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Zingiberaceae

Adelmeria Ridl. [Endemic to the Philippines]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 December 2019

Photos
  1. Adelmeria alpina Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2885; --Docot et al., Taxon 68 (2019) 508; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 236; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 41; --Alpinia alpina (Elmer) R.M.Sm. ex M.F.Newman, Lhuillier & A.D.Poulsen, Blumea Suppl. 16 (2004) 7; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 37; --Type: Elmer Elmer 10642 (NY, lecto; BISH, BO, DS [CAS], F, GH, K, NY, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Todaya, Mt Apo, May-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, North Cotabato, South Cotabato, NEGROS, PANAY. Forests, 1200-2400m. Conservation status: Least Concern (Docot et al. 2019). Photos
  2. Adelmeria dicranochila Docot & Banag, Taxon 68 (2019) 509; --Type: Docot 0084 (PNH, holo; FEUH, USTH, iso), Luzon: Quezon Prov, Tayabas, Brgy Lalo, Mt Banahaw, 1729m, 26-Jun-2016. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal. Conservation status: Endangered (Docot et al. 2019). Photos
  3. Adelmeria gigantifolia (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2963; --Docot et al., Taxon 68 (2019) 509; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 236; --Alpinia gigantifolia (Elmer) R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 65; --Zingiber gigantifolium Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2916; --Type: Elmer 9282 (NY, lecto; BISH, F, G, K, MO, US, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon Prov, Tayabas, Mt Banahaw, 15-May-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Albay, Aurora, Camarines Norte, Quezon, Sorsogon, NEGROS, PANAY. Forests on talus slopes and along small streams, 130-1000m. Conservation status: Least Concern (Docot et al. 2019). Photos
  4. Adelmeria isarogensis Docot & Banag, Taxon 68 (2019) 511; --Type: Docot 0065 (PNH, holo; FEUH, NY, USTH, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur Prov, Naga City, Brgy Panicuason, Mt Isarog, 1769m, 2-Jun-2016. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Camarines Sur. Conservation status: Endangered (Docot et al. 2019). Photos
  5. Adelmeria leonardoi Docot & Banag, Taxon 68 (2019) 513; --Type: Docot 0096 (PNH, holo; FEUH, NY, USTH, iso), Luzon: Aurora Prov, Dingalan, Brgy Davil- Davilan, Mt Mingan, 1330m, 16-Jun-2017. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (Docot et al. 2019). Photos
  6. Adelmeria oblonga Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 443; --Docot et al., Taxon 68 (2019) 515; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 236; --Alpinia oblonga (Merr.) Loesen. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2, 15a (1930) 620; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 37; --Type: Vanoverbergh 3108 (US, lecto), Luzon: Mountain Province, Bauko, along streams, c. 1500m, Apr-1913. --Adelmeria albida Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2964; --Type: Elmer 15912 (L, lecto; BISH, BO, F, FI, G, GH, HBG, K, NY, P, U, US, Z, isolecto), Luzon: Sorsogon Prov, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Apr-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Benguet, Camarines Sur, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Sorsogon. Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1500m. Conservation status: Near Threatened (Docot et al. 2019). Photos
  7. Adelmeria paradoxa (Ridl.) Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 444; EPFP 1 (1923) 236; --Docot et al., Taxon 68 (2019) 516; --Alpinia paradoxa (Ridl.) Loesen. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2, 15a (1930) 620; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 53; --Hornstedtia paradoxa Ridl., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1905) 85; --Type: Elmer 6629 (K, lecto), Luzon: Benguet Prov, Mt Santo Tomas, Mar-1904; Docot 0090 (USTH, epi; NY, isoepi), Luzon: Benguet Prov, Tuba, Brgy Poblacion, Mt Santo Tomas, 1800m, 6-Nov-2016. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  8. Adelmeria pinetorum (Ridl.) Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 180; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1923) 236; --Docot et al., Taxon 68 (2019) 517; --Alpinia pinetorum (Ridl.) Loesen. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2, 15a (1930) 620; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 54; --Elmeria pinetorum Ridl., LPB 2 (1909) 569; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 49; --Type: Elmer 8548 (K, holo), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, small tufts in limestone rocks of the pine region at 5000ft (1524m), rare, Mar-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province. Conservation status: Vulnerable (Docot et al. 2019). Photos
  9. Adelmeria undulata Docot & Banag, Taxon 68 (2019) 517; --Type: Docot 0099 (PNH, holo; NY, USTH, iso), Luzon: Aurora Prov, Dingalan, Brgy Davil-Davilan, Mt Mingan, 1449m, 16-Jun-2017. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora. Conservation status: Endangered (Docot et al. 2019). Photos

