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Malvaceae

Alternative classification: Malvaceae s.l. subfam. Malvoideae

Abelmoschus Medik.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 November 2017

Photos
  1. Abelmoschus crinitus Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 1 (1830) 39; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 103. India, Pakistan, Myanmar, Indochina, Hainan, S China, E Java, Madura, Philippines. MINDORO.
  2. Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench., Meth. Pl. (1794) 617; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 321; EPFP 3 (1923) 40; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 100; --Hibiscus esculentus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 696. Native of tropical Asia. Okra. Photos
  3. Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik., Malv. (1787) 46; --Hibiscus manihot L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 696. Tropical Asia.
  4. Abelmoschus moschatus Medik., Malv. (1787) 46; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 321; EPFP 3 (1923) 40; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 91. --Abelmoschus moschatus var. haenkeanus (C.Presl) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 40; --Abelmoschus haenkeanus C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 2 (1835) 134. Tropical Asia. Photos

Abutilon Mill.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2020

Photos
  1. Abutilon auritum (Wall. ex Link) Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 1 (1826) 53; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 32; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 164; --Sida aurita Wall. ex Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 2 (1822) 206--Type: from Java. --Abutilon stipulare C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 2 (1834) 114; --Type: Haenke s.n. (PR, holo), Luzon. Australia, Christmas Isl, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON.
  2. Abutilon hirtum (Lam.) Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 1 (1826) 53; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 32; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 168; --Sida hirta Lam., Encycl. 1 (1783) 7; --Type: from India. Throughout most of Malesia, incl. Philippines. Presumably introduced and naturalized. In thickets and waste places (Merrill 1923).
  3. Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 1 (1826) 54; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 318; EPFP 3 (1923) 32; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 170; --Sida indica L., Cent. Pl. II (1756) 26. Photos

Azanza Alef.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 November 2019

Photos
  1. Azanza lampas (Cav.) Alef., Bot. Zeitung 19 (1861) 298; --Areces-Berazain & Ackerman, Bot. J. Lin. Soc. 181 (2016) 187; --Thespesia lampas (Cav.) Dalz. & Gibs., Bombay Fl. (1861) 19; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 324; EPFP 3 (1923) 41; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 116; --Hibiscus lampas Cav., Diss. 3 (1787) 154; --Type: Sonnerat s.n. (P-JU, holo; NY, holo fragment), Philippines: 7-Mar-1786. --Thespesia sublobata Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 382; --Type: Merrill Spec. Blanc. 561 (GH, neo; BO, K, L, MO, NY, P, US, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal Prov., Antipolo, 13-Oct-1913. India to S. China and Indochina, Indonesia, Philippines. Photos

Bombycidendron Zoll. = Hibiscus

Gossypium L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2020

Photos
  1. Gossypium arboreum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 693; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 43; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 121. Wild and cultivated forms in the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia.
  2. Gossypium barbadense L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 693; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 128. --Gossypium microcarpum Tod., Hort. Bot. Pan. 1 (1876) 63; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 44, as ‘macrocarpum’. South America, introduced to C America, Africa, India, Philippines. Naturalized in secondary forest. Photos
Cultivated, not naturalized:
  1. Gossypium hirsutum L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 975; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 324; EPFP 3 (1923) 43; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 124. --Gossypium punctatum Schumach. & Thonn., Beskr. Guin. Pl. (1827) 309; --Schumach., Kongl. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. 4 (1829) 83; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 44. --Gossypium paniculatum Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 539; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 44. --Gossypium taitense auct. non Parl.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 44. Native of Central America and S North America, W Indies. Cultivated in Philippines. Not naturalized. Photos

