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Sparmanniaceae

Alternative classification: Malvaceae s.l. subfam. Grewioideae

Colona Cav.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 July 2020

Photos
  1. Colona blancoi (Rolfe) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 6 (1904) 17; --Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 805; --Columbia blancoi Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 308; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 28. --Columbia floribunda Náves in Blanco, Fl. Philip. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 312, nom. inval., auct. non Kurz. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Rizal. Low elevation thickets and forests.
  2. Colona hirsuta (Warb.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 804; --Columbia hirsuta Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 106; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 28; --Type: Warburg 14774 (B). --Columbia macgregorii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 297; EPFP 3 (1923) 28; --Type: BS 11492 McGregor. Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, MINDANAO: Davao. Note by L.L.Co: The type is a sterile specimen and appears as if the material was from a sapling.
  3. Colona lanceolata (Warb.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 804; --Columbia lanceolata Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 107; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 28. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan, Zambales. Low elevation thickets along streams.
  4. Colona longipetiolata Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 6 (1904) 16; --Burrett, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 803; --Columbia longipetiolata (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 29. --?Columbia hastata Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 105; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 28; --Type: Warburg 13470 (syn), Warburg 13471 (syn), Luzon: Zambales Prov, Balincaguin (Warburg 13470) & Cabangan (Warburg 13471). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Zambales.
  5. Colona megacarpa (Merr.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 800; --Columbia megacarpa Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 298; EPFP 3 (1923) 28; --Colona velutinosa Kosterm., Reinwardtia 7 (1969) 443, nom. superfl.; --Type: Manalo FB 7416 (NY, US), Palawan: 1 mile NE of Tanabag. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN: Low elevation thickets and secondary forests.
  6. Colona mollis (Warb.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 802; --Columbia mollis Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 108; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 29; --Type: Warburg 13473. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija. Lowland thickets and secondary forests up to c. 350m.
  7. Colona serratifolia Cav., Icon. 4 (1797) 47; --Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 809; --Ashton, Man. Non-Dipt. Trees Sarawak 2 (1988) 438; --Columbia serratifolia (Cav.) DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 512; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 313; EPFP 3 (1923) 29. Peninsular Malaysia (coastal Johore and Pahang), Borneo (NE Sarawak, Sabah, E Kalimantan southwards to Banjermasin), Philippines, Sulawesi. BABUYAN ISLS and N LUZON to MINDANAO and PALAWAN. Lowland, highly disturbed or early re-growth forests, along river banks, etc., preferentially in regions with pronounced rainy and dry seasons. Usually common. Photos
  8. Colona subaequalis (Planch. ex S.Vidal) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 802; --Columbia subaequalis Planch. ex S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 99; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 30; --Type: Cuming 1507, Mindoro. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Low elevation secondary forests.

Dubious taxa:

  1. Colona jagori (Warb.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 813; --Columbia jagorii Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 106; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 28; --Type: Jagor s.n. (B), Luzon. --Columbia mindanaensis Warb. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 107; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 29; --Type: Warburg 14440 (B), Mindanao: Davao, Sibulan. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO: Davao.
  2. Colona philippinensis (S.Vidal) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 813; --Columbia philippinensis (S.Vidal) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 29; --Diplophractum philippinense S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 71; --Type: S. Vidal 1001, Luzon: Pampanga. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pampanga. According to Merrill (1923) may be identical with Colona mollis.

Columbia Pers. = Colona

Corchorus L.

Photos
  1. Corchorus aestuans L., Syst. ed. 10 (1774) 1079; --Liu & Lo in Huang (ed.), Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 3 (1993) 724. --Corchorus acutangulus Lam., Encycl. 2 (1786) 104; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 315; EPFP 3 (1923) 23. Pantropic, but probably a native of tropical Asia. Certainly an introduced weed in the Philippines. Throughout the archipelago in open waste places at low and medium elevation.
  2. Corchorus capsularis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 529; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 315; EPFP 3 (1923) 23. Cultivated or naturalized throughout the tropics. In the Philippines apparently not planted. In clearings, on rice paddy banks, and in open, low, usually wet places in and near settlements throughout the archipelago. Jute.
  3. Corchorus fascicularis Lam., Encycl. 2 (1786) 104; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 23. Tropical Africa, India, Myanmar, tropical Australia, but not recorded from Peninsular Malaysia. LUZON: Bulacan, Pampanga. Open fallow lands, swamp margins, etc. at low elevation.
  4. Corchorus olitorius L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 529; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 315; EPFP 3 (1923) 23. Pantropic but a native of the Old World (said to be a native of India). Throughout the Philippines in and near settlements, on rice paddy banks, fallow paddies, etc. Occasionally cultivated as a vegetable.