Alpinia Roxb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 16 July 2020

Photos
  1. Alpinia apoensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2888; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 37; --Languas apoensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 230; --Type: Elmer 11889 (NY, lecto; BISH, F, G, GH, P, U, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao del Sur: Mt Apo, 1335m, Sep-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao (Mt Apo), PANAY. Primary forests, up to c. 1200m. Conservation status: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) (Naive et al. 2019). Photos
  2. Alpinia brachyantha Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 296; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 39; --Languas brachyantha (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 230; --Type: Weber 1571. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan. Forests at low and medium elevation.
  3. Alpinia brevilabris C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 110; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 39; --Languas brevilabris (C.Presl) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 230. Endemic to the Philippines. BATANES and N LUZON to MINDANAO, in most islands and provinces. Common in primary forests at low and medium elevation. Photos
  4. Alpinia congesta Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2968; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 41; --Kolowratia congesta (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 235; --Type: Elmer 16144. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Forested slopes, c. 450m. Photos
  5. Alpinia copelandii Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 164; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 41; --Languas copelandii (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 231; --Type: Copeland s.n.  Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Lowland forests.
  6. Alpinia cumingii K.Schum. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 315; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 42; --Languas cumingii (K.Schum.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 231; --Type: Cuming 859. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay. Photos
  7. Alpinia elegans (C.Presl) K.Schum. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 27 (1899) 288; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 43; --Kolowratia elegans C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 113; EPFP 1 (1922) 235; --Steiner, PJS 88 (1959) 10. --Renealmia gracilis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 1. --Renealmia exaltata Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 1, nom. illeg., auct non L.f.; --Fl. Filip., ed. 3 (1877) 2. --Alpinia gracilis Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 21 (1884) 316. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, Zambales, PANAY, POLILLO, MINDORO, LEYTE. Low and medium elevation thickets along streams. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  8. Alpinia elmeri R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 64; --Languas longipetiolata Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 232; --Alpinia longipetiolata Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2969, nom. illeg., auct. non Gagnep. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Forests up to 600m.
  9. Alpinia flabellata Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 188; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 44; --Languas flabellata (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 231. --Languas flabellata var. major (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 231; --Alpinia flabellata var. major Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) 188. Nansei-shoto, Philippines. BATANES and N LUZON to MINDANAO. Perhaps not distinct from Alpinia brevilabris C.Presl. Medium elevation forests, ascending to 2000m. Photos
  10. Alpinia foxworthyi Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 189; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 45; --Languas foxworthyi (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 231; --Type: BS 772 Foxworthy. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Lowland forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  11. Alpinia galanga (L.) Sw., Obs. Bot. 4 (1791) 6; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 45; --Maranta galanga L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 3. --Languas pyramidata (Blume) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 233; --Alpinia pyramidata Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae (1827) 58. Himalayas through Malesia to the Moluccas. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon, PALAWAN, PANAY, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao, Agusan. In old clearings, etc., sometimes planted. Photos
  12. Alpinia glabrescens Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 185; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 45; --Languas glabrescens (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 231; --Type: BS 3679 Fenix. Endemic to the Philippines. BATANES (BATAN, SABTAN). On slopes at low elevation. According to Merrill (1922) endemic unless identical with some Taiwan species represented by Faurie 975 of his 1913 collection. Photos
  13. Alpinia graminea Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 189; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 45; --Languas graminea (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 232; --Type: FB 7267 Everett. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, CATANDUANES, PANAY, NEGROS. Forests, up to 800m. Photos
  14. Alpinia haenkei C.Presl, Symb. 1 (1832) 66; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 46; --Languas haenkei (C.Presl) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 232; --Type: Haenke s.n. (PR): Luzon: Sorsogon. --Alpinia philippinensis Ridl., Publ. Bur. Sci. Gov. Lab. 35 (1906) 86; --Type: Barnes 144 (K, syn), --Borden 1203 (US, syn), --Elmer 6089 (K, P, SING, syn). Java, Philippines. BATANES and N LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO, in most or all islands and provinces. Primary forests at low and medium elevation, often common. Photos
  15. Alpinia illustris Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 185; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 46; --Languas illustris (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 232; --Type: FB 544 Foxworthy. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO, PALAWAN. Forests along streams at low elevation; according to Merrill (1922) very similar to Alpinia malaccensis Rosc.
  16. Alpinia intermedia Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 48 (1902) 83; --Wu & Larsen, Fl. China 24 (2000) 343; --Tanaka et al., Bull. Natl. Mus. Nat. Sci., Ser. B, 44 (2018) 37. China, Japan, Myanmar, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Thailand, Philippines. Photos
  17. Alpinia luteocarpa Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3803; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 49; --Type: Elmer 17926 (BISH, BM, K, L, MO, NY, U, US, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., Mt Makiling, in humus-covered but well-drained soil of dense woods along steep ravines at 2000ft, Jul-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna (Mt Makiling), in forest, c. 600m. Photos
  18. Alpinia macroscaphis K.Schum. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 27 (1899) 284; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 50; --Languas macroscaphis (K.Schum.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 232. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: probably Davao (collected by Warburg, type in B, according to Merrill, 1922)
  19. Alpinia musifolia Ridl., LPB 2 (1909) 604; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 51; --Languas musifolia (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 232; --Type: Elmer 9539 (SING, ?holo; BISH, GH, K, MO, NY, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, in rich soil of woods at 4000ft (1219m), Mar-1908. --Alpinia edanoi R.M.Sm., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 35 (1977) 200; --Type: PNH 7132 Edańo (L, holo; A, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Mt Malbug, summit, 840m, 20-Jun-1948. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos de Negros; Mt Malbug). Forests, 840-1200m. Photos
  20. Alpinia penduliflora Ridl., LPB 2 (1909) 570; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 54; --Languas penduliflora (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 233; --Type: Elmer 7288 (K, SING), Leyte: Leyte prov., Palo, Jan-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. Probably from forests at low elevation.
  21. Alpinia pubiflora (Benth.) K.Schum. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 313; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 55; --Languas pubiflora (Benth.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 233; --Hellenia pubiflora Benth. in Hook., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 235. Caroline Isls, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Sorsogon, GUIMARAS, CAMIGUIN DE MINDANAO, MINDANAO. Forests at low and medium elevation.
  22. Alpinia romblonensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2889; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 56; --Languas romblonensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 233; --Type: Elmer 12050 (NY, iso), Romblon: in gravelly soil along stream banks near sea level, Mar-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY, ROMBLON, SAMAR. Along streams at low elevation. Photos
  23. Alpinia rosea Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2890; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 56; --Languas rosea (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 233; --Type: Elmer 12509. Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY (photos), SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting). Dense forests, c. 1350m. Photos
  24. Alpinia rufa C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 114; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 57; --Languas rufa (C.Presl) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 234. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon, POLILLO, CATANDUANES, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, BUCAS GRANDE, MINDANAO, BASILAN. Forests at low and medium elevation. Photos
  25. Alpinia sibuyanensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2891; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 58; --Languas sibuyanensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 234; --Type: Elmer 12316 (K, MO, NY, US, iso). Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting). Forests along streams, c. 225m.
  26. Alpinia subfusicarpa Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2892; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 59; --Languas subfusicarpa (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 234; --Type: Elmer 10506 (BISH, GH, K, MO, NY, U, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, in fertile humus covered soil of deep damp woods at 4000ft (1219m), May-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Damp primary forests, c. 1200m.
  27. Alpinia trachyascus K.Schum. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 336; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 60; --Languas trachyascus (K.Schum.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 234; --Type: Warburg 14514 (B). Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. According to Merrill, he only saw the type which has the facies of Alpinia haenkei C.Presl.
  28. Alpinia vulcanica Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2971; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 61; --Languas vulcanica (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 234; --Type: Elmer 16168 (GH, MO, NY, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, upper edge of a high waterfall, lodged upon the very end of the overhanging bed rocks of a very humid densely wooded gulch at 2000ft (610m), May-1916. Endemic to the Philippines.LUZON: Camarines, Sorsogon, BUCAS GRANDE. Primary forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 800m. Photos
  29. Alpinia wenzelii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 353; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 61, as ‘wenzlii’; --Languas wenzelii (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 235; --Type: C.A. Wenzel 623 (L, MO, US, iso), Leyte: Leyte prov., Dagami, in forest, 500m, 11-Mar-1914. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. In forests, c. 500m.