Hibiscus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2020

Photos
  1. Hibiscus bicalyculatus Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1905) 39; EPFP 3 (1923) 37; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 69; --Type: FB 2450 Ahern’s collector (BO, K, NY, P, SING, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., Montalban. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Benguet, Rizal. Low and medium elevation, in forested ravines along streams. Liana.
  2. Hibiscus campylosiphon Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. 31, 1 (1858) 193; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 55; --Bombycidendron campylosiphon (Turcz.) Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 110; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 42. Photos
  3. Hibiscus decaspermus Koord. & Valeton, Bijdr. Booms. Java 2 (1895) 115; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 51. Tenasserim, S Thailand, W Java, Sumbawa, Timor, Sulawesi, Philippines. BABUYAN, MINDORO. Lowland secondary vegetation, along or near the coast.
  4. Hibiscus diversifolius Jacq., Coll. Bot. 2 (1789) 307; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 65. --Hibiscus paludosus Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 151; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 38; --Type: M.S. Clemens s.n. (BO, G, L, iso), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur prov., Lake Lanao. Old World tropics, including Pacific islands and Australia. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (Lanao Lake). Photos
  5. Hibiscus mutabilis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 694; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 322; EPFP 3 (1923) 38; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 66. Native of China and Taiwan. MINDORO. Widely cultivated. Naturalized in ruderal areas. 
  6. Hibiscus radiatus Cav., Diss. 3 (1787) 150; --Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 24; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 60. --Hibiscus cannabinus auct. non L.; --Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 244; EPFP 3 (1923) 37.  S & SE Asia. Widely grown as a vegetable or medicinal in Malesia and escaping cultivation. LUZON: Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Manila.
  7. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 694; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 323; EPFP 3 (1923) 38; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 72. Photos
  8. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 695; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 322; EPFP 3 (1923) 38; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 64. Origin not known. Cultivated in all tropical regions, mostly as vegetable and for fiber.
  9. Hibiscus surattensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 696; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 38; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 57; --Type: from India. Widespread in the Old World tropics. Common throughout Malesia except for New Guinea where the species has never been collected. Early secondary growths and waste places near human settlements in the lowlands. Photos
  10. Hibiscus syriacus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 695; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 39; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 75. China, Taiwan. Cultivated elsewhere. PALAWAN. Wasteland near agricultural land.
  11. Hibiscus tiliaceus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 694; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 323; EPFP 3 (1923) 39; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 29; --Talipariti tiliaceum (L.) Fryxell, Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 23 (2001) 258. Photos
  12. Hibiscus vitifolius L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 696; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 39; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 79. Australia, Africa, Madagascar,  Middle East, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, India, Pakistan, Jammu & Kashmir, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Nepal, Vietnam, Philippines.

Cultivated, not naturalized:

  1. Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. ex Hornem., Hort. Hafn. Suppl. (1819) 149; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 47. Peninsular India, Bangladesh, Assam, Thailand, Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia,  Java, Borneo. Introduced in Hawaii and the Philippines. PALAWAN. Cultivated as an ornamental. Not naturalized.
  2. Hibiscus schizopetalus (Mast.) Hook.f. in Curtis, Bot. Mag. iii, 36 (1880) t. 6524; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 323; EPFP 3 (1923) 38; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 73. Native to E Africa (Tanzania and Kenya). Elsewhere cultivated as an ornamental or used for living fences. Not naturalized.

Doubtfully occurring in the Philippines:

  1. Hibiscus panduriformis Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 151; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 82. Africa, Australia, Madagascar, Java, India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, ?Philippines. Note by L.L.Co: Sole Philippine record is a Perrottet collection from ‘Manila’ (L). Borssum doubts if this is correctly localized.

Kosteletzkya C.Presl

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 May 2018

Photos
  1. Kosteletzkya batacensis (Blanco) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 24; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 320; EPFP 3 (1923) 41; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 87; --Hibiscus batacensis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 544; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 380; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 2 (1879) 334; --Type: Not extant; BS 41647 Ramos (US, neo; L, WU, isoneo), Luzon: Pampanga prov., Apalit, Jan-1923. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Rizal. Waste places in the lowland, under seasonal climatic conditions, apparently of local occurrence. Note by L.L.Co: Unfortunately, the neotype designated by Borssum (Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 877, US) for Blanco’s basionym does not represent this taxon. It is Modiola caroliniana (L.) G.Don.

Malachra L. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2020

Photos
  1. Malachra capitata (L.) L., Syst. ed. 12 (1767) 458; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 319; EPFP 3 (1923) 36; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 146; --Sida capitata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 685. --Napaea latifolia Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 387; --Type: Merrill, Sp. Blancoana 351 (A, BM, K, L, P, US, neoiso), Luzon: Manila. Native to tropical America. LUZON, PANAY. Common weed in open waste places (Merrill 1923). Photos
  2. Malachra fasciata Jacq., Coll. 2 (1789) 552; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 319; EPFP 3 (1923) 36; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 147.

Malvastrum A.Gray [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2020

Photos
  1. Malvastrum americanum (L.) Torr., Rep. U.S. Mex. Bound., Bot. (1859) 38; --Malva americana L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 687. --Malvastrum spicatum (L.) A Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. Sci. 2, 4 (Pl. Fendl.) (1849) 22; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 33. Native to Americas. Philippines.
  2. Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke, Bonplandia 5 (1857) 297; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 316; EPFP 3 (1923) 33; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 152; --Malva coromandeliana L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 687. Probably of American origin. A common weed around towns throughout the Philippines. Photos

Malvaviscus Cav. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 November 2017

Photos
  1. Malvaviscus arboreus Cav., Diss. 3 (1787) 131; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 132. --Malvaviscus pilosus (Sw.) DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 445; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 320; EPFP 3 (1923) 37; --Achania pilosa Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 102. Native to tropical America. Photos

Modiola Moench [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 November 2017

