lindernia pyxidaria All., Misc. Taur. 3 (1755) 178; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 438. Tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Laguna. Low and medium elevation, in rice paddies and open wet sites. Very local in the Philippines.

Torenia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 June 2021

Photos
  1. Torenia anagallis (Burm.f.) Wannan, W.R.Barker & Y.S.Liang, Austral. Syst. Bot. 31 (2018) 250; --Vandellia anagallis (Burm.f.) T.Yamaz., J. Jap. Bot. 30 (1955) 176; --Lindernia anagallis (Burm.f.) Pennell, J. Arnold Arb. 24 (1943) 252; --Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 604; --Ruellia anagallis Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 135. --Lindernia cordifolia (Colsm.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 437; --Gratiola cordifolia Colsm., Prodr. Descr. Gratiol. (1793) 15. Australia, Bangladesh, Bonin Isls, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Peninsular Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS and N LUZON to MINDANAO. Sea-level to 1600m, in damp open places, old rice paddies, seepage slopes, etc.
  2. Torenia blancoi Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 346; EPFP 3 (1923) 436; --Lindernia blancoi (Merr.) Philcox, Kew Bull. 22 (1968) 23; --Vandellia multiflora Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 505, auct. non G.Don; --Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 157 (NY, US, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal prov., thickets near Fort McKinley, 11-Oct-1914. Endemic to Philippines. LUZON: Tarlac, Rizal. Low elevation, on boulders in bamboo thickets and in recently cleared lands.
  3. Torenia concolor Lindl., Bot. Reg. (1846) t. 62; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 425; EPFP 3 (1923) 436; --Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 296; --Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 629.  India, Indochina, China, Taiwan, Ryukyus. Cultivated in the Philippines for ornamental purposes. Naturalized in rice fields. Photos
  4. Torenia crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schltdl., Linnaea 2 (1827) 570; --Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell., Census (1882) 97; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 437; --Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 605; --Vandellia crustacea (L.) Benth., Scroph. Ind. (1835) 25; --Capraria crustacea L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 87. Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, Indochina, China, Taiwan, Japan, Malesia, Papua New Guinea, Australia, Polynesia. Throughout the Philippines. Common weed in settlements, open sites, rice paddies, and disturbed soil generally. Photos
  5. Torenia fournieri Linden ex E.Fourn., Ill. Hort. 23 (1876) 129; --Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 296. Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Not native to the Philippines. Cultivated and naturalized in rice fields. Photos
  6. Torenia grandiflora (Merr.) Eb.Fisch., Schäferh. & Kai Müll., Willdenowia 43 (2013) 232; --Vandellia grandiflora Merr., PJS 1 (Suppl. 3) (1906) 237; --Lindernia philippinensis Philcox, Kew Bull. 22 (1968) 23; --Lindernia grandiflora (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 438, nom. illeg.; --Type: Merrill 4359 (L, lecto; NY, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet prov., Suyoc to Pauai, Oct/Nov-1905. New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, MINDORO. On banks and cliffs and in open places along trails, 1800-2400m.
  7. Torenia subconnivens (Philcox) Eb.Fisch., Schäferh. & Kai Müll., Willdenowia 43 (2013) 232; --Lindernia subconnivens Philcox, Kew Bull. 22 (1968) 23; --Type: Merrill 7652 (L, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., May-1911. Endemic to Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Photos
  8. Torenia violacea (Azaola ex Blanco) Pennell, J. Arnold Arb. 24 (1943) 255; --Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 631; --Mimulus violacea Azaola ex Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 357. --Torenia peduncularis Benth. ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4 (1884) 276; --Benth. in Wall., Cat. (1831) No. 3956, nom. nud; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 436. Africa, India, Myanmar, C and S China, Taiwan, Malasia to Papua New Guinea.  LUZON: Abra, Laguna, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao, Agusan. Low and medium elevation thickets, stream embankments, old rice paddies, etc. Photos

Vandellia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 June 2021

No Photos
  1. Vandellia multiflora (Roxb.) G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 549; --Lindernia multiflora (Roxb.) Mukerjee, J. Indian Bot. Soc. 24 (1945) 131; --Torenia multiflora Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 1832, 3 (1832) 96. India, Java, Malaysia, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. Note by P.B. Pelser (14-Jun-21): Reported for the Philippines by Fischer et al. (2013), no specimens cited. Also accepted as Lindernia multiflora (Roxb.) Mukerjee.

Yamazakia W.R.Barker, Y.S.Liang & Wannan

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 June 2021

Photos
  1. Yamazakia pusilla (Willd.) W.R.Barker, Y.S.Liang & Wannan, Austral. Syst. Bot. 31 (2018) 250; --Lindernia pusilla (Willd.) Boldingh, Zahl. Landoustr. Java (1916) 165; --Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 312; EPFP 3 (1923) 438; --Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 607; --Vandellia pusilla (Willd.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 246; Fl. Manila (1912) 424; --Gratiola pusilla Willd., Sp. Pl. 1 (1797) 105. --Vandellia hirta (Cham. & Schltdl.) T.Yamaz., J. Jap. Bot. 30 (1955) 174; --Torenia hirta Cham. & Schltdl., Linnaea 2 (1827) 571. Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Peninsular Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. Throughout the Philippines. MINDORO (photos), NEGROS (photos). Lowlands and medium elevation, a common weed in cultivated soil, rice paddies, etc. Photos
  2. Yamazakia viscosa (Hornem.) W.R.Barker, Y.S.Liang & Wannan, Austral. Syst. Bot. 31 (2018) 249; --Lindernia viscosa (Hornem.) Boldingh, Zahl. Landoustr. Java (1916) 165; --Liu in Huang, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 608; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 439; --Vandellia viscosa (Hornem.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) 246; --Gratiola viscosa Hornem., Enum. Pl. Hort. Hafn., rev. ed. (1807) 19. Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Peninsular Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines. Throughout the Philippines. Common weed in rice paddies, cultivated lands, etc.

Acknowledgements  

Mark Gregory Q. Rule and Ravan Schneider kindly provided photographs for this webpage. Huang Runcheng helped by providing identifications.

Literature  

Backer, CA & RC Bakhuizen van den Brink. 1965. Flora of Java 2: 498-515.

Biffin, E, WB Barker, B Wannan & Y-S Liang. 2018. The phylogenetic placement of Australian Linderniaceae and implications for generic taxonomy. Australian Systematic Botany 31: 241-251.

Fischer, E, B Schäferhoff & K Müller. 2013. The phylogeny of Linderniaceae – The new genus Linderniella, and new combinations within Bonnaya, Craterostigma, Lindernia, Micranthemum, Torenia and Vandellia. Willdenowia 43: 209-238

Liang, Y-S & J-C Wang. 2014. A systematic study of Bonnaya section Bonnaya (Linderniaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 27: 180-198

Liu, HY.1998. Scrophulariaceae. In TC Huang (ed). Flora of Taiwan 2nd edition: 582-646.

Moody, K. 1989. Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia. IRRI, Philippines

Philcox, D. 1968. Revision of the Malesian species of Lindernia All. (Scrophulariaceae). Kew Bulletin 22: 1-72.

Yamazaki, T. 1985. Flora of Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam 21: 1-217.

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 14 June 2021