Known only in cultivation:

  1. Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B.L.Burtt & R.M.Sm., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 31 (1972) 204; --Costus zerumbet Pers., Syn. Pl. 1 (1805) 3. --Languas speciosa (J.C.Wendl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 234; --Zerumbet speciosum J.C.Wendl., Hort. Herrenhus. 4 (1801) 3. China, Japan. Cultivated in other warm countries. Occasionally planted for ornamental purposes, but not a native of the archipelago and nowhere naturalized. Photos

Doubtful Alpinia s.l. species:

  1. Alpinia mollis C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 110; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 51; --Languas mollis (C.Presl) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 232; --Type: Haenke ?s.n. Endemic to the Philippines.
  2. Alpinia pulchella K.Schum. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 27 (1899) 276; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 55; --Languas pulchella (K.Schum.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 233. New Guinea. Merrill (1922) cites a Warburg specimen from Mindanao although noting that no Philippine material representing the species has been seen by him. New Guinea.
  3. Kolowratia eruciformis Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 182; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 235; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 43; --Type: Merrill 5258 (US, iso), Bucas Grande, 4-Oct-1906. BUCAS GRANDE. Dry slopes at the borders of forests at low elevation.
  4. Languas pendula Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 138; --Type: BS 43328 Ramos (UC, holo), Bohol: Bohol prov., Sevilla, in thickets, c. 300m, 17-Sep-1923. BOHOL (Sevilla; Bilar). Thickets and damp forests, 300-700m.
  5. Languas pinatubensis Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3225; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 54, as ‘pintatubensis’; --Type: Elmer 22058 (BM). "Described from fruiting material and considered by Elmer to be close to A. flabellata Ridl. (sect. Alpinia subsect. Presleia). Since the character of the labellum cannot be checked, no new combination has been made", Smith (1990).
  6. Languas scorpoidea Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 139; --Type: BS 48947 Ramos & Edańo s.n. (PNH, holo, lost; K, NY UC, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao Oriental prov., Mati, along streams in forests at low elevation, 16-Apr-1927. Photos

Amomum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 December 2019

Photos
  1. Amomum dealbatum Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 42; --Acma, Asia Life Sciences 23 (2014) 530. Nepal to China to Indochina, Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, PANAY. Photos

Boesenbergia Kuntze

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 November 2020

Photos
  1. Boesenbergia eburnea Docot, Edinburgh J. Bot. 77 (2020) 380; --Type: Docot et al. 0189 (PNH, holo; CAHUP, E, FEUH, L, USTH, iso), Palawan: Brooke’s Point, Brgy Malis, Mt Mantalingajan, 27-Sep-2018. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (Docot et al. 2020). Photos
  2. Boesenbergia leonardocoi Funak. & Docot, Edinburgh J. Bot. 77 (2020) 384; --Type: Docot et al. 0112 (PNH, holo; L, NY, USTH, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa City, Brgy Iwahig, Mt Thumbpeak (Mt Pulgar), 2-Oct-17. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Endangered (Docot et al. 2020). Photos
  3. Boesenbergia longipetiolata (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 243; --Gastrochilus longipetiolatus Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 166; --Type: FB 9110 Whitford & Hutchinson, Mindanao: Zamboanga Sibugay. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Lowland primary forests.
  4. Boesenbergia macropoda Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 391; --Type: BS 44394 (K, NY, US, iso), Jolo: near cultivated areas at low elevation, Sep-1924. Endemic to the Philippines. JOLO. Lowlands near cultivated areas.

Catimbium Juss. = Alpinia

Curcuma L. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 December 2019

Photos
  1. Curcuma longa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 2; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 243. --Curcuma domestica Valeton, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg ser. II, 27 (1918) 31; --Steiner, PJS 88 (1959) 19. India to W Malesia. Not native to the Philippines.
  2. Curcuma zanthorrhiza Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 25. Native to India. Not native to the Philippines (Škornicková & Sabu 2005). Cultivated only?
  3. Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Rosc., Monandr. Pl. (1828) t. 109; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 158; EPFP 1 (1924) 243; --Steiner, PJS 88 (1959) 18; --Amomum zedoaria Christm. in G.F.Christmann & G.W.F.Panzer, Vollst. Pflanzensyst. 5 (1779) 12. --Costus nigricans Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 3; Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 3; Fl. Filip., ed. 3 (1877) 5. --Costus luteus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 4; Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 3; Fl. Filip., ed. 3 (1877) 6. Himalaya to India. Not native to the Philippines. Photos