Photos
  1. Modiola caroliniana (L.) G.Don, Gen. Syst. 1 (1831) 465; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 148; --Malva caroliniana L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 688. Native of N America, elsewhere cultivated and occasionally running wild. E Java (Mt Tengger), Philippines. LUZON: Manila (Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 877, US). Note by L.L.Co: According to Blouchard (in annot.) the US specimen was previously misidentified and unfortunately designated neotype of Hibiscus batacensis Blanco (= Kosteletzkya batacensis). Photos

Sida L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 November 2020

Photos
  1. Sida acuta Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 147; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 318; EPFP 3 (1923) 33; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 186; --Type: from Java. Photos
  2. Sida ciliaris L., Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 1145; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 179. --Sida longistipula Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 30; EPFP 3 (1923) 34. Tropical and subtropical America. Introduced in Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Open places.
  3. Sida cordata (Burm.f.) Borss.Waalk., Blumea 14 (1966) 182; --Melochia cordata Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 143. --Sida veronicifolia Lam., Encycl. 1 (1783) 5; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 36, as ‘veronicaefolia’, excl. syn. Sida supina L’Herit. --Sida humulis Cav., Diss. 5 (1788) 277; --Type: Nee s.n. (MA, neo), Luzon: Port Cavite. Pantropical species of unknown origin. Not native in Malesia. LUZON.
  4. Sida cordifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 684; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 317; EPFP 3 (1923) 33; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 199. Pantropical. Photos
  5. Sida javensis Cav., Diss. 5 (1788) 10; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 317; EPFP 3 (1923) 34, as ‘javanensis’, excl. syn. Sida humilis Cav.; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 184; --Type: from Java.
  6. Sida mysorensis Wight & Arn., Prodr. (1834) 59; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 317; EPFP 3 (1923) 35; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 180. S and SE Asia. Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO.
  7. Sida rhombifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 684; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 318; EPFP 3 (1923) 35; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 195. Tropics and subtropics. Photos
  8. Sida spinosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 683; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 191. Pantropical. Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO.
  9. Sida subcordata Span., Linnaea 15 (1841) 172; Blumea 14 (1966) 201; --Type: from Timor. --Sida puberula Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 90; EPFP 3 (1923) 35; --Type: Vanoverbergh 853 (GRO, L, U, US, iso), Luzon: Bontoc. --Sida corylifolia Wall. ex Mast. in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1874) 342; --Wall., Cat. (1829) No. 1805, nom. nud.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 34. Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Philippines. Photos

Talipariti Fryxell = Hibiscus

Thespesia Sol. ex Correa

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 October 2020

Photos
  1. Thespesia populnea (L.) Soland. ex Correa, Ann. Mus. Paris 9 (1807) 290; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 324; EPFP 3 (1932) 42; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 106; --Fosb. & Sachet, Smithsonian Contr. Bot. No. 7 (1972) 8; --Hibiscus populneus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 694. Pantropical. Widespread throughout the Philippines along seashores. Occasionally found a few km inland, whether intentionally planted or not. Photos
  2. Thespesia populneoides (Roxb.) Kostel., Allg. Med. Pharm. Fl. 5 (1836) 1861; --Fosb. & Sachet, Smithsonian Contr. Bot. No. 7 (1972) 10; --Aragones et al., Bot. ident. Handb. Philip. Mangrove Trees (1998) 57; --Hibiscus populneoides Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832 3 (1832) 191. Indian Ocean coasts and islands, Indochina, Hainan, across Malesia to Australia. Cultivated in some parts of the neotropics. APO Isl, GUIMARAS (photos), LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Cavite, Manila, MINDORO, PANA. Photos

Urena Dill. ex L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 November 2017

Photos
  1. Urena lobata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 692; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 319; EPFP 3 (1932) 36; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 138. Circumtropical. Photos

Cultivated, not naturalized:

  1. Alcea rosea L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 687; --Althaea rosea (L.) Cav., Diss. 2 (1785) 91; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 44; --Borssum, Blumea 14 (1966) 151. Photos

Acknowledgments

Derek Bagonoc, William G. Granert and Matt Walters kindly provided some of the photos on this webpage.

Literature

Areces-Berazain, F & JD Ackerman. 2016. Phylogenetics, delimitation and historical biogeography of the pantropical tree genus Thespesia (Malvaceae, Gossypieae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 171-198

Bates, DM. 1968. Notes on the Cultivated Malvaceae. 2. Abelmoschus. Baileya 16: 99-113.

Borssum Waalkes, J van. 1956. Notes on Malaysian Malvaceae I. Reinwardtia 4: 41-68

Borssum Waalkes, J. van. 1966. Malesian Malvaceae revised. Blumea 14: 1-213


Fryxell, PA. 2001. Talipariti (Malvaceae), a segregate from Hibiscus. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium 23: 225-270

Pfeil, BE & MD Crisp. 2005. What to do with Hibiscus? A proposed nomenclatural resolution for a large and well known genus of Malvaceae and comments on paraphyly. Australian Systematic Botany 18: 49-9

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 24 November 2020