Grewia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 September 2019

Photos
  1. Grewia asiatica L., Mant. 1 (1767) 122; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 25. India to Thailand to Indochina and the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Cagayan. Dry slopes at low elevation.
  2. Grewia bilamellata Gagnep., Not. Syst. 1 (1909) 118; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 25. --Grewia parva Merr., PJS, C 7 (1912) 301. Indochina, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Ilocos Sur. Low elevation thickets. Photos
  3. Grewia eriocarpa Juss., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 4 (1804) 93; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 25. --Grewia inaequalis Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 115. --Grewia negrosensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 631. Indochina, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Zambales, Rizal, Quezon, MINDORO, SEMIRARA, BUSUANGA, NEGROS, CEBU, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Low and medium elevation dry thickets, often common. Photos
  4. Grewia laevigata Vahl, Symb. Bot. (Vahl) i. (1790) 34; --Type from India. --Grewia umbellata Roxb. ex DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 509; --Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 42, nom. nud.; Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 591; --Burrett, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 701. --Grewia acuminata Juss., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 4 (1804) 91; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 24. India, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, La Union, Pangasinan, Tarlac, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, PALAWAN, BALABAC, ROMBLON, NEGROS, SIQUIJOR, CEBU, SULU ARCHIPELAGO, BASILAN, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation thickets, often abundant. Photos
  5. Grewia multiflora Juss., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 4 (1804) 89; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 313; EPFP 3 (1923) 26; --Type: Anon. s.n. 12554 (‘12555’) (P-JU, holo). China, Peninsular Malaysia to New Guinea and Australia. LUZON: Cagayan to Quezon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, GUIMARAS, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO. Common in thickets and secondary forests. Photos
  6. Grewia palawanensis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 300; EPFP 3 (1923) 26. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Low elevation thickets and secondary forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  7. Grewia retusifolia Pierre, Fl. Forest. Cochin. 2 (1889) t. 168; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 26. Indochina, Java, Philippines, Australia. LUZON: Rizal, MINDANAO: Cotabato. Open grasslands at low elevation. Rare.
  8. Grewia rizalensis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 303; EPFP 3 (1923) 27. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Cavite. Low and medium elevation thickets and forests.
  9. Grewia rolfei Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 302; EPFP 3 (1923) 27. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Pampanga, Bulacan, Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Low elevation thickets.
  10. Grewia serrata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 444; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 27. --Grewia ovata Merr., PJS 7 (1912) 299. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Rizal. Low elevation thickets or secondary forests. Rare or local.
  11. Grewia setacea Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 89. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Ecija. Thickets and forests, 1300-2000m.

Microcos Burm. ex L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 September 2019

Photos
  1. Microcos inflexa (Merr.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 795; --Grewia inflexa Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 194; EPFP 3 (1923) 25. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Low elevation forests along streams.
  2. Microcos philippinensis (Perkins) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 731; --Grewia philippinensis Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 103; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 26. --Grewia edulis Merr., PJS 7 (1912) 298. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Cagayan, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Batangas, Camarines. Low elevation forests.
  3. Microcos pyriformis (Elmer) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 735; --Chung, Kew Bull. 58 (2003) 333; --Grewia pyriformis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2841; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 26; --Type: Elmer 13996, Mindanao: Agusan, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Oct-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte.
  4. Microcos tomentosa Sm. in Rees, Cyclopaedia 23, 2, 46 (1813) 2. Borneo, China, Indochina, Java, Myanmar, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand, Philippines. Note by P.B. Pelser (2-Aug-15): Presence in the Philippines as per Chung & Soepadmo (2011).
  5. Microcos triflora (Blanco) R.C.K.Chung, Kew Bull. 58 (2003) 346; --Helianthemum triflorum Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 309; --Type: Species Blancoanae 864 (US, no; L, isoneo), Luzon: Laguna, Mt Maquiling, Mar-1915. --Microcos stylocarpa (Warb.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9 (1926) 735; --Ashton, Man. Non-Dipt. Trees Sarawak 2 (1988) 447; --Grewia stylocarpa Warb. in Perkins Frag. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 104; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 27; --Type: Warburg 11870 (B lost, PNH lost, syn), Luzon: Malunu; Warburg 13072 (B lost, PNH lost, syn), Luzon: Tayabas, Sampaloc. Borneo (Sarawak, Sabah, E Kalimantan), Philippines. LUZON (Cagayan to Sorsogon), MINDORO, PALAWAN, TABLAS, SIBUYAN, TICAO, MASBATE, PANAY, NEGROS, BILIRAN, LEYTE, SAMAR, BASILAN, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation mixed dipterocarp forests and thickets. Photos