Etlingera Giseke

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 November 2020

Photos
  1. Etlingera alba (Blume) A.D.Poulsen, Etlingera Sulawesi (2012) 58; --Poulsen & Docot, Edinburgh J. Bot. 76 (2019) 34; --Elettaria alba Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae 1 (1827) 53; --Type: from Indonesia. --Hornstedtia lepicarpa (Ridl.) Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2979; --Amomum lepicarpum Ridl., LPB 2 (1909) 605; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 239; --Type: Elmer 10044. Moluccas, New Guinea, Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Davao, PANAY. Photos
  2. Etlingera brevilabrum (Valeton) R.M.Sm., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 43 (1986) 243; --Poulsen & Docot, Edinburgh J. Bot. 76 (2019) 35; --Achasma brevilabrum Valeton, Icon. Bogor. 2 (1906) t. 202. Borneo, Philippines. SAMAR. Photos
  3. Etlingera bulusanensis (Elmer) A.D.Poulsen, Edinburgh J. Bot. 76 (2019) 36; --Amomum bulusanense Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2973; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 238; --Type: Elmer 16395 (BM, lecto; BISH, BM, BO, C, F, G, GH, HBG, L, MICH, MO, NY, PH, S, U, US, Z, isolecto), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, 2000ft, Apr-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Primary forests, c. 600m.
  4. Etlingera coccinea (Blume) S.Sakai & Nagam., Edinburgh J. Bot. 60 (2003) 190; --Poulsen & Docot, Edinburgh J. Bot. 76 (2019) 36; --Elettaria coccinea Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae (1827) 53; --Type: from Java (lecto). --?Etlingera punicea (Roxb.) R.M.Sm., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 43 (1986) 249; --Alpinia punicea Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 73. Borneo, Java, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte, Isabela, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao del Norte, Davao Oriental, Misamis Oriental. 300-1400m. Photos
  5. Etlingera dalican (Elmer) A.D.Poulsen, Blumea 48 (2003) 524; --Poulsen & Docot, Edinburgh J. Bot. 76 (2019) 36; --Amomum dalican (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 238; --Hornstedtia dalican Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2906; --Type: Elmer 11626 (UC, lecto; BISH, BM, BO, F, FI, G, GH, HBG, K, L, MO, NY, P, PH, U, US, Z, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, in fertile moist soil in open glens near springs or streamlets among the forests at 3500ft (1067m), Sep-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo), Zamboanga del Norte (photo). Small streamlets in forests, c. 1100m. Photos
  6. Etlingera dostseiana Naive, Demayo & Alejandro, Ann. Bot. Fennici 58 (2020) 34; --Type: Lambiguit & Naive 105 (USTH, holo), Mindanao: Bukidnon, Malaybalay City, Kibalabag, Mt Kiamo, 24-May-2018. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, Misamis Oriental. Photos
  7. Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 43 (1986) 244; --Poulsen & Docot, Edinburgh J. Bot. 76 (2019) 37; --Alpinia elatior Jack, Malayan Misc. 2 (1822) 2; --Type: from Indonesia. --Phaeomeria speciosa (Blume) Koord., Exkurs.-Fl. Java 1 (1911) 332; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 241; --Nicolaia speciosa (Blume) Horan., Prod. Scitam. 32 (1862) t.1; --Steiner, PJS 88 (1959) 29; --Elettaria speciosa Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae (1827) 51. --Phaeomeria imperialis Lindl., Nat. Syst. ed. 2 (1836) 446, nom, inval.; --Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 177; --Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2907. --Phaeomeria magnifica (Roscoe) K.Schum., Pflanzenr. (Engler) Zingib. (1904) 262; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 241; --Alpinia magnifica Roscoe, Monandr. Pl. Scitam. 13-14 (1828) t.75. Thailand to Malesia. Naturalized according to Steiner (1959). Photos
  8. Etlingera fimbriobracteata (K.Schum.) R.M.Sm., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 43 (1986) 245; --Poulsen & Docot, Edinburgh J. Bot. 76 (2019) 37; --Amomum fimbriobracteatum K.Schum., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 27 (1899) 317; --Type: from Borneo. --Etlingera pandanicarpa (Elmer) A.D.Poulsen, Blumea 48 (2003) 525; --Amomum pandanicarpum (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2899; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 240; --Hornstedtia pandanicarpa Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2899; --Type: Elmer 10508 (DS, lecto; BISH, BM, BO, F, FI, G, GH, K, L, MO, NY, P, U, US, Z, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, rich soil of a steep open glen among monstrous wild 'abaca' or Manila hemp plants at 3500ft (1067m) elevation, May-1909. Borneo, Philippines. CEBU (photos by J.F. Barcelona), PANAY, LUZON: Bulacan, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao (Mt Apo). Medium elevation forests, ascending to 1100m. Photos
  9. Etlingera hamiguitanensis Naive, Taiwania 62 (2017) 341; --Poulsen & Docot, Edinburgh J. Bot. 76 (2019) 37; --Type: Naive 0132016 (CMUH, holo; PNH, iso), Mindanao: Davao Oriental, San Isidro, La Union, Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary, terrestrial in shaded localities near the stream, 568m, 21-Oct-2016. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental. Conservation Status: Data Deficient (Naive 2017). Photos
  10. Etlingera linearifolia (Elmer) A.D.Poulsen, Edinburgh J. Bot. 76 (2019) 38; --Amomum linearifolium Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2975; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 239; --Type: Elmer 16926 (BM, lecto; BISH, BM, BO, C, F, FI, G, GH, HBG, K, L, MO, NY, P, S, U, US, Z), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, 1000ft, Oct-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Thickets bordering forests, c. 300m.
  11. Etlingera philippinensis (Ridl.) R.M.Sm., Not. Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 43 (1986) 248; --Poulsen & Docot, Edinburgh J. Bot. 76 (2019) 39; --Amomum philippinense (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 240; --Hornstedtia philippinensis Ridl., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 86, excl. fruit description; LPB 2 (1909) 605; PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 175; --Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2905; LPB 8 (1919) 2981; --Type: E.B. Copeland 416 (SING, lecto; G, K, P, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Mar-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, BILIRAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. Low and medium elevation forests. Photos
  12. Etlingera pilosa A.D.Poulsen & Docot, Edinburgh J. Bot. 76 (2019) 40; --Hornstedtia pubescens (Ridl.) Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2979; --Amomum pubescens (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 240; --Amomum lepicarpum Ridl. var. pubescens Ridl., LPB 2 (1909) 604; --Type: Elmer 10384 (K, lecto; BISH, BM, BO, E, G, HBG, K, L, NY, US, Z, isolecto), Negros: Negros Oriental Prov, Dumaguete, Cuernos de Negros Mts, 3500ft, Jun-1908. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns). Forests, c. 1100m. Photos
  13. Etlingera pubimarginata (Elmer) A.D.Poulsen, Edinburgh J. Bot. 76 (2019) 40; --Amomum pubimarginatum Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2900; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 240; --Type: Elmer 10546 (BM, lecto; BISH, BM, BO, F, G, K, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, well-drained soil of dense woods at 4250ft (1295m) S of the Sibulan River, May-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao del Sur (Mt Apo), Misamis Oriental. Primary forest, 1200-1500m. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Naive et al. 2019). Photos
  14. Etlingera purpurea (Elmer) A.D.Poulsen, Blumea 48 (2003) 525; --Poulsen & Docot, Edinburgh J. Bot. 76 (2019) 40; --Amomum purpureum (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 240; --Hornstedtia purpurea Elmer, LPB 9 (1919) 2984; --Type: Elmer 16819 (L, lecto; BISH, BM, BO, C, F, FI, G, GH, HBG, K, MO, NY, P, S, U, UC, US, Z, isolecto), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Aug-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan). Densely forested ravines, c. 450m.
  15. Etlingera sessilanthera R.M.Sm., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 43 (1986) 240; --Poulsen & Docot, Edinburgh J. Bot. 76 (2019) 41; --Type: from Borneo. Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Photos
  16. Etlingera sorsogonensis (Elmer) A.D.Poulsen, Blumea 48 (2003) 526; --Poulsen & Docot, Edinburgh J. Bot. 76 (2019) 41; --Hornstedtia sorsogonensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2985; --Type: Elmer 16925 (G, lecto; BM, BO, C, F, FI, G, GH, HBG, K, MO, NY, P, U, UC, US, Z, isolecto), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, in loose humus-covered damp soil of thickets along borders of woods at 1000ft (305m), Aug-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan). Lowland forest, c. 300m.
  17. Etlingera subviridis (Elmer) A.D.Poulsen, Edinburgh J. Bot. 41 (2018) 9; --Poulsen & Docot, Edinburgh J. Bot. 76 (2019) 41; --Hornstedtia subviridis Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2987; --Type: Elmer 16437 (NY, lecto; BISH, C, DS, F, FI, G, GH, HBG, K, L, MICH,MO, P, PH, S, U, Z, isolecto), Luzon: Sorsogon Prov, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, on a well-drained stony incline among jungled woods at 1000ft (305m), Jun-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon.

