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Oxalidaceae

Averrhoa L. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 August 2019

Photos
  1. Averrhoa bilimbi L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 428; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 266; EPFP 2 (1923) 324. Area of origin unknown (Veldkamp 1971), but possibly native to the Moluccas (Blench 2008). Not native to the Philippines. Scarcely naturalized in secondary forest. Photos
  2. Averrhoa carambola L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 428; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 266; EPFP 2 (1923) 324. --Sarcotheca philippica (Fern.-Vill.) Hallier f., Meded. Rijksherb. (1911) 2. Area of origin unknown, but possibly native to Java (Veldkamp 1971) or Sri Lanka and the Moluccas (Morton 1987, Dasgupta et al. 2013). Not native to the Philippines. Naturalized. Photos

Biophytum DC.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 May 2018

Photos
  1. Biophytum fruticosum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 242. Photos
  2. Biophytum microphyllum Veldk., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1971) 164. SW & C Sulawesi, Flores, Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Yagaw).
  3. Biophytum sensitivum (L.) DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 690; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 266; EPFP 2 (1923) 324; --Oxalis sensitiva L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 434. India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Indochina, Java, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Philippines. Photos
  4. Biophytum umbraculum Welw., Apont. (1859) 590; --Biophytum petersianum Klotzsch in Peters, Reise Mossamb. Bot. 1 (1862) 81; --Veldk., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1971) 161. --Biophytum apodiscias (Turcz.) Edgew. & Hook.f. in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1 (1874) 437; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 323; --Oxalis apodiscias Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 36(1) (1863) ?430, 599. Africa, China, Vietnam, India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Java, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Madagascar, Australia, Philippines. PANAY. Photos

Oxalis L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 November 2020

Photos
  1. Oxalis barrelieri L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 1 (1762) 624. Native of South America. Indonesia (Bangka, Java, Sumatra), Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines. AURORA (photos). Naturalized on road sides. Photos
  2. Oxalis corniculata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 435; --Veldk., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1971) 155. --Oxalis repens Thunb., Diss. Oxal. (1781) 16; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 265; EPFP 2 (1923) 323. Almost cosmopolitan. Naturalized. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Photos
  3. Oxalis debilis Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 5 (1821) 236; --Nesom, Phytologia 91 (2009) 516; --Type: from Venezuela. --Oxalis corymbosa DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 696; --Veldk., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1971) 159; --Type: from La Réunion. --Oxalis martiana Zucc., Denkschr. Akad. Muench. 9 (1825) 144; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 265; EPFP 2 (1923) 323; --Type: from Brazil. Native to tropical America. LUZON: Mountain Province, NEGROS. Naturalized in secondary forest. Photos
  4. Oxalis griffithii Edgew. & Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 1(2) (1874) 436; --Oxalis acetosella ssp. griffithii (Edgew. & Hook.f.) Hara, J. Jap. Bot. 30 (1955) 22; --Veldk., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1971) 157. Khasya, Sikkim, Bhutan through China to Japan and Taiwan. In Malesia so far only known from Philippines.

Acknowledgements  

Steven Charles Bolos Gerios attended us to issues considering the area of origin of Averrhoa species.

Literature

Aoki S, T Ohi-Toma & J Murata. 2019. Taxonomic revision of Oxalis subsect. Oxalis (Oxalidaceae). Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 70: 159-172

Blench, R. 2008. A history of fruits on the Southeast Asian mainland. In: Occasional Paper 4: Linguistics, archaeology and the human past (Osada, T & A Uesugi). Indus Project, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 115-137

CABI Invasive Species Compendium

Dasgupta, P, P Chakraborty & NN Bala. 2013. Averrhoa carambola: an updated review. International Journal of Pharma Research & Review 2: 54-63

Morton, JF. 1987. Fruits of warm climates. Flair Books, Miami, USA, pp. 125-128.

Nesom, G. 2009. Taxonomic notes on acaulescent Oxalis (Oxalidaceae) in the United States. Phytologia 93: 501-526

Veldkamp, JF. 1971. Oxalidaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 7: 151-178

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 23 November 2020