Trichospermum Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 June 2018

Photos
  1. Trichospermum discolor Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1641; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 24; --Type: Elmer 11903. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO: Lanao, Davao. Low elevation forests in Cagayan, elevation 700-900m in Mindanao. Photos
  2. Trichospermum eriopodum (Turcz.) Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 17; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 24; --Grewia eriopoda Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 31(1) (1858) 231. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, SIARGAO. Low and medium secondary forests.
  3. Trichospermum involucratum (Merr.) Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1641; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 24; --Halconia involucrata Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) 281. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO, SIBUYAN, NEGROS. Forested ridges, 900-1400m. Photos
  4. Trichospermum lanigerum (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 250; EPFP 3 (1923) 24; --Erotium lanigerum Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 440. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, MINDORO. Forests at low elevation.

Triumfetta L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 May 2021

Photos
  1. Triumfetta annua L., Mant. 1 (1767) 73; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 30. Tropical Africa to India to Malaysia and the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, PALAWAN, PANAY, MINDANAO: Davao. Ravines and open slopes at low elevation, ascending to 1500m in Benguet.
  2. Triumfetta benguetensis Sprague, Kew Bull. (1915) 345; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 31; --Type: R.S. Williams 1303. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Thickets, c. 1200m.
  3. Triumfetta pilosa Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. (1821) 233; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 31. India across Malesia from Peninsular Malaysia to New Guinea. LUZON: Kalinga, Abra, Mountain Province, Ifugao, Benguet, MINDANAO: Lanao, Bukidnon, Davao. Thickets and open slopes up to 1200m.
  4. Triumfetta procumbens G.Forst., Prodr. (1786) 35; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 31. Indian Ocean islands (Seychelles, Diego Garcia, Keeling Isls) through Malesia to W Polynesia northward to the Marianas. COMIRAN (in Sulu Sea). On sandy seashores.
  5. Triumfetta repens (Blume) Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 111; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 31; --Porpa repens Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1825) 118. Madagascar, Keeling Isls, Indochina to Java, Borneo, Philippines and eastward to the small islands off the coast of Queensland. LUZON: Cagayan, Pangasinan, Camarines, MINDORO, PALAWAN (photos by Pelser & Barcelona). Sandy seashores. Photos
  6. Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq., Enum. Pl. Carib. (1762) 22. --Triumfetta bartramia L., Syst. Ed. 10 (1759) 1044; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 30. Pantropic weed, certainly introduced in the Philippines. Common in open waste places in all islands and provinces at low and medium elevations. Photos
  7. Triumfetta semitriloba Jacq., Enum. Pl. Carib. (1760) 22; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 314; EPFP 3 (1923) 31. Americas. Not native to the Philippines. Widely distributed in the Philippines. Naturalized in low and medium elevation dry thickets.
  8. Triumfetta tomentosa Bojer, Ann. Sci. Nat. II, 20 (1843) 103; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 31. Africa to India, China, Indochina, Java, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. On slopes, 1250m. Note by L.L.Co: Very similar to Triumfetta pilosa Roth but with straight spines.

Acknowledgements

James V. LaFrankie provided taxonomic edits for this webpage.

Literature

Ashton, PS. 1988. Tiliaceae. Manual of the Non-Dipterocarp Trees of Sarawak 2: 426-468.

Burrett, M. 1926. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Tiliaceen. Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 9: 592-880.

Brunken, U & AN Muellner. 2012. A new tribal classification of Grewioideae (Malvaceae) based on morphological and molecular phylogenetic evidence. Systematic Botany 37: 699-711.

Chung, RCK. 2003. New taxa and new combinations of Microcos (Tiliaceae) from Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo. Kew Bulletin 58: 329-349

Chung, RCK. 2005. Revision of Grewia (Malvaceae-Grewioideae) in Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 62: 1-27

Chung, RCK & E Soepadmo. 2011. Taxonomic revision of the genus Microcos (Malvaceae-Grewioideae) in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Blumea 56: 273-299

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Kochummen, KM. (repr.1983). Tiliaceae. Tree Flora of Malaya 2: 392-412.

Kostermans, AJGH. 1972. A synopsis of the Old World species of Trichospermum Blume (Tiliaceae). Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh 41: 401-430.

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 29 May 2021