Geocharis (K.Schum.) Ridl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 9 September 2018

Photos
  1. Geocharis fusiformis (Ridl.) R.M.Sm., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 43 (1986) 458; --Amomum fusiforme Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 171; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 238. Borneo, Philippines. Photos

Globba L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 February 2020

Photos
  1. Globba aurea Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2902; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 244; --Type: Elmer 13243. Endemic to the Philippines. BUSUANGA, PALAWAN. Low and medium elevation thickets and rock crevices along streams. Photos
  2. Globba campsophylla K.Schum. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 145; --Ridl., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 83; PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 159; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 244; --Sangvirotjanapat et al., Edinburgh J. Bot. 77 (2020) 18; --Type: Cuming 1390 (K, lecto; E, FI, K, MO, isolecto), Luzon: Nueva Ecija. --Globba merrillii Ridl., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 83; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 245; --Type: Merrill 3869 (K, lecto; BM, K, US), Luzon: Bataan. Mt Mariveles, Aug-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, CORRIGIDOR, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Camarines Sur, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MASBATE, MINDORO, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, Zamboanga. Low and medium elevation damp thickets and forests, on and about cliffs, etc. Conservation status: Least Concern (Sangvirotjanapat et al. 2020). Photos
  3. Globba francisci Ridl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 42 (1914) 162; --Docot et al., Gard. Bull. Singapore 71 (2019) 453; --Sangvirotjanapat et al., Edinburgh J. Bot. 77 (2020) 28; --Type: from Borneo. Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Least Concern (Sangvirotjanapat et al. 2020). Photos
  4. Globba gracilis K.Schum. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 145; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 244; --Sangvirotjanapat et al., Edinburgh J. Bot. 77 (2020) 30; --Type: Warburg 14580 (B, lost), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Gagapan, Jun-1888, 300-1000m; Sands & Gutiérrez 3167 (K, neo), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mt Apo, 21-Feb-76, 1200m. --Globba leucocarpa Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 161; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 244; --Type: Elmer 7298 (E, lecto), Leyte: Palo. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Benguet, Camarines Sur, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao del Sur, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, POLILLO. Low and medium elevation, in damp primary forests, on shaded cliffs, etc. Conservation status: Least Concern (Sangvirotjanapat et al. 2020).
  5. Globba marantina L., Mant. 2 (1771) 170; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 244; --Steiner, PJS 88 (1959) 6. --Globba barthei Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 48 (1901) 208; --Ridl., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 83. Across Malesia to the Bismarck Archipelago. Introduced to the Philippines. LUZON: La Union, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Cavite, Zambales, PALAWAN, PANAY, MINDORO, NEGROS. Lowland and medium elevation thickets near human settlements. Often common. Photos
  6. Globba ustulata Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 48 (1901) 208; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 245; --Type: Marche 227B (P), Balabac. Indochina to Philippines.
Doubtful species:
  1. Globba brevifolia (K.Schum.) K.Schum. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 145; --Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 160; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 244; --Sangvirotjanapat et al., Edinburgh J. Bot. (2020) 59; --Globba parviflora C.Presl var. brevifolia K.Schum. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 27 (1899) 330, nom. nud.; --Type: Warburg 14060 (B), Luzon: Zambales, Palauig. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales.
  2. Globba latifolia Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) 161; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 244; --Sangvirotjanapat et al., Edinburgh J. Bot. 77 (2020) 60; --Type: Merrill 4064 (SING, syn), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Baco River, Mar-1905; Copeland s.n. (MICH, syn), Mindanao: Zamboanga, San Ramon; Williams 2324 (US, syn), Mindanao: Zamboanga, San Ramon, Feb-1905. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, MINDORO.
  3. Globba parviflora C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 115; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 245; --Sangvirotjanapat et al., Edinburgh J. Bot. 77 (2020) 60; --Type: Haenke s.n. (PR, PRC, syn), Luzon: Sorsogon. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Albay, Sorsogon, LEYTE, MINDANAO. Lowland and medium elevation forests.
  4. Globba pyramidata Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 48 (1901) 208; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1924) 245; --Sangvirotjanapat et al., Edinburgh J. Bot. 77 (2020) 61; --Type: Montańo 203 (P, lecto), Mindanao: Dec-1880. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan (Weber 1128). Lowland primary forests.

Hedychium Koenig

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 25 September 2019

Photos
  1. Hedychium coronarium Koenig in Retz., Obs. 3 (1783) 73; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 157; EPFP 1 (1922) 241; --Steiner, PJS 88 (1959) 7. Native of India, now widely cultivated and naturalized in many parts of the tropics. Introduced and cultivated in the Philippines for ornamental purposes. Kamia. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Photos
  2. Hedychium philippinense K.Schum. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 47; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 242; --Type: Vidal 3924 (K), Jolo. Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU (photos by Pelser & Barcelona), JOLO, LEYTE, LUZON: Camarines Norte, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao del Sur, NEGROS, POLILLO. Lowland and medium elevation humid forests, ascending to 1100m, often epiphytic or pseudoepiphytic. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos

Hornstedtia Retz.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 December 2019

Photos
  1. Hornstedtia annadeguzmanniae Naive & Alejandro, Ann. Bot. Fennici 56 (2018) 102; --Type: M.A. Naive 031 (PNH, holo; USTH, HNUL, iso), Mindanao: Misamis Oriental, Claveria, Aposkahoy, Sitio Lantawon, 1029m, 12-Sep-17. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Misamis Oriental. Photos
  2. Hornstedtia conoidea Ridl. in Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 605; PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 175; --Amomum conoideum (Ridl.) Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2972; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 238; --Type: Elmer 10246 (K 3 sheets, NY, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, in fertile soil of damp ravines at 2000ft (610m), Jun-1908. Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU, DINAGAT, LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), MINDANAO: Agusan del Sur, Bukidnon, Davao City, Davao Oriental, Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley), Misamis Oriental, Surigao del Norte. Damp forested ravines, medium elevation. Photos
  3. Hornstedtia crispata Docot, Gard. Bull. Singapore 71 (2019) 448; --Type: Docot et al. 0191 (PNH, holo; FEUH, L, USTH, iso), Palawan: Brooke’s Point, Brgy Malis, Mt Mantalingajan, 1228m, 28-Sep-2018. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Endangered B2ab(iii) (Docot et al. 2019). Photos
  4. Hornstedtia garbosa Naive & Alejandro, Phytotaxa 347 (2018) 184; --Type: M.A. Naive 028/2017 (PNH, holo; USTH, iso), Mindanao: Misamis Oriental, Claveria, Aposkahoy, Sitio Lantawon, 1115m, 12-Sep-2017. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Misamis Oriental. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Naive & Alejandro 2018). Photos
  5. Hornstedtia havilandii (K.Schum.) K.Schum., Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 193; --Amomum havilandii K.Schum. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 27 (1899) 303; --Type: from Sabah. Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Zamboanga del Norte, JOLO (BS 44454 Ramos & Edańo), SULU. Lowland second-growth forests.
  6. Hornstedtia irosinensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2981; --Amomum irosinense (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 239. --Hornstedtia peninsula Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2983; --Type: Elmer 16455 (MO, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, wet stony ground of herbaceous thickets in a densely shaded gulley between forested ridges at 1750ft (533m), Jun-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan). Forested ravines, 350-500m.
  7. Hornstedtia lophophora Ridl., LPB 2 (1909) 607; --Amomum lophophorum (Ridl.) Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2973; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 239; --Type: Elmer 10365 (K, holo; L, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental Prov, Dumaguete, Cuernos Mts, 1200m. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS: Negros Oriental, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao del Sur. Forested ravines, c. 1200m. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Naive et al. 2019). Photos
  8. Hornstedtia microcheila Ridl., LPB 2 (1909) 606; PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 176; --Amomum microcheila (Ridl.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 239; --Type: Elmer 10279 (K000255170, lecto; BISH, BM, E, G, HBG, K 2 sheets, NY, isolecto), Negros: Negros Oriental, Dumaguete, 900m. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Davao Oriental (Mt Hamiguitan), Surigao del Norte, NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Northern Negros Natural Park), Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns). Seepage banks along streams, 400-900m. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Naive 2018). Photos

Kaempferia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 December 2019

Photos
  1. Kaempferia galanga L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 2; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 157; EPFP 1 (1924) 242; --Steiner, PJS 88 (1959) 22. India through Malaya to the Moluccas. LUZON: Mountain Province, Rizal, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Lowland and medium elevation grasslands. Photos
  2. Kaempferia philippinensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 296; EPFP 1 (1924) 242; --Type: Ramos BS 14952 (PNH, holo, lost), Luzon: Laguna, San Antonio, Dahican River. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. Lowland and medium elevation forests along streams. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).

 Kolowratia C.Presl = Alpinia

 Languas Koenig = Alpinia

Leptosolena C.Presl [Endemic to the Philippines]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Leptosolena haenkei C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 111; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 236; --Funakoshi et al., Acta Phytotax. et Geobot. 56 (2005) 45; --Type: Haenke s.n. (PR, lecto; PR isolecto). --Leptosolena auriculata Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3808, nom. nud.; --Voucher: Elmer 17997 (F, L, NY, W). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, La Union, Benguet (Twin Peaks), Mountain Province (Supan; Dandanac, Besao; Alab and Balili, Bontoc; Mt Data), Cagayan (Bauan-Mt Tabuan), Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales (Villar, Mt Pinatubo), 300-1300m. Abundant on sunny rocky slope in the pine belt of N Luzon. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos

Meistera Giseke

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 December 2019

Photos
  1. Meistera loheri (K.Schum.) Škornick. & M.F.Newman, Taxon 67 (2018) 26; --Amomum loheri K.Schum. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 247; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 239; --Type: Loher 675 (K), 'Luzon central'. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. “I saw Loher’s specimen at Kew in 1907 and at that time made a note that it was very similar to Amomum trilobum Ridl.”, Merrill (1922).
  2. Meistera muricarpa (Elmer) Škornick. & M.F.Newman, Taxon 67 (2018) 26; --Hornstedtia muricarpa (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2980; --Amomum muricarpum Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2896; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 239; --Type: Elmer 10947. Endemic to the Philippines. Erroneously reported elsewhere. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Cotabato, Davao, PANAY. Low and medium elevation primary forests. Photos
  3. Meistera propinqua (Ridl.) Škornick. & M.F.Newman, Taxon 67 (2018) 27; --Hornstedtia propinqua (Ridl.) Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2979; --Amomum propinquum Ridl., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 84; PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 172; --Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2894; --Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 111; EPFP 1 (1922) 240; --Type: Elmer 6284. --Amomum echinatum auct. non Willd.; --Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 3; Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 1 (1877) 4. --Amomum aculeatum auct. non Roxb.; --Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 224. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, Batangas, Quezon, Sorsogon, MASBATE, BILIRAN, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. Lowland and medium elevation forests. Photos

Phaeomeria Lindl. = Etlingera

Plagiostachys Ridl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 July 2020

Photos
  1. Plagiostachys albiflora Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 50 (1908) 150; --Type: from Peninsular Malaysia. Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao City.
  2. Plagiostachys corrugata Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2908; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 237; --Type: Elmer 11130. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Forests, c. 450m.
  3. Plagiostachys elegans Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 178; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 237; --Type: Clemens s.n. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Forests, c. 900m.
  4. Plagiostachys escritorii Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2910; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 237; --Type: Elmer 10516. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Medium elevation forests, ascending to 1300m.
  5. Plagiostachys lata Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3805, nom. inval., no Latin diagnosis; --Type: Elmer 18234 (syn); Elmer 17618 (syn). LUZON: Laguna (Mt Makiling), Quezon (photos). Open places or among shrubberies of the foothills. Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  6. Plagiostachys lourdesiae Docot, Nordic J. Bot. 38 e02806 (2020) 2; --Type: Docot et al. 0244 (PNH, holo; FEUH, USTH, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur Prov., Tigbao, Brgy Limas, Mt Timolan, 772m, 30-Nov-2018. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Sur, Zamboanga del Sur. Conservation status: Vulnerable B2ab(iii) (Docot 2020). Photos
  7. Plagiostachys parviflora (C.Presl) Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 178; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 237; --Amomum parviflorum C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 2 (1833) 112; --Type: Elmer 16215. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, PANAY, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Low elevation primary forests. Photos
  8. Plagiostachys philippinensis Ridl., LPB 2 (1909) 571; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 237; --Type: BS 33614 Ramos & Edańo. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora (photos), Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, POLILLO, SIBUYAN, CATANDUANES, PANAY, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation primary forests. Photos
  9. Plagiostachys rolfei (K.Schum.) Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 179; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 237; --Alpinia rolfei K.Schum. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 368; --Type: Cuming 1327 (K 2 sheets), Luzon: Cagayan prov. (according to Merrill (1924) not Albay as label suggests). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan.

Vanoverberghia Merr.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 December 2019

Photos
  1. Vanoverberghia diversifolia Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2913, as 'diversifolium'; --Docot et al., Blumea 64 (2019) 147; --Alpinia diversifolia (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2991; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 43; --Languas diversifolia (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 231; --Type: Elmer 8853 (SING, lecto; BISH, BO, F, G, K, L, MO, NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet Prov., Baguio, Mar-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Benguet, Quezon (Mt Banahaw). Damp ravines, c. 1000m. Photos
  2. Vanoverberghia rubrobracteata Docot & Ambida, Blumea 63 (2018) 130; --Type: R.V.A. Docot 0123 (PNH256337, holo; E, NY, SING, USTH, iso), Luzon: Quezon Prov., Tayabas, Brgy Lalo, Mt Banahaw, 14°03.561'N, 121°31.157'E, 1432 m, 12-Nov-2017. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Quezon (Mt Banahaw), Rizal, Sorsogon, NEGROS, PANAY. Conservation status Least Concern (Ambida et al. 2018). Photos
  3. Vanoverberghia sasakiana Funak. & H.Ohashi, Taiwania 45 (2000) 270; --Type: from Taiwan. Taiwan, Philippines. ?BATAN, CAMIGUIN, LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Photos
  4. Vanoverberghia sepulchrei Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 76; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 238; --Type: Vanoverbergh 956 (BM, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Mountain Province, Bontoc, 19-Oct-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan). Steep slopes along stream gullies, medium elevation to 1500m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11).  Photos
  5. Vanoverberghia vanoverberghii (Merr.) Funak. & Docot, Blumea 64 (2019) 154; --Alpinia vanoverberghii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 75; --R.M.Sm., Edinburgh J. Bot. 47 (1990) 61; --Languas vanoverberghii (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 234; --Type: Vanoverbergh 573 (K, lecto, BM, E, GH, K, MO, P, US, Z, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Bauco, on hillsides, c. 1250m, 11-Jun-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province. On slopes, c. 1350m. Photos

Wurfbainia Giseke

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 March 2018

Photos
  1. Wurfbainia elegans (Ridl.) Škornick. & A.D.Poulsen, Taxon 67 (2018) 29; --Amomum elegans Ridl., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 84; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 238. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Low and medium elevation primary forests. Photos
  2. Wurfbainia hedyosma (I.M.Turner) Škornick. & A.D.Poulsen, Taxon 67 (2018) 30; --Amomum hedyosmum I.M.Turner, Asian J. Trop. Biol. 4 (2000) 18. --Amomum trilobum Ridl., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 85, nom. illeg., auct. non Gagnep.; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 241; --Type: Bolster 67 (K 2 sheets, US), Luzon: Pampanga prov., Mt Arayat, May-1905. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, PALAWAN, PANAY. Low and medium elevation primary forests.
  3. Wurfbainia mindanaensis (Elmer) Škornick. & A.D.Poulsen, Taxon 67 (2018) 30; --Amomum mindanaense Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2894; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 239; --Type: Elmer 10822 (BISH, GH, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, in damp deeply humus-covered ground of the oak forests at 3750ft (1143m) S of the Baruring River, Jun-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Primary forest, c. 1100m. Photos
  4. Wurfbainia palawanensis (Elmer) Škornick. & A.D.Poulsen, Taxon 67 (2018) 30; --Amomum palawanense Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2897; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 239; --Type: Elmer 12795 (BISH, GH, MO, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), in good soil among open thickets of woods along a creek bottom at 250ft (76m), Mar-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Lowland forests along streams. Very similar to Amomum mindanaense Elmer. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos

Zingiber Boehmer

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 January 2020

Photos
  1. Zingiber aguingayae Docot, Gard. Bull. Singapore 71 (2019) 465; --Type: Docot et al. 0216 (PNH, holo; FEUH, L, USTH, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Bulusan, Brgy San Roque, Mt Bulusan, 433m, 28-Oct-2018. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, ?MINDORO (photos). Conservation status: Critically Endangered CR B2ab(iii) (Docot et al. 2019). Photos
  2. Zingiber apoense Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2914; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 228; --Type: Elmer 10545. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Forests, 1000-1300m. Photos
  3. Zingiber banahaoense Mood & Theilade, Nordic J. Bot. 21 (2001) 129; --Type: Mood 506 (AAU, holo; K, iso), Luzon, Quezon, Delores, Mt. Banahao, above Kinabuhayan village. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Photos
  4. Zingiber brevifolium N.E.Br., Gard. Chron. 26 (1886) 390; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 228; --Type: W. Bull s.n. (K). Endemic to the Philippines. Described from cultivated specimens said to have originated from the Philippines. Otherwise unknown.
  5. Zingiber bulusanense Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2993; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 228; --Docot et al., Gard. Bull. Singapore 71 (2019) 462. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan). Primary forests, c. 450m. Photos
  6. Zingiber matutumense Mood & Theilade, Nordic J. Bot. 21 (2001) 130; --Type: Hepton W83P754 (AAU, holo), Mindanao: South Cotabato prov., Mt Matutum, 830m, 1982. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: South Cotabato (Mt Matutum). Photos
  7. Zingiber molle Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 168; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 229. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet (Mt Sto Tomas), Pampanga, Quezon (Mt Banahaw). Forested stream gullies, 1100-1600m. Photos
  8. Zingiber negrosense Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2917; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 229; --Type: Elmer 10421 (BISH, K, MO, NY, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, Jun-1908. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Forested ravines, c. 1050m.
  9. Zingiber officinale Rosc., Trans. Linn. Soc. 7 (1807) 348; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 229; --Steiner, PJS 88 (1959) 24. --Amomum zingiber L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 1; --Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 2; Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 2; Fl. Filip., ed. 3 (1877) 3. Native of tropical Asia, pantropical in distribution. Widely cultivated in the Philippines but nowhere naturalized. Ginger. Luya. Photos
  10. Zingiber purpureum Roscoe, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 8 (1807) 348; --Bai et al., Taxon (2020); --Type: cult. Liverpool Botanic Garden, J. Shepherd s.n. (LINN, neo), 1824. --Zingiber cassumunar Roxb., Asiat. Research 11 (1810) 347; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 229; --Steiner, PJS 88 (1959) 25. --Zingiber pubisquamum Ridl., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 169; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 229; --Type: M.S. Clemens 1163a (K, lecto), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Sep-1907. Native of tropical continental Asia, pantropic in cultivation. Probably introduced in the Philippines (Bai et al. 2020). MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur prov. (Camp Keithley), MINDORO (photos). Cogon grasslands, c. 650m. Cassumunar ginger. Photos
  11. Zingiber spectabile Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 3 (1851) 413; --Docot et al., Gard. Bull. Singapore 71 (2019) 460. Andaman Isls, Java, Nicobar Isls, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines. Not native to the Philippines. Naturalized. NEGROS. Photos
  12. Zingiber subroseum Docot, Gard. Bull. Singapore 71 (2019) 469; --Type: Docot et al. 0204 (PNH, holo; FEUH, L, USTH, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Casiguran, Brgy Inalgadian, Mt Bulusan, 993m, 25-October-2018. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Conservation status: Critically Endangered CR B2ab(iii) (Docot et al. 2019). Photos
  13. Zingiber sylvaticum Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2919; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 229; --Type: Elmer 9843 (NY, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, Jun-1908. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon, POLILLO, CATANDUANES, NEGROS. Mainly in medium elevation forests, ascending to 1300m. Synonym of Zingiber molle Ridl.? Photos
  14. Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Sm., Exot. Bot. 2 (1806) 105; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 229; --Steiner, PJS 88 (1959) 27; --Amomum zerumbet L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1. --Zingiber zerumbet Smith var. magnum Elmer, LPB 9 (1919) 2922. Tropical and subtropical Asia, Philippines. Not native to the Philippines (Steinenr 1959). Photos

Insertae sedis:

  1. Amomum luzonense Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 2976; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 239; --Type: Elmer 15645, Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin (Mt Bulusan), well-drained ground of secondary woods or shrubberies, Jun-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, BILIRAN. Low and medium elevation secondary forests.
  2. Amomum warburgii (K.Schum.) K.Schum. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 4, 46 (1904) 257; --Costus warburgii K.Schum., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 27 (1899) 346. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO.

Excluded species:

  1. Amomum deuteramomum K.Schum. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 27 (1899) 313; --Merr., EPFP 1 (1922) 238; --Type: Warburg 15735. Sulawesi. Only known from the type. Note by P.B. Pelser (18-Aug-2018): Merrill (1922) did not see specimens of this taxon, but cited Warburg 15735 and noted "Mindanao (Davao)" as locality. According to Poulsen (2012), this was in error and the type of Amomum deuteramomum is from Sulawesi.

Literature

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Acma FM, & NP Mendez. 2018. Noteworthy records of Philippine endemic gingers (Zingiberaceae) in the buffer zone of Mt. Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary, Davao Oriental, Philippines. Environmental and Experimental Biology 16: 111-115

Acma, FM & NP Mendez. 2018. Pollen morphology and pollen elemental composition of selected Philippine native gingers in tribe Alpinieae (Alpinioideae: Zingiberaceae). Biological Forum 10: 1-10

Acma, FM, NP Mendez, NE Lagunday & VB Amoroso. 2019. New record of Plagiostachys albiflora Ridl. (Zingiberaceae) in the Philippines. Modern Phytomorphology 13: 5-8

Ambida, JHB, AMA Alviar, PSA Co, FMG Concepcion, CI Banag & RVA Docot. 2018. A new species of Vanoverberghia (Zingiberaceae) from the Philippines. Blumea 63: 130-134

Bai, L, BR Maslin, P Triboun, N Xia & J Leong-Škorničková. 2019. Unravelling the identity and nomenclatural history of Zingiber montanum, and establishing Z. purpureum as the correct name for Cassumunar ginger. Taxon 68: 1334-1349.

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Zingiberaceae Resource Centre

Acknowledgements

Rudolph Docot, Hidenobu Funakoshi, Lyka Mae P. Irang, Diana Limjoco, John Mood, Mark Arcebal Kling Naive, Oliver C. Pe, Andrew Pranada, Mark Gregory Q. Rule, Ravan Schneider, Wally Suarez, Danilo Tandang, and Adriane Tobias kindly contributed photographs for this page. Noe P. Mendez, Mark Arcebal Kling Naive, Mark Newman and Axel Poulsen provided many of the identifications for the associated photos.

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 29 